VALCYTE- valganciclovir hydrochloride tablet, film coated
VALCYTE- valganciclovir hydrochloride powder, for solution
WARNING: HEMATOLOGIC TOXICITY, IMPAIRMENT OF FERTILITY, FETAL TOXICITY, MUTAGENESIS AND CARCINOGENESIS
- Hematologic Toxicity: Severe leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, and bone marrow failure including aplastic anemia have been reported in patients treated with VALCYTE [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
- Impairment of Fertility: Based on animal data and limited human data, VALCYTE may cause temporary or permanent inhibition of spermatogenesis in males and suppression of fertility in females [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
- Fetal Toxicity: Based on animal data, VALCYTE has the potential to cause birth defects in humans [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
- Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis: Based on animal data, VALCYTE has the potential to cause cancers in humans [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
Treatment of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Retinitis: VALCYTE is indicated for the treatment of CMV retinitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].
Prevention of CMV Disease: VALCYTE is indicated for the prevention of CMV disease in kidney, heart, and kidney-pancreas transplant patients at high risk (Donor CMV seropositive/Recipient CMV seronegative [D+/R-]) [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].
Prevention of CMV Disease: VALCYTE is indicated for the prevention of CMV disease in kidney transplant patients (4 months to 16 years of age) and heart transplant patients (1 month to 16 years of age) at high risk [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].
- Adult patients should use VALCYTE tablets, not VALCYTE for oral solution.
- VALCYTE for oral solution and tablets should be taken with food [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
- VALCYTE for oral solution (50 mg/mL) must be prepared by the pharmacist prior to dispensing to the patient [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].
For dosage recommendations in adult patients with renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].
Treatment of CMV Retinitis:
- Induction: The recommended dosage is 900 mg (two 450 mg tablets) taken orally twice a day for 21 days.
- Maintenance: Following induction treatment, or in adult patients with inactive CMV retinitis, the recommended dosage is 900 mg (two 450 mg tablets) taken orally once a day.
Prevention of CMV Disease:
- For adult patients who have received a heart or kidney-pancreas transplant, the recommended dosage is 900 mg (two 450 mg tablets) taken orally once a day starting within 10 days of transplantation until 100 days post-transplantation.
- For adult patients who have received a kidney transplant, the recommended dosage is 900 mg (two 450 mg tablets) taken orally once a day starting within 10 days of transplantation until 200 days post-transplantation.
Prevention of CMV Disease in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Patients: For pediatric kidney transplant patients 4 months to 16 years of age, the recommended once daily mg dose (7 × BSA × CrCl) should start within 10 days of post-transplantation until 200 days post-transplantation.
Prevention of CMV Disease in Pediatric Heart Transplant Patients: For pediatric heart transplant patients 1 month to 16 years of age, the recommended once daily mg dose (7 × BSA × CrCl) should start within 10 days of transplantation until 100 days post-transplantation.
The recommended once daily dosage of VALCYTE is based on body surface area (BSA) and creatinine clearance (CrCl) derived from a modified Schwartz formula, and is calculated using the equation below:
Pediatric Dose (mg) = 7 × BSA × CrCl (calculated using a modified Schwartz formula). If the calculated Schwartz creatinine clearance exceeds 150 mL/min/1.73m2 , then a maximum value of 150 mL/min/1.73m2 should be used in the equation. The k values used in the modified Schwartz formula are based on pediatric patient age, as shown in Table 1.
|Schwartz Creatinine Clearance (mL / min / 1.73m 2) =||k × Height (cm)|
|Serum Creatinine (mg / dL)|
|k value||Pediatric Patient Age|
|0.33||Infants less than 1 year of age with low birth weight for gestational age|
|0.45||Infants less than 1 year of age with birth weight appropriate for gestational age|
|0.45||Children aged 1 to less than 2 years|
|0.55||Boys aged 2 to less than 13 yearsGirls aged 2 to less than 16 years|
|0.7||Boys aged 13 to 16 years|
Monitor serum creatinine levels regularly and consider changes in height and body weight and adapt the dose as appropriate during prophylaxis period.
All calculated doses should be rounded to the nearest 25 mg increment for the actual deliverable dose. The oral dispenser is graduated in 0.5 mL increments. A 50 mg dose is equivalent to 1 mL. If the calculated dose exceeds 900 mg, a maximum dose of 900 mg should be administered. VALCYTE for oral solution is the preferred formulation since it provides the ability to administer a dose calculated according to the formula above; however, VALCYTE tablets may be used if the calculated doses are within 10% of available tablet strength (450 mg). For example, if the calculated dose is between 405 mg and 495 mg, one 450 mg tablet may be taken. Before prescribing VALCYTE tablets, pediatric patients should be assessed for the ability to swallow tablets.
Wearing disposable gloves is recommended during reconstitution and when wiping the outer surface of the bottle/cap and the table after reconstitution. Prior to dispensing to the patient, VALCYTE for oral solution must be prepared by the pharmacist as follows [see How Supplied/Storage and Handling (16)]:
- Measure 91 mL of purified water in a graduated cylinder.
- Shake the VALCYTE bottle to loosen the powder. Remove the child resistant bottle cap and add approximately half the total amount of water for constitution to the bottle and shake the closed bottle well for about 1 minute. Add the remainder of water and shake the closed bottle well for about 1 minute. This prepared solution contains 50 mg of valganciclovir free base per 1 mL.
- Remove the child resistant bottle cap and push the bottle adapter into the neck of the bottle.
- Close bottle with child resistant bottle cap tightly. This will assure the proper seating of the bottle adapter in the bottle and child resistant status of the cap.
- Store constituted oral solution under refrigeration at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F) for no longer than 49 days. Do not freeze.
- Write the discard date of the constituted oral solution on the bottle label.
The patient package insert, which includes the dosing instructions for patients, and 2 oral dispensers should be dispensed to the patient [see Patient Counseling Information (17)].
Serum creatinine levels or estimated creatinine clearance should be monitored regularly during treatment. Dosage recommendations for adult patients with reduced renal function are provided in Table 2. For adult patients on hemodialysis (CrCl less than 10 mL/min), a dose recommendation for VALCYTE cannot be given [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5, 8.6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
|VALCYTE 450 mg Tablets|
|CrCl* (mL/min)||Induction Dose||Maintenance/Prevention Dose|
|≥ 60||900 mg twice daily||900 mg once daily|
|40 – 59||450 mg twice daily||450 mg once daily|
|25 – 39||450 mg once daily||450 mg every 2 days|
|10 – 24||450 mg every 2 days||450 mg twice weekly|
|< 10(on hemodialysis)||not recommended||not recommended|
*An estimated creatinine clearance in adults is calculated from serum creatinine by the following formulas:
|For males =||(140 – age [years]) × (body weight [kg])|
|(72) × (serum creatinine [mg/dL])|
For females = 0.85 × male value
Dosing in pediatric patients with renal impairment can be done using the recommended equations because CrCl is a component in the calculation [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
Caution should be exercised in the handling of VALCYTE tablets and VALCYTE for oral solution. Tablets should not be broken or crushed. Because valganciclovir is considered a potential teratogen and carcinogen in humans, caution should be observed in handling broken tablets, the powder for oral solution, and the constituted oral solution [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4, 5.5)]. Avoid direct contact with broken or crushed tablets, the powder for oral solution, and the constituted oral solution with skin or mucous membranes. If such contact occurs, wash thoroughly with soap and water, and rinse eyes thoroughly with plain water.
Handle and dispose VALCYTE according to guidelines for antineoplastic drugs because ganciclovir shares some of the properties of antitumor agents (i.e., carcinogenicity and mutagenicity).2
- VALCYTE tablets: 450 mg, pink, film-coated convex oval tablets with “VGC” on one side and “450” on the other side.
- VALCYTE for oral solution: 50 mg per mL, supplied as a white to slightly yellow powder for constitution, forming a colorless to brownish yellow tutti-frutti flavored solution. Available in glass bottles containing approximately 100 mL of solution after constitution.
VALCYTE is contraindicated in patients who have had a demonstrated clinically significant hypersensitivity reaction (e.g., anaphylaxis) to valganciclovir, ganciclovir, or any component of the formulation [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
Severe leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, and bone marrow failure including aplastic anemia have been reported in patients treated with VALCYTE or ganciclovir. VALCYTE should be avoided if the absolute neutrophil count is less than 500 cells/µL, the platelet count is less than 25,000/µL, or the hemoglobin is less than 8 g/dL. VALCYTE should also be used with caution in patients with pre-existing cytopenias and in patients receiving myelosuppressive drugs or irradiation. Cytopenia may occur at any time during treatment and may worsen with continued dosing. Cell counts usually begin to recover within 3 to 7 days after discontinuing drug. In patients with severe leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia and/or thrombocytopenia, treatment with hematopoietic growth factors may be considered.
Due to the frequency of neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia in patients receiving VALCYTE [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)] , complete blood counts with differential and platelet counts should be performed frequently, especially in infants, in patients with renal impairment, and in patients in whom ganciclovir or other nucleoside analogues have previously resulted in leukopenia, or in whom neutrophil counts are less than 1000 cells/µL at the beginning of treatment. Increased monitoring for cytopenias may be warranted if therapy with oral ganciclovir is changed to VALCYTE because of increased plasma concentrations of ganciclovir after VALCYTE administration [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Acute renal failure may occur in:
- Elderly patients with or without reduced renal function. Caution should be exercised when administering VALCYTE to geriatric patients, and dosage reduction is recommended for those with impaired renal function [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Use in Specific Populations (8.5, 8.6)].
- Patients receiving potential nephrotoxic drugs. Caution should be exercised when administering VALCYTE to patients receiving potential nephrotoxic drugs.
- Patients without adequate hydration. Adequate hydration should be maintained for all patients.
Based on animal data and limited human data, VALCYTE at the recommended human doses may cause temporary or permanent inhibition of spermatogenesis in males, and may cause suppression of fertility in females. Advise patients that fertility may be impaired with use of VALCYTE [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3), Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
Ganciclovir may cause fetal toxicity when administered to pregnant women based on findings in animal studies. When given to pregnant rabbits at dosages resulting in 2 times the human exposure (based on AUC), ganciclovir caused malformations in multiple organs of the fetuses. Maternal and fetal toxicity were also observed in pregnant mice and rabbits. Therefore, VALCYTE has the potential to cause birth defects. Pregnancy should be avoided in female patients taking VALCYTE and in females with male partners taking VALCYTE. Females of reproductive potential should be advised to use effective contraception during treatment and for at least 30 days following treatment with VALCYTE because of the potential risk to the fetus. Similarly, males should be advised to use condoms during and for at least 90 days following treatment with VALCYTE [see Dosage and Administration (2.6), Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3), Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
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