The analgesic activity of tramadol hydrochloride is due to both parent drug and the M1 metabolite [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1, 12.2)]. Tramadol is administered as a racemate and both the [-] and [+] forms of both tramadol and M1 are detected in the circulation. Linear pharmacokinetics have been observed following multiple doses of 50 and 100 mg to steady-state.
The mean absolute bioavailability of a 100 mg oral dose is approximately 75%. The mean peak plasma concentration of racemic tramadol and M1 occurs at two and three hours, respectively, after administration in healthy adults. In general, both enantiomers of tramadol and M1 follow a parallel time course in the body following single and multiple doses although small differences (~ 10%) exist in the absolute amount of each enantiomer present.
Steady-state plasma concentrations of both tramadol and M1 are achieved within two days with four times per day dosing. There is no evidence of self-induction (see Figure 1 and Table 3 below).
Figure 1: Mean Tramadol and M1 Plasma Concentration Profiles after a Single 100 mg Oral Dose and after Twenty-Nine 100 mg Oral Doses of Tramadol HCl given four times per day.
|a SD = Single dose, MD = Multiple dose, p.o.= Oral administration, i.v.= Intravenous administration, q.i.d. = Four times daily b F represents the oral bioavailability of tramadolc Not applicable d Not measured|
|Population/Dosage Regimena||Parent Drug/ Metabolite||Peak Conc.(ng/mL)||Time to Peak (hrs)||Clearance/Fb (mL/min/Kg)||t1/2 (hrs)|
|Healthy Adults, 100 mg qid, MD p.o.||TramadolM1||592 (30)110 (29)||2.3 (61)2.4 (46)||5.90 (25)c||6.7 (15)7.0 (14)|
|Healthy Adults,100 mg SD p.o.||TramadolM1||308 (25)55.0 (36)||1.6 (63)3.0 (51)||8.50 (31)c||5.6 (20)6.7 (16)|
|Geriatric, (>75 yrs)50 mg SD p.o.||TramadolM1||208 (31)d||2.1 (19)d||6.89 (25)c||7.0 (23)d|
|Hepatic Impaired,50 mg SD p.o.||TramadolM1||217 (11)19.4 (12)||1.9 (16)9.8 (20)||4.23 (56)c||13.3 (11)18.5 (15)|
|Renal Impaired,CLcr10 to 30 mL/min100 mg SD i.v.||TramadolM1||c c||c c||4.23 (54)c||10.6 (31)11.5 (40)|
|Renal Impaired,CLcr<5 mL/min100 mg SD i.v.||TramadolM1||c c||c c||3.73 (17)c||11.0 (29)16.9 (18)|
Oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride with food does not significantly affect its rate or extent of absorption, therefore, tramadol hydrochloride can be administered without regard to food.
The volume of distribution of tramadol was 2.6 and 2.9 liters/kg in male and female subjects, respectively, following a 100 mg intravenous dose. The binding of tramadol to human plasma proteins is approximately 20% and binding also appears to be independent of concentration up to 10 mcg/mL. Saturation of plasma protein binding occurs only at concentrations outside the clinically relevant range.
Tramadol is eliminated primarily through metabolism by the liver and the metabolites are eliminated primarily by the kidneys. The mean (%CV) apparent total clearance of tramadol after a single 100 mg oral dose is 8.50 (31) mL/min/kg. The mean terminal plasma elimination half-lives of racemic tramadol and racemic M1 are 6.3 ± 1.4 and 7.4 ± 1.4 hours, respectively. The plasma elimination half-life of racemic tramadol increased from approximately six hours to seven hours upon multiple dosing.
Tramadol is extensively metabolized after oral administration by a number of pathways, including CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, as well as by conjugation of parent and metabolites. Approximately 30% of the dose is excreted in the urine as unchanged drug, whereas 60% of the dose is excreted as metabolites. The remainder is excreted either as unidentified or as unextractable metabolites. The major metabolic pathways appear to be N — and O -demethylation and glucuronidation or sulfation in the liver. One metabolite (O -desmethyltramadol, denoted M1) is pharmacologically active in animal models. Formation of M1 is dependent on CYP2D6 and as such is subject to inhibition, which may affect the therapeutic response [Warnings and Precautions (5.4); Drug Interactions (7)].
Approximately 7% of the population has reduced activity of the CYP2D6 isoenzyme of cytochrome P-450. These individuals are “poor metabolizers” of debrisoquine, dextromethorphan, tricyclic antidepressants, among other drugs. Based on a population PK analysis of Phase 1 studies in healthy subjects, concentrations of tramadol were approximately 20% higher in “poor metabolizers” versus “extensive metabolizers”, while M1 concentrations were 40% lower. Concomitant therapy with inhibitors of CYP2D6 such as fluoxetine, paroxetine and quinidine could result in significant drug interactions. In vitro drug interaction studies in human liver microsomes indicate that inhibitors of CYP2D6 such as fluoxetine and its metabolite norfluoxetine, amitriptyline and quinidine inhibit the metabolism of tramadol to various degrees, suggesting that concomitant administration of these compounds could result in increases in tramadol concentrations and decreased concentrations of M1. The full pharmacological impact of these alterations in terms of either efficacy or safety is unknown. Concomitant use of serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and MAO inhibitors may enhance the risk of adverse events, including seizure and serotonin syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) and Drug Interactions (7)].
Tramadol metabolites are eliminated primarily by the kidneys. Approximately 30% of the dose is excreted in the urine as unchanged drug, whereas 60% of the dose is excreted as metabolites. The remainder is excreted either as unidentified or as unextractable metabolites.
Metabolism of tramadol and M1 is reduced in patients with severe hepatic impairment based on a study in patients with advanced cirrhosis of the liver, resulting in both a larger area under the concentration time curve for tramadol and longer tramadol and M1 elimination half-lives (13 hrs. for tramadol and 19 hrs. for M1). In patients with severe hepatic impairment, adjustment of the dosing regimen is recommended [see Dosage and Administration (2)].
Impaired renal function results in a decreased rate and extent of excretion of tramadol and its active metabolite, M1. In patients with creatinine clearances of less than 30 mL/min, adjustment of the dosing regimen is recommended [see Dosage and Administration (2)]. The total amount of tramadol and M1 removed during a 4-hour dialysis period is less than 7% of the administered dose.
Healthy elderly subjects aged 65 to 75 years have plasma tramadol concentrations and elimination half-lives comparable to those observed in healthy subjects less than 65 years of age. In subjects over 75 years, maximum serum concentrations are elevated (208 vs. 162 ng/mL) and the elimination half-life is prolonged (7 vs. 6 hours) compared to subjects 65 to 75 years of age. Adjustment of the daily dose is recommended for patients older than 75 years [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
The absolute bioavailability of tramadol was 73% in males and 79% in females. The plasma clearance was 6.4 mL/min/kg in males and 5.7 mL/min/kg in females following a 100 mg IV dose of tramadol. Following a single oral dose, and after adjusting for body weight, females had a 12% higher peak tramadol concentration and a 35% higher area under the concentration-time curve compared to males. The clinical significance of this difference is unknown.
Poor / Extensive Metabolizers, CYP2D6
The formation of the active metabolite, M1, is mediated by CYP2D6, a polymorphic enzyme. Approximately 7% of the population has reduced activity of the CYP2D6 isoenzyme of cytochrome P450 metabolizing enzyme system. These individuals are “poor metabolizers” of debrisoquine, dextromethorphan and tricyclic antidepressants, among other drugs. Based on a population PK analysis of Phase 1 studies with IR tablets in healthy subjects, concentrations of tramadol were approximately 20% higher in “poor metabolizers” versus “extensive metabolizers,” while M1 concentrations were 40% lower.
A slight, but statistically significant, increase in two common murine tumors, pulmonary and hepatic, was observed in an NMRI mouse carcinogenicity study, particularly in aged mice. Mice were dosed orally up to 30 mg/kg in the drinking water (0.36 times the MRHD) for approximately two years, although the study was not done with the Maximum Tolerated Dose. This finding is not believed to suggest risk in humans. No evidence of carcinogenicity was noted in a rat 2-year carcinogenicity study testing oral doses of up to 30 mg/kg in the drinking water, 0.73 times the MRHD.
Tramadol was mutagenic in the presence of metabolic activation in the mouse lymphoma assay. Tramadol was not mutagenic in the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay using Salmonella and E. coli (Ames), the mouse lymphoma assay in the absence of metabolic activation, the in vitro chromosomal aberration assay, or the in vivo micronucleus assay in bone marrow.
Impairment of Fertility
No effects on fertility were observed for tramadol at oral dose levels up to 50 mg/kg in male rats and 75 mg/kg in female rats. These dosages are 1.2 and 1.8 times the maximum recommended human daily dose based on body surface area, respectively.
Tramadol hydrochloride has been given in single oral doses of 50, 75 and 100 mg to patients with pain following surgical procedures and pain following oral surgery (extraction of impacted molars).
In single-dose models of pain following oral surgery, pain relief was demonstrated in some patients at doses of 50 mg and 75 mg. A dose of 100 mg tramadol hydrochloride tended to provide analgesia superior to codeine sulfate 60 mg, but it was not as effective as the combination of aspirin 650 mg with codeine phosphate 60 mg.
Tramadol hydrochloride has been studied in three long-term controlled trials involving a total of 820 patients, with 530 patients receiving tramadol hydrochloride. Patients with a variety of chronic painful conditions were studied in double-blind trials of one to three months duration. Average daily doses of approximately 250 mg of tramadol hydrochloride in divided doses were generally comparable to five doses of acetaminophen 300 mg with codeine phosphate 30 mg (TYLENOL with Codeine #3) daily, five doses of aspirin 325 mg with codeine phosphate 30 mg daily, or two to three doses of acetaminophen 500 mg with oxycodone hydrochloride 5 mg (TYLOX) daily.
In a randomized, blinded clinical study with 129 to 132 patients per group, a 10-day titration to a daily tramadol hydrochloride dose of 200 mg (50 mg four times per day), attained in 50 mg increments every 3 days, was found to result in fewer discontinuations due to dizziness or vertigo than titration over only 4 days or no titration.
In a second study with 54 to 59 patients per group, patients who had nausea or vomiting when titrated over 4 days were randomized to re-initiate tramadol hydrochloride therapy using slower titration rates.
A 16-day titration schedule, starting with 25 mg every morning and using additional doses in 25 mg increments every third day to 100 mg/day (25 mg four times per day), followed by 50 mg increments in the total daily dose every third day to 200 mg/day (50 mg four times per day), resulted in fewer discontinuations due to nausea or vomiting and fewer discontinuations due to any cause than did a 10-day titration schedule.
Tramadol Hydrochloride Tablets USP, 50 mg are white to off-white, capsule shaped coated tablet debossed ‘T’ on one side and ‘0’ & ‘3’ separated with score line (functional) on other side.
Bottles of 100 NDC 16571-716-01
Bottles of 500 NDC 16571-716-50
Bottles of 1,000 NDC 16571-716-10
Dispense in a tight container. Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Store tramadol hydrochloride tablets securely and dispose of properly [see Patient Counseling Information (17)].
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
Storage and Disposal
Because of the risks associated with accidental ingestion, misuse, and abuse, advise patients to store tramadol hydrochloride securely, out of sight and reach of children, and in a location not accessible by others, including visitors to the home [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.17), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.2)]. Inform patients that leaving tramadol hydrochloride unsecured can pose a deadly risk to others in the home.
Advise patients and caregivers that when medicines are no longer needed, they should be disposed of promptly. Inform patients that medicine take-back options are the preferred way to safely dispose of most types of unneeded medicines. If no take back programs or Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)-registered collectors are available, instruct patients to dispose of tramadol hydrochloride by following these four steps:
- Mix tramadol hydrochloride (do not crush) with an unpalatable substance such as dirt, cat litter, or used coffee grounds;
- Place the mixture in a container such as a sealed plastic bag;
- Throw the container in the household trash;
- Delete all personal information on the prescription label of the empty bottle.
Inform patients that they can visit www.fda.gov/drugdisposal for additional information on disposal of unused medicines.
Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse
Inform patients that the use of tramadol hydrochloride, even when taken as recommended, can result in addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Instruct patients not to share tramadol hydrochloride with others and to take steps to protect tramadol hydrochloride from theft or misuse.
Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression
Inform patients of the risk of life-threatening respiratory depression, including information that the risk is greatest when starting tramadol hydrochloride or when the dosage is increased, and that it can occur even at recommended dosages.
Educate patients and caregivers on how to recognize respiratory depression and emphasize the importance of calling 911 or getting emergency medical help right away in the event of a known or suspected overdose [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Patient Access to Naloxone for the Emergency Treatment of Opioid Overdose
Discuss with the patient and caregiver the availability of naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose, both when initiating and renewing treatment with tramadol hydrochloride. Inform patients and caregivers about the various ways to obtain naloxone as permitted by individual state naloxone dispensing and prescribing requirements or guidelines (e.g., by prescription, directly from a pharmacist, or as part of a community-based program) [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Educate patients and caregivers on how to recognize the signs and symptoms of an overdose.
Explain to patients and caregivers that naloxone’s effects are temporary, and that they must call 911 or get emergency medical help right away in all cases of known or suspected opioid overdose, even if naloxone is administered [see Overdosage (10)].
If naloxone is prescribed, also advise patients and caregivers:
- How to treat with naloxone in the event of an opioid overdose
- To tell family and friends about their naloxone and to keep it in a place where family and friends can access it in an emergency
- To read the Patient Information (or other educational material) that will come with their naloxone. Emphasize the importance of doing this before an opioid emergency happens, so the patient and caregiver will know what to do.
Inform patients that accidental ingestion, especially by children, may result in respiratory depression or death [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Ultra-Rapid Metabolism of Tramadol and Other Risk Factors for Life-threatening Respiratory Depression in Children
Advise caregivers that tramadol hydrochloride is contraindicated in children younger than 12 years of age and in children younger than 18 years of age following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy. Advise caregivers of children ages 12 to 18 years of age receiving tramadol hydrochloride to monitor for signs of respiratory depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Interactions with Benzodiazepines and Other CNS Depressants
Inform patients and caregivers that potentially fatal additive effects may occur if tramadol hydrochloride is used with benzodiazepines, CNS depressants, including alcohol, or some illicit drugs and not to use these concomitantly unless supervised by a healthcare provider [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7); Drug Interactions (7)].
Inform patients that opioids could cause a rare but potentially life-threatening condition resulting from concomitant administration of serotonergic drugs. Warn patients of the symptoms of serotonin syndrome, and to seek medical attention right away if symptoms develop. Instruct patients to inform their healthcare provider if they are taking, or plan to take serotonergic medications [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].
Inform patients that tramadol hydrochloride may cause seizures with concomitant use of serotonergic agents (including SSRIs, SNRIs, and triptans) or drugs that significantly reduce the metabolic clearance of tramadol [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].
Inform patients not to take tramadol hydrochloride while using any drugs that inhibit monoamine oxidase. Patients should not start MAOIs while taking tramadol hydrochloride [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Inform patients that opioids could cause adrenal insufficiency, a potentially life-threatening condition. Adrenal insufficiency may present with non-specific symptoms and signs such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and low blood pressure. Advise patients to seek medical attention if they experience a constellation of these symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)].
Important Administration Instructions
- Instruct patients how to properly take tramadol hydrochloride. [see Dosage and Administration (2)].
- Advise patients not to adjust the dose of tramadol hydrochloride without consulting with a physician or other healthcare professional.
Important Discontinuation Instructions
- In order to avoid developing withdrawal symptoms, instruct patients not to discontinue tramadol hydrochloride without first discussing a tapering plan with the prescriber [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].
Inform patients that tramadol hydrochloride may cause orthostatic hypotension and syncope. Instruct patients how to recognize symptoms of low blood pressure and how to reduce the risk of serious consequences should hypotension occur (e.g., sit or lie down, carefully rise from a sitting or lying position) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13)].
Inform patients that anaphylaxis has been reported with ingredients contained in tramadol hydrochloride. Advise patients how to recognize such a reaction and when to seek medical attention [see Contraindications (4); Warnings and Precautions (5.16); Adverse Reactions (6)].
Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome
Inform female patients of reproductive potential that prolonged use of tramadol hydrochloride during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated and that the patient should inform their healthcare provider if they have used opioids at any time during their pregnancy, especially near the time of birth. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5); Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Inform female patients of reproductive potential that tramadol hydrochloride may cause fetal harm and to inform the healthcare provider of a known or suspected pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Inform patients that chronic use of opioids may cause reduced fertility. It is not known whether these effects on fertility are reversible [see Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].
Driving or Operating Heavy Machinery
Inform patients that tramadol hydrochloride may impair the ability to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. Advise patients not to perform such tasks until they know how they will react to the medication [see Warnings and Precautions (5.18)].
Advise patients of the potential for severe constipation, including management instructions and when to seek medical attention [see Adverse Reactions (6)].
Maximum single-dose and 24-hour dose
Advise patients not to exceed the single-dose and 24-hour dose limit and the time interval between doses, since exceeding these recommendations can result in respiratory depression, seizures and death [see Dosage and Administration (2); Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
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Dispense with Medication Guide available at: http://www.risingpharma.com/med-guides.html
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