VANCOMYCIN HYDROCHLORIDE- vancomycin hydrochloride capsule
ANI Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules are indicated for the treatment of Clostridioides difficile -associated diarrhea. Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules are also used for the treatment of enterocolitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains) in adult and pediatric patients less than 18 years of age.
Limitations of Use
- Parenteral administration of vancomycin is not effective for the above infections; therefore, Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules must be given orally for these infections.
- Orally administered Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules are not effective for other types of infections.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules and other antibacterial drugs, Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules are used in treating C. difficile -associated diarrhea and staphylococcal enterocolitis.
- C. difficile- associated diarrhea: The recommended dose is 125 mg administered orally 4 times daily for 10 days.
- Staphylococcal enterocolitis: Total daily dosage is 500 mg to 2 g administered orally in 3 or 4 divided doses for 7 to 10 days.
For both C. difficile -associated diarrhea and staphylococcal enterocolitis, the usual daily dosage is 40 mg/kg in 3 or 4 divided doses for 7 to 10 days. The total daily dosage should not exceed 2 g.
Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules USP, 125 mg (equivalent to vancomycin) capsules have an opaque blue cap and opaque brown body imprinted with “3125” on the cap and “VANCOCIN HCL 125 MG” on the body in white ink.
Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules USP, 250 mg (equivalent to vancomycin) capsules have an opaque blue cap and opaque lavender body imprinted with “3126” on the cap and “VANCOCIN HCL 250 MG” on the body in white ink.
Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to vancomycin.
Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules for the treatment of colitis are for oral use only and are not systemically absorbed. Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules must be given orally for treatment of staphylococcal enterocolitis and Clostridioides difficile -associated diarrhea. Orally administered Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules are not effective for other types of infections.
Parenteral administration of vancomycin is not effective for treatment of staphylococcal enterocolitis and C. difficile -associated diarrhea. If parenteral vancomycin therapy is desired, use an intravenous preparation of vancomycin and consult the package insert accompanying that preparation.
Clinically significant serum concentrations have been reported in some patients who have taken multiple oral doses of Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules for active C. difficile -associated diarrhea. Some patients with inflammatory disorders of the intestinal mucosa also may have significant systemic absorption of vancomycin. These patients may be at risk for the development of adverse reactions associated with higher doses of Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules; therefore, monitoring of serum concentrations of vancomycin may be appropriate in some instances, e.g., in patients with renal insufficiency and/or colitis or in those receiving concomitant therapy with an aminoglycoside antibiotic.
Nephrotoxicity (e.g., reports of renal failure, renal impairment, blood creatinine increased) has occurred following oral Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules therapy in randomized controlled clinical studies, and can occur either during or after completion of therapy. The risk of nephrotoxicity is increased in patients >65 years of age [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
In patients >65 years of age, including those with normal renal function prior to treatment, renal function should be monitored during and following treatment with Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules to detect potential vancomycin induced nephrotoxicity.
Ototoxicity has occurred in patients receiving vancomycin. It may be transient or permanent. It has been reported mostly in patients who have been given excessive intravenous doses, who have an underlying hearing loss, or who are receiving concomitant therapy with another ototoxic agent, such as an aminoglycoside. Serial tests of auditory function may be helpful in order to minimize the risk of ototoxicity [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]
Severe dermatologic reactions such as toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), and linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) have been reported in association with the use of vancomycin. Cutaneous signs or symptoms reported include skin rashes, mucosal lesions, and blisters.
Discontinue Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules at the first appearance of signs and symptoms of TEN, SJS, DRESS, AGEP, or LABD.
Prescribing Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug resistant bacteria.
Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The data described below reflect exposure to vancomycin in 260 adult subjects in two Phase 3 clinical trials for the treatment of diarrhea associated with C. difficile. In both trials, subjects received vancomycin 125 mg orally four times daily. The mean duration of treatment was 9.4 days. The median age of patients was 67, ranging between 19 and 96 years of age. Patients were predominantly Caucasian (93%) and 52% were male.
Adverse reactions occurring in ≥ 5% of vancomycin-treated subjects are shown in Table 1. The most common adverse reactions associated with vancomycin (≥ 10%) were nausea, abdominal pain, and hypokalemia.
Table 1: Common ( ≥ 5%) Adverse Reactionsa for Vancomycin Reported in Clinical Trials for Treatment of Diarrhea Associated with C. difficile
|a Adverse reaction rates were derived from the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events.|
General disorders and administration site conditions
Infections and infestations
Urinary tract infection
Metabolism and nutrition disorders
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders
Nervous system disorders
Nephrotoxicity (e.g., reports of renal failure, renal impairment, blood creatinine increased) occurred in 5% of subjects treated with vancomycin. Nephrotoxicity following vancomycin typically first occurred within one week after completion of treatment (median day of onset was Day 16). Nephrotoxicity following vancomycin occurred in 6% of subjects >65 years of age and 3% of subjects ≤65 years of age [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
The incidences of hypokalemia, urinary tract infection, peripheral edema, insomnia, constipation, anemia, depression, vomiting, and hypotension were higher among subjects >65 years of age than in subjects ≤65 years of age [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
Discontinuation of study drug due to adverse events occurred in 7% of subjects treated with vancomycin. The most common adverse events leading to discontinuation of vancomycin were C. difficile colitis (<1%), nausea (<1%), and vomiting (<1%).
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of vancomycin. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Ototoxicity: Cases of hearing loss associated with intravenously administered vancomycin have been reported. Most of these patients had kidney dysfunction or a preexisting hearing loss or were receiving concomitant treatment with an ototoxic drug [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. Vertigo, dizziness, and tinnitus have been reported.
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Severe dermatologic reactions such as toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), and linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] , rashes (including exfoliative dermatitis).
Hematopoietic: Reversible neutropenia, usually starting 1 week or more after onset of intravenous therapy with vancomycin or after a total dose of more than 25 g, has been reported for several dozen patients. Neutropenia appears to be promptly reversible when vancomycin is discontinued. Thrombocytopenia has been reported.
Miscellaneous: Patients have been reported to have had anaphylaxis, drug fever, chills, nausea, eosinophilia, and cases of vasculitis in association with the administration of vancomycin.
A condition has been reported that is similar to the IV–induced syndrome with symptoms consistent with anaphylactoid reactions, including hypotension, wheezing, dyspnea, urticaria, pruritus, flushing of the upper body (“Red Man Syndrome”), pain and muscle spasm of the chest and back. These reactions usually resolve within 20 minutes but may persist for several hours.
No drug interaction studies have been conducted.
Systemic absorption of vancomycin is low following oral administration of Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules; however, absorption may vary depending on various factors [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. There are no available data on vancomycin use in pregnant women to assess a risk of major birth defects or miscarriage. Available published data on intravenous vancomycin use in pregnancy during the second and third trimesters have not shown an association with adverse maternal or fetal outcomes (see Data).
Vancomycin did not show adverse developmental effects when administered intravenously to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at doses less than or equal to the recommended maximum human dose (see Data).
There are no available data on first trimester use of vancomycin in pregnant women to assess a risk of major birth defects or miscarriage.
A published study evaluated hearing loss and nephrotoxicity in infants of 10 pregnant intravenous drug users treated with intravenous vancomycin for suspected or documented methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus in the second or third trimester. The comparison groups were 10 uninfected non-intravenous drug-dependent patients who received no treatment and 10 uninfected untreated intravenous drug-dependent patients. No infant in the vancomycin exposed group had abnormal sensorineural hearing at 3 months of age or nephrotoxicity.
A published prospective study assessed outcomes in 55 pregnant women with a positive Group B streptococcus culture and a high-risk penicillin allergy with resistance to clindamycin or unknown sensitivity who were administered intravenous vancomycin at the time of delivery. Vancomycin dosing ranged from the standard dose of 1 g intravenously every 12 hours to a dose of 20 mg/kg intravenously every 8 hours (maximum individual dose 2 g). No major adverse reactions were recorded either in the mothers or their newborns. None of the newborns had sensorineural hearing loss. Neonatal renal function was not examined, but all of the newborns were discharged in good condition.
Vancomycin did not cause fetal malformation when administered intravenously during organogenesis to pregnant rats (gestation days 6 to 15) and rabbits (gestation days 6 to 18) at the equivalent recommended maximum human dose of 200 mg/kg/day to rats or 120 mg/kg/day to rabbits. No effects on fetal weight or development were seen in rats at the highest dose tested or in rabbits given 80 mg/kg/day (approximately 1 and 0.8 times the recommended maximum human dose based on body surface area). Maternal toxicity was observed in rats (at doses 120 mg/kg and above) and rabbits (at 80 mg/kg and above).
There are no data on the presence of vancomycin in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effect on milk production following oral administration. Systemic absorption of vancomycin is low following oral administration of Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] ; therefore, it is unlikely to result in clinically relevant exposure in breastfeeding infants. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules or from the underlying maternal condition.
Vancomycin Hydrochloride Capsules are indicated in pediatric patients less than 18 years of age for the treatment of C. difficile -associated diarrhea and enterocolitis caused by S. aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains) [see Indications and Usage (1) and Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
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