VIBATIV: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 3 of 5)

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Based on findings in animal reproduction studies, VIBATIV may cause fetal harm. There are no available data on VIBATIV use in pregnant women to evaluate for a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. In embryo-fetal development studies in rats, rabbits, and minipigs, telavancin demonstrated the potential to cause limb and skeletal malformations when given intravenously during the period of organogenesis at doses providing approximately 1- to 2-fold the human exposure at the maximum recommended clinical dose (see Data). Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown.

All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.

Data

Animal Data

In embryo-fetal development studies in rats, rabbits, and minipigs, telavancin demonstrated the potential to cause limb and skeletal malformations when given intravenously during the period of organogenesis at doses up to 150, 45, or 75 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses resulted in exposure levels approximately 1- to 2-fold the human exposure (AUC) at the maximum recommended clinical dose. Malformations observed at <1% (but absent or at lower rates in historical or concurrent controls), included brachymelia (rats and rabbits), syndactyly (rats, minipigs), adactyly (rabbits), and polydactyly (minipigs). Additional findings in rabbits included flexed front paw and absent ulna, and in the minipigs included misshapen digits and deformed front leg. Fetal body weights were decreased in rats.

In a prenatal/perinatal development study, pregnant rats received intravenous telavancin at up to 150 mg/kg/day (approximately the same AUC as observed at the maximum clinical dose) from the start of organogenesis through lactation. Offspring showed decreases in fetal body weight and an increase in the number of stillborn pups. Brachymelia was also observed. Developmental milestones and fertility of the pups were unaffected.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

There are no data on the presence of telavancin in human milk, the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for VIBATIV and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from VIBATIV or from the underlying maternal conditions.

8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential

Pregnancy Testing

Verify pregnancy status in females of reproductive potential prior to initiating VIBATIV.

Contraception

Females

VIBATIV may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment and for 2 days after the final dose.

Infertility

Males

Based on findings in rats, VIBATIV may impair male fertility [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)]. The effect on fertility was reversible in rats.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of VIBATIV have not been established in pediatric patients. In particular, there is a concern for poor clinical outcomes in pediatric patients less than one year of age due to immature renal function. Increased mortality in adult patients with HABP/VABP and renal impairment and decreased clinical response in adults with cSSSI and renal impairment were observed [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2)].

8.5 Geriatric Use

Of the 929 patients treated with VIBATIV at a dose of 10 mg/kg once daily in clinical trials of cSSSI, 174 (19%) were ≥65 years of age and 87 (9%) were ≥75 years of age. In the cSSSI trials, lower clinical cure rates were observed in patients ≥65 years of age compared with those <65 years of age. Overall, treatment-emergent adverse events occurred with similar frequencies in patients ≥65 (75% of patients) and <65 years of age (83% of patients). Fifteen of 174 (9%) patients ≥65 years of age treated with VIBATIV had adverse events indicative of renal impairment compared with 16 of 755 (2%) patients <65 years of age [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Clinical Trials (14.1)].

Of the 749 HABP/VABP patients treated with VIBATIV at a dose of 10 mg/kg once daily in clinical trials of HABP/VABP, 397 (53%) were ≥65 years of age and 230 (31%) were ≥75 years of age. Treatment-emergent adverse events as well as deaths and other serious adverse events occurred more often in patients 65 years of age than in those <65 years of age in both treatment groups.

Telavancin is substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection in this age group.

The mean plasma AUC values of telavancin were similar in healthy young and elderly subjects. Dosage adjustment for elderly patients should be based on renal function [see Dosage and Administration (2), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8.6 Patients with Renal Impairment

The HABP/VABP and cSSSI trials included patients with normal renal function and patients with varying degrees of renal impairment. Patients with underlying renal dysfunction or risk factors for renal dysfunction had a higher incidence of renal adverse events [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ].

In the HABP/VABP studies higher mortality rates were observed in the VIBATIV-treated patients with baseline CrCl ≤50 mL/min. Use of VIBATIV in patients with pre-existing moderate/severe renal impairment should be considered only when the anticipated benefit to the patient outweighs the potential risk [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1,)].

VIBATIV-treated patients in the cSSSI studies with baseline creatinine clearance ≤50 mL/min had lower clinical cure rates. Consider these data when selecting antibacterial therapy in patients with baseline moderate/severe renal impairment (CrCl ≤50 mL/min) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

Dosage adjustment is required in patients with ≤50 mL/min renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2)]. There is insufficient information to make specific dosage adjustment recommendations for patients with end-stage renal disease (CrCl <10 mL/min), including patients receiving hemodialysis [see Overdosage (10), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin is excreted in urine and may accumulate in patients with renal impairment. Serum creatinine should be closely monitored and, if renal toxicity is suspected, an alternative agent should be considered [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8.7 Patients with Hepatic Impairment

The HABP/VABP and cSSSI trials included patients with normal hepatic function and with hepatic impairment. No dosage adjustment is recommended in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

10 OVERDOSAGE

In the event of overdosage, VIBATIV should be discontinued and supportive care is advised with maintenance of glomerular filtration and careful monitoring of renal function. Following administration of a single dose of VIBATIV 7.5 mg/kg to subjects with end-stage renal disease, approximately 5.9% of the administered dose of telavancin was recovered in the dialysate following 4 hours of hemodialysis. However, no information is available on the use of hemodialysis to treat an overdosage [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

The clearance of telavancin by continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) was evaluated in an in vitro study [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2) ]. Telavancin was cleared by CVVH and the clearance of telavancin increased with increasing ultrafiltration rate. However, the clearance of telavancin by CVVH has not been evaluated in a clinical study; thus, the clinical significance of this finding and use of CVVH to treat an overdosage is unknown.

11 DESCRIPTION

VIBATIV contains telavancin hydrochloride (Figure 1), a lipoglycopeptide antibacterial that is a synthetic derivative of vancomycin. The chemical name of telavancin hydrochloride is vancomycin, N3”-[2(decylamino-)ethyl]-29[[(phosphonomethyl)-amino]-methyl]-hydrochloride. Telavancin hydrochloride has the following chemical structure:

Figure 1: Telavancin Hydrochloride

Figure 1

Telavancin hydrochloride is an off-white to slightly colored amorphous powder with the empirical formula C80 H106 Cl2 N11 O27 P•xHCl (where x = 1 to 3) and a free-base molecular weight of 1755.6. It is highly lipophilic and slightly soluble in water.

VIBATIV is a sterile, preservative-free, white to slightly colored lyophilized powder containing telavancin hydrochloride (equivalent to 750 mg of telavancin as the free base) for intravenous use. The inactive ingredients are Hydroxypropylbetadex, (hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin) (7500 mg per 750 mg telavancin), mannitol (937.5 mg per 750 mg telavancin), and sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid used in minimal quantities for pH adjustment. When reconstituted, it forms a clear to slightly colored solution with a pH of 4.5 (4.0 to 5.0).

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Telavancin is an antibacterial drug [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4) ].

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

The antimicrobial activity of telavancin appears to best correlate with the ratio of area under the concentration-time curve to minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) for Staphylococcus aureus based on animal models of infection. Exposure-response analyses of the clinical trials support the dose of 10 mg/kg every 24 hours.

Cardiac Electrophysiology

The effect of telavancin on cardiac repolarization was assessed in a randomized, double-blind, multiple-dose, positive-controlled, and placebo-controlled, parallel study (n=160). Healthy subjects received VIBATIV 7.5 mg/kg, VIBATIV 15 mg/kg, positive control, or placebo infused over 60 minutes once daily for 3 days. Based on interpolation of the data from VIBATIV 7.5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg, the mean maximum baseline-corrected, placebocorrected QTc prolongation at the end of infusion was estimated to be 12-15 msec for VIBATIV 10 mg/kg and 22 msec for the positive control (Table 7). By 1 hour after infusion the maximum QTc prolongation was 6-9 msec for VIBATIV and 15 msec for the positive control.

Table 7: Mean and Maximum QTcF Changes from Baseline Relative to Placebo

1 Fridericia corrected; 2 Upper Confidence Limit (CL) from a 2-sided 90% Confidence Interval (CI) on difference from placebo (msec)

QTcF 1 Change from Baseline
Mean (Upper 90% Confidence Limit 2 ) msec Maximum (Upper 90% Confidence Limit) msec
VIBATIV 7.5 mg/kg 4.1 (7) 11.6 (16)
VIBATIV 15 mg/kg 4.6 (8) 15.1 (20)
Positive Control 9.5 (13) 21.6 (26)

ECGs were performed prior to and during the treatment period in patients receiving VIBATIV 10 mg/kg in 3 cSSSI studies to monitor QTc intervals. In these trials, 214 of 1029 (21%) patients allocated to treatment with VIBATIV and 164 of 1033 (16%) allocated to vancomycin received concomitant medications known to prolong the QTc interval and known to be associated with definite or possible risk of torsades de pointes. The incidence of QTc prolongation >60 msec was 1.5% (15 patients) in the VIBATIV group and 0.6% (6 patients) in the vancomycin group. Nine of the 15 VIBATIV patients received concomitant medications known to prolong the QTc interval and definitely or possibly associated with a risk of torsades de pointes, compared with 1 of the 6 patients who received vancomycin. A similar number of patients in each treatment group (<1%) who did not receive a concomitant medication known to prolong the QTc interval experienced a prolongation >60 msec from baseline. In a separate analysis, 1 patient in the VIBATIV group and 2 patients in the vancomycin group experienced QTc >500 msec. No cardiac adverse events were ascribed to prolongation of the QTc interval. In the Phase 3 HABP/VABP studies, the incidence of QTc prolongation >60 msec or mean value >500 msec was 8% (52 patients) in the telavancin group and 7% (48 patients) in the vancomycin group.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

The mean pharmacokinetic parameters of telavancin (10 mg/kg) after a single and multiple 60-minute intravenous infusions (10 mg/kg every 24 hours) are summarized in Table 8.

Table 8: Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Telavancin in Healthy Adults, 10 mg/kg

Cmax = maximum plasma concentration; AUC = area under concentration-time course; t1/2 = terminal elimination half-life; Cl = clearance; Vss = apparent volume of distribution at steady state; —1 Data not available

Single Dose (n=42) Multiple Dose (n=36)
Cmax (mcg/mL) 93.6 ± 14.2 108 ± 26
AUC0-∞ (mcg⋅hr/mL) 747 ± 129 1
AUC0-24h (mcg⋅hr/mL) 666 ± 107 780 ± 125
t1/2 (hr) 8.0 ± 1.5 8.1 ± 1.5
Cl (mL/hr/kg) 13.9 ± 2.9 13.1 ± 2.0
Vss (mL/kg) 145 ± 23 133 ± 24

In healthy young adults, the pharmacokinetics of telavancin administered intravenously were linear following single doses from 5 to 12.5 mg/kg and multiple doses from 7.5 to 15 mg/kg administered once daily for up to 7 days. Steadystate concentrations were achieved by the third daily dose.

Distribution

Telavancin binds to human plasma proteins, primarily to serum albumin, in a concentration-independent manner. The mean binding is approximately 90% and is not affected by renal or hepatic impairment.

Concentrations of telavancin in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and alveolar macrophages (AM) were measured through collection of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at various times following administration of VIBATIV 10 mg/kg once daily for 3 days to healthy adults. Telavancin concentrations in ELF and AM exceeded the MIC90 for S. aureus (0.5 mcg/mL) for at least 24 hours following dosing.

Concentrations of telavancin in skin blister fluid were 40% of those in plasma (AUC0-24hr ratio) after 3 daily doses of 7.5 mg/kg VIBATIV in healthy young adults.

Metabolism

No metabolites of telavancin were detected in in vitro studies using human liver microsomes, liver slices, hepatocytes, and kidney S9 fraction. None of the following recombinant CYP 450 isoforms were shown to metabolize telavancin in human liver microsomes: CYP 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 3A4, 3A5, 4A11. The clearance of telavancin is not expected to be altered by inhibitors of any of these enzymes.

In a mass balance study in male subjects using radiolabeled telavancin, 3 hydroxylated metabolites were identified with the predominant metabolite (THRX-651540) accounting for <10% of the radioactivity in urine and <2% of the radioactivity in plasma. The metabolic pathway for telavancin has not been identified.

Excretion

Telavancin is primarily eliminated by the kidney. In a mass balance study, approximately 76% of the administered dose was recovered from urine and <1% of the dose was recovered from feces (collected up to 216 hours) based on total radioactivity.

Specific Populations

Geriatric Patients

The impact of age on the pharmacokinetics of telavancin was evaluated in healthy young (range 21-42 years) and elderly (range 65-83 years) subjects. The mean CrCl of elderly subjects was 66 mL/min. Age alone did not have a clinically meaningful impact on the pharmacokinetics of telavancin [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5) ].

Pediatric Patients

The pharmacokinetics of telavancin in patients less than 18 years of age have not been studied.

Gender

The impact of gender on the pharmacokinetics of telavancin was evaluated in healthy male (n=8) and female (n=8) subjects. The pharmacokinetics of telavancin were similar in males and females. No dosage adjustment is recommended based on gender.

Renal Impairment

The pharmacokinetics of telavancin were evaluated in subjects with normal renal function and subjects with varying degrees of renal impairment following administration of a single dose of telavancin 7.5 mg/kg (n=28). The mean AUC0-∞ values were approximately 13%, 29%, and 118% higher for subjects with CrCl >50 to 80 mL/min, CrCl 30 to 50 mL/min, and CrCl <30 mL/min, respectively, compared with subjects with normal renal function. Dosage adjustment is required in patients with CrCl ≤50 mL/min [see Dosage and Administration (2) ].

Creatinine clearance was estimated from serum creatinine based on the Cockcroft-Gault formula:

CrCl = [140 – age (years)] x ideal body weight (kg)* {x 0.85 for female patients} [72 x serum creatinine (mg/dL)]

*Use actual body weight if < ideal body weight (IBW)

IBW (male) = 50 kg + 0.9 kg/cm over 152 cm height

IBW (female) = 45.5 kg + 0.9 kg/cm over 152 cm height

Following administration of a single dose of VIBATIV 7.5 mg/kg to subjects with end-stage renal disease, approximately 5.9% of the administered dose of telavancin was recovered in the dialysate following 4 hours of hemodialysis. The effects of peritoneal dialysis have not been studied.

Following a single intravenous dose of VIBATIV 7.5 mg/kg, the clearance of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin was reduced in subjects with renal impairment, resulting in a higher exposure to hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin. In subjects with mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment, the mean clearance values were 38%, 59%, and 82% lower, respectively, compared with subjects with normal renal function. Multiple infusions of VIBATIV may result in accumulation of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin.

Hepatic Impairment

The pharmacokinetics of telavancin were not altered in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (n= 8, Child-Pugh B) compared with healthy subjects with normal hepatic function matched for gender, age, and weight. The pharmacokinetics of telavancin have not been evaluated in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C).

Drug I nteractions

In Vitro

The inhibitory activity of telavancin against the following CYP 450 enzymes was evaluated in human liver microsomes: CYP 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4/5. Telavancin inhibited CYP 3A4/5 at potentially clinically relevant concentrations. Upon further evaluation in a Phase 1 clinical trial, telavancin was found not to inhibit the metabolism of midazolam, a sensitive CYP3A substrate (see below).

Midazolam

The impact of telavancin on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam (CYP 3A4/5 substrate) was evaluated in 16 healthy adult subjects following administration of a single dose of VIBATIV 10 mg/kg, intravenous midazolam 1 mg, and both. The results showed that telavancin had no impact on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam and midazolam had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of telavancin.

Aztreonam

The impact of telavancin on the pharmacokinetics of aztreonam was evaluated in 11 healthy adult subjects following administration of a single dose of VIBATIV 10 mg/kg, aztreonam 2 g, and both. Telavancin had no impact on the pharmacokinetics of aztreonam and aztreonam had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of telavancin. No dosage adjustment of telavancin or aztreonam is recommended when both drugs are coadministered.

Piperacillin-tazobactam

The impact of telavancin on the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin-tazobactam was evaluated in 12 healthy adult subjects following administration of a single dose of VIBATIV 10 mg/kg, piperacillin-tazobactam 4.5 g, and both. Telavancin had no impact on the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin-tazobactam and piperacillin-tazobactam had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of telavancin. No dosage adjustment of telavancin or piperacillin-tazobactam is recommended when both drugs are coadministered.

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