Vancomycin Hydrochloride: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 2 of 3)

Drug Interactions

Concomitant administration of vancomycin hydrochloride and anesthetic agents has been associated with erythema and histamine-like flushing (see PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use) and anaphylactoid reactions (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).


Monitor renal function in patients receiving vancomycin hydrochloride and concurrent and/or sequential systemic or topical use of other potentially, neurotoxic and/or nephrotoxic drugs, such as amphotericin B, aminoglycosides, bacitracin, polymixin B, colistin, viomycin, or cisplatin.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Although no long-term studies in animals have been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential, no mutagenic potential of vancomycin hydrochloride was found in standard laboratory tests. No definitive fertility studies have been performed.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects


Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with vancomycin hydrochloride. It is not known whether vancomycin hydrochloride can affect reproduction capacity. In a controlled clinical study, the potential ototoxic and nephrotoxic effects of vancomycin hydrochloride on infants were evaluated when the drug was administered to pregnant women for serious staphylococcal infections complicating intravenous drug abuse. Vancomycin was found in cord blood. No sensorineural hearing loss or nephrotoxicity attributable to vancomycin hydrochloride was noted. One infant whose mother received vancomycin hydrochloride in the third trimester experienced conductive hearing loss that was not attributed to the administration of vancomycin hydrochloride. Because the number of patients treated in this study was limited and vancomycin hydrochloride was administered only in the second and third trimesters, it is not known whether vancomycin hydrochloride causes fetal harm. Vancomycin hydrochloride should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

Vancomycin is excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when vancomycin hydrochloride is administered to a nursing woman. Because of the potential for adverse events, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

In pediatric patients, it may be appropriate to confirm desired vancomycin serum concentrations. Concomitant administration of vancomycin hydrochloride and anesthetic agents has been associated with erythema and histamine-like flushing in pediatric patients (see PRECAUTIONS).

Geriatric Use

The natural decrement of glomerular filtration with increasing age may lead to elevated vancomycin serum concentrations if dosage is not adjusted. Vancomycin hydrochloride for injection dosage schedules should be adjusted in elderly patients (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).


Information for Patients

Severe Dermatologic Reactions


Advise patients about the signs and symptoms of serious skin manifestations. Instruct patients to stop vancomycin hydrochloride for injection immediately and promptly seek medical attention at the first signs or symptoms of skin rash, mucosal lesions and blisters (see WARNINGS).

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including vancomycin hydrochloride should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When vancomycin hydrochloride for injection is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by vancomycin hydrochloride or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Infusion-Related Events


During or soon after rapid infusion of vancomycin hydrochloride, patients may develop anaphylactoid reactions, including hypotension (see ANIMAL PHARMACOLOGY), wheezing, dyspnea, urticaria, or pruritus. Rapid infusion may also cause flushing of the upper body (“red neck”) or pain and muscle spasm of the chest and back. These reactions usually resolve within 20 minutes but may persist for several hours. Such events are infrequent if vancomycin hydrochloride for injection is given by a slow infusion over 60 minutes. In studies of normal volunteers, infusion-related events did not occur when vancomycin hydrochloride for injection was administered at a rate of 10 mg/min or less.


Nephrotoxicity


Systemic vancomycin exposure may result in acute kidney injury (AKI). The risk of AKI increases as systemic exposure/serum levels increase. Additional risk factors for AKI in patients receiving vancomycin hydrochloride include receipt of concomitant drugs known to be nephrotoxic, in patients with pre-existing renal impairment, or with co-morbidities that predispose to renal impairment. Interstitial nephritis has also been reported in patients receiving vancomycin hydrochloride.


Gastrointestinal

Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibiotic treatment (see WARNINGS).


Ototoxicity


A few dozen cases of hearing loss associated with vancomycin hydrochloride have been reported. Most of these patients had kidney dysfunction or a pre-existing hearing loss or were receiving concomitant treatment with an ototoxic drug. Vertigo, dizziness, and tinnitus have been reported rarely.


Hematopoietic


Reversible neutropenia, usually starting 1 week or more after onset of therapy with vancomycin hydrochloride or after a total dosage of more than 25 grams, has been reported for several dozen patients. Neutropenia appears to be promptly reversible when vancomycin hydrochloride is discontinued. Thrombocytopenia has rarely been reported. Although a causal relationship has not been established, reversible agranulocytosis (granulocytes <500/mm3) has been reported rarely.


Phlebitis


Inflammation at the injection site has been reported.


Miscellaneous


Patients have been reported to have had anaphylaxis, drug fever, nausea, chills, eosinophilia, rashes including exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (see WARNINGS, Severe Dermatologic Reactions), and vasculitis in association with the administration of vancomycin hydrochloride.

Chemical peritonitis has been reported following intraperitoneal administration (see PRECAUTIONS).


Post Marketing Reports


The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of vancomycin hydrochloride. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.


Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders

Severe dermatologic reactions such as toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), and linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) (see WARNINGS, Severe Dermatologic Reactions).

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Meitheal Pharmaceuticals, Inc. at 1-844-824-8426 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

OVERDOSAGE

Supportive care is advised, with maintenance of glomerular filtration. Vancomycin is poorly removed by dialysis. Hemofiltration and hemoperfusion with polysulfone resin have been reported to result in increased vancomycin clearance. The median lethal intravenous dose is 319 mg/kg in rats and 400 mg/kg in mice.


To obtain up-to-date information about the treatment of overdose, a good resource is your certified Regional Poison Control Center. Telephone numbers of certified poison control centers are listed in the Physicians’ Desk Reference (PDR). In managing overdosage, consider the possibility of multiple drug overdoses, interaction among drugs, and unusual drug kinetics in your patient.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

The intent of the pharmacy bulk package for this product is for preparation of solutions for intravenous infusion only.

Infusion-related events are related to both the concentration and the rate of administration of vancomycin hydrochloride for injection. Concentrations of no more than 5 mg per mL and rates of no more than 10 mg/min, are recommended in adults (see also age-specific recommendations). In selected patients in need of fluid restriction, a concentration up to 10 mg per mL may be used; use of such higher concentrations may increase the risk of infusion-related events. An infusion rate of 10 mg/min or less is associated with fewer infusion-related events (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Infusion-related events may occur, however, at any rate or concentration.

Patients With Normal Renal Function

Adults


The usual daily intravenous dose is 2 grams divided either as 500 mg every 6 hours or 1 gram every 12 hours. Each dose should be administered at no more than 10 mg/min or over a period of at least 60 minutes, whichever is longer. Other patient factors, such as age or obesity, may call for modification of the usual intravenous daily dose.


Pediatric Patients


The usual intravenous dosage of vancomycin hydrochloride for injection is 10 mg/kg per dose given every 6 hours. Each dose should be administered over a period of at least 60 minutes. Close monitoring of serum concentrations of vancomycin may be warranted in these patients.


Neonates

In pediatric patients up to the age of 1 month, the total daily intravenous dosage may be lower. In neonates, an initial dose of 15 mg/kg is suggested, followed by 10 mg/kg every 12 hours for neonates in the 1st week of life and every 8 hours thereafter up to the age of 1 month. Each dose should be administered over 60 minutes. In premature infants, vancomycin clearance decreases as postconceptional age decreases. Therefore, longer dosing intervals may be necessary in premature infants. Close monitoring of serum concentrations of vancomycin is recommended in these patients.

Patients With Impaired Renal Function and Elderly Patients

Dosage adjustment must be made in patients with impaired renal function. In premature infants and the elderly, greater dosage reductions than expected may be necessary because of decreased renal function. Measurement of vancomycin serum concentrations can be helpful in optimizing therapy, especially in seriously ill patients with changing renal function. Vancomycin serum concentrations can be determined by use of microbiologic assay, radioimmunoassay, fluorescence polarization immunoassay, fluorescence immunoassay, or high-pressure liquid chromatography. If creatinine clearance can be measured or estimated accurately, the dosage for most patients with renal impairment can be calculated using the following table. The dosage of vancomycin hydrochloride for injection per day in mg is about 15 times the glomerular filtration rate in mL/min (see following table).

DOSAGE TABLE FOR VANCOMYCIN HYDROCHLORIDE FOR INJECTION IN PATIENTS WITH IMPAIRED RENAL FUNCTION

(Adapted from Moellering et al.1)

Creatinine Clearance mL/min Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection Dose mg/24 h
100 1,545
90 1,390
80 1,235
70 1,080
60 925
50 770
40 620
30 465
20 310
10 155

The initial dose should be no less than 15 mg/kg, even in patients with mild to moderate renal insufficiency. The table is not valid for functionally anephric patients. For such patients, an initial dose of 15 mg/kg of body weight should be given to achieve prompt therapeutic serum concentrations. The dose required to maintain stable concentrations is 1.9 mg/kg/24 hr. In patients with marked renal impairment, it may be more convenient to give maintenance doses of 250 to 1,000 mg once every several days rather than administering the drug on a daily basis. In anuria, a dose of 1,000 mg every 7 to 10 days has been recommended.

When only serum creatinine is known, the following formula (based on sex, weight and age of the patient) may be used to calculate creatinine clearance. Calculated creatinine clearances (mL/min) are only estimates. The creatinine clearance should be measured promptly.

Men: [Weight (kg) x (140 – age in years)]
72 x serum creatinine concentration (mg/dL)
Women: 0.85 x above value

The serum creatinine must represent a steady state of renal function. Otherwise, the estimated value for creatinine clearance is not valid. Such a calculated clearance is an overestimate of actual clearance in patients with conditions: (1) characterized by decreasing renal function, such as shock, severe heart failure, or oliguria; (2) in which a normal relationship between muscle mass and total body weight is not present, such as in obese patients or those with liver disease, edema, or ascites; and (3) accompanied by debilitation, malnutrition, or inactivity. The safety and efficacy of vancomycin hydrochloride for injection administration by the intrathecal (intralumbar or intraventricular) routes have not been established. Intermittent infusion is the recommended method of administration.

Compatibility with Other Drugs and Intravenous Fluids

The following diluents are physically and chemically compatible (with 4 grams per L vancomycin hydrochloride):


5% Dextrose Injection, USP

5% Dextrose Injection and 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP

Lactated Ringer’s Injection, USP

5% Dextrose and Lactated Ringer’s Injection, USP

Normosol® -M and 5% Dextrose Injection, USP

0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP

Isolyte® E

Good professional practice suggests that compounded admixtures should be administered as soon after preparation as is feasible.


Vancomycin hydrochloride for injection solution has a low pH and may cause physical instability of other compounds.

Mixtures of solutions of vancomycin hydrochloride and beta-lactam antibiotics have been shown to be physically incompatible. The likelihood of precipitation increases with higher concentrations of vancomycin hydrochloride. It is recommended to adequately flush the intravenous lines between the administration of these antibiotics. It is also recommended to dilute solutions of vancomycin hydrochloride to 5 mg per mL or less.

Although intravitreal injection is not an approved route of administration for vancomycin hydrochloride for injection, precipitation has been reported after intravitreal injection of vancomycin hydrochloride and ceftazidime for endophthalmitis using different syringes and needles. The precipitates dissolved gradually, with complete clearing of the vitreous cavity over two months and with improvement of visual acuity.

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