- Do not prescribe tramadol hydrochloride for patients who are suicidal or addiction-prone. Consideration should be given to the use of non-narcotic analgesics in patients who are suicidal or depressed [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9)].
- Prescribe tramadol hydrochloride with caution for patients with a history of misuse and/or are currently taking CNS-active drugs including tranquilizers or antidepressant drugs, alcohol in excess, and patients who suffer from emotional disturbance or depression [see Drug Interactions (7)].
- Inform patients not to exceed the recommended dose and to limit their intake of alcohol [see Dosage and Administration (2), Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use. Presentation of adrenal insufficiency may include non-specific symptoms and signs including nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and low blood pressure. If adrenal insufficiency is suspected, confirm the diagnosis with diagnostic testing as soon as possible. If adrenal insufficiency is diagnosed, treat with physiologic replacement doses of corticosteroids. Wean the patient off of the opioid to allow adrenal function to recover and continue corticosteroid treatment until adrenal function recovers. Other opioids may be tried as some cases reported use of a different opioid without recurrence of adrenal insufficiency. The information available does not identify any particular opioids as being more likely to be associated with adrenal insufficiency.
5.12 Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease or in Elderly, Cachectic, or Debilitated Patients
The use of tramadol hydrochloride in patients with acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in the absence of resuscitative equipment is contraindicated.
Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease
Tramadol hydrochloride -treated patients with significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cor pulmonale, and those with a substantially decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, hypercapnia, or pre-existing respiratory depression are at increased risk of decreased respiratory drive including apnea, even at recommended dosages of tramadol hydrochloride [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Elderly, Cachectic, or Debilitated Patients
Life-threatening respiratory depression is more likely to occur in elderly, cachectic, or debilitated patients because they may have altered pharmacokinetics or altered clearance compared to younger, healthier patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Monitor such patients closely, particularly when initiating and titrating tramadol hydrochloride and when tramadol hydrochloride is given concomitantly with other drugs that depress respiration [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7); Drug Interactions (7)]. Alternatively, consider the use of non-opioid analgesics in these patients.
Tramadol hydrochloride may cause severe hypotension including orthostatic hypotension and syncope in ambulatory patients. There is increased risk in patients whose ability to maintain blood pressure has already been compromised by a reduced blood volume or concurrent administration of certain CNS depressant drugs (e.g. phenothiazines or general anesthetics) [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Monitor these patients for signs of hypotension after initiating or titrating the dosage of tramadol hydrochloride. In patients with circulatory shock, tramadol hydrochloride may cause vasodilation that can further reduce cardiac output and blood pressure. Avoid the use of tramadol hydrochloride in patients with circulatory shock.
5.14 Risks of use in Patients with Increased Intracranial Pressure, Brain Tumors, Head Injury, or Impaired Consciousness
In patients who may be susceptible to the intracranial effects of CO2 retention (e.g., those with evidence of increased intracranial pressure or brain tumors), tramadol hydrochloride may reduce respiratory drive, and the resultant CO2 retention can further increase intracranial pressure. Monitor such patients for signs of sedation and respiratory depression, particularly when initiating therapy with tramadol hydrochloride.
Opioids may also obscure the clinical course in a patient with a head injury. Avoid the use of tramadol hydrochloride in patients with impaired consciousness or coma.
Tramadol hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients with known or suspected gastrointestinal obstruction, including paralytic ileus [see Contraindications (4)].
The tramadol in tramadol hydrochloride may cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. Opioids may cause increases in serum amylase. Monitor patients with biliary tract disease, including acute pancreatitis for worsening symptoms.
Serious and rarely fatal anaphylactic reactions have been reported in patients receiving therapy with tramadol hydrochloride. When these events do occur it is often following the first dose. Other reported allergic reactions include pruritus, hives, bronchospasm, angioedema, toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Patients with a history of hypersensitivity reactions to tramadol and other opioids may be at increased risk and therefore should not receive tramadol hydrochloride [see Contraindications (4)]. If anaphylaxis or other hypersensitivity occurs, stop administration of tramadol hydrochloride immediately, discontinue tramadol hydrochloride permanently, and do not rechallenge with any formulation of tramadol. Advise patients to seek immediate medical attention if they experience any symptoms of a hypersensitivity reaction. [see Contraindications (4); Patient Counselling Information (17)].
Do not abruptly discontinue tramadol hydrochloride in a patient physically dependent on opioids. When discontinuing tramadol hydrochloride in a physically dependent patient, gradually taper the dosage. Rapid tapering of tramadol in a patient physically dependent on opioids may lead to a withdrawal syndrome and return of pain [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].
Additionally, avoid the use of mixed agonist/antagonist (e.g., pentazocine, nalbuphine, and butorphanol) or partial agonist (e.g., buprenorphine) analgesics in patients who are receiving a full opioid agonist analgesic, including tramadol hydrochloride. In these patients, mixed agonist/antagonist and partial agonist analgesics may reduce the analgesic effect and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Tramadol hydrochloride may impair the mental or physical abilities needed to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving a car or operating machinery. Warn patients not to drive or operate dangerous machinery unless they are tolerant to the effects of tramadol hydrochloride and know how they will react to the medication [see Patient Counselling Information (17)].
Hyponatremia (serum sodium < 135 mmol/L) has been reported with the use of tramadol, and many cases are severe (sodium level < 120 mmol/L). Most cases of hyponatremia occurred in females over the age of 65 and within the first week of therapy. In some reports, hyponatremia resulted from the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Monitor for signs and symptoms of hyponatremia (e.g., confusion, disorientation), during treatment with tramadol hydrochloride, especially during initiation of therapy. If signs and symptoms of hyponatremia are present, initiate appropriate treatment (e.g., fluid restriction) and discontinue tramadol hydrochloride [see Dosage and Administration: Safe Reduction or Discontinuation of Tramadol Hydrochloride Tablets (2.5)].
Cases of tramadol-associated hypoglycemia have been reported, some resulting in hospitalization. In most cases, patients had predisposing risk factors (e.g. diabetes). If hypoglycemia is suspected, monitor blood glucose levels and consider drug discontinuation as appropriate [see Dosage and Administration: Safe Reduction or Discontinuation of Tramadol Hydrochloride Tablets (2.5)].
The following serious adverse reactions are described, or described in greater detail, in other sections:
- Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- Ultra-Rapid Metabolism of Tramadol and Other Risk Factors for Life-threatening Respiratory Depression in Children [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
- Interactions with Benzodiazepines or Other CNS Depressants [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
- Serotonin Syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]
- Seizures [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]
- Suicide [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)]
- Adrenal Insufficiency [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)]
- Severe Hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13)]
- Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.15)]
- Hypersensitivity Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.16)]
- Withdrawal [see Warnings and Precautions (5.17)]
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Tramadol hydrochloride was administered to 550 patients during the double-blind or open-label extension periods in U.S. studies of chronic nonmalignant pain. Of these patients, 375 were 65 years old or older. Table 1 reports the cumulative incidence rate of adverse reactions by 7, 30 and 90 days for the most frequent reactions (5% or more by 7 days). The most frequently reported events were in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal system. Although the reactions listed in the table are felt to be probably related to tramadol hydrochloride administration, the reported rates also include some events that may have been due to underlying disease or concomitant medication. The overall incidence rates of adverse experiences in these trials were similar for tramadol hydrochloride and the active control groups, TYLENOL with Codeine #3 (acetaminophen 300 mg with codeine phosphate 30 mg), and aspirin 325 mg with codeine phosphate 30 mg, however, the rates of withdrawals due to adverse events appeared to be higher in the tramadol hydrochloride groups.
|1 “CNS Stimulation” is a composite of nervousness, anxiety, agitation, tremor, spasticity, euphoria, emotional lability and hallucinations|
|Up to 7 Days||Up to 30 Days||Up to 90 Days|
Incidence 1% to Less than 5% Possibly Causally Related
The following lists adverse reactions that occurred with an incidence of 1% to less than 5% in
clinical trials, and for which the possibility of a causal relationship with tramadol hydrochloride exists.
Body as a Whole: Malaise.
Central Nervous System: Anxiety, Confusion, Coordination disturbance, Euphoria, Miosis,
Nervousness, Sleep disorder.
Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, Anorexia, Flatulence.
Special Senses: Visual disturbance.
Urogenital: Menopausal symptoms, Urinary frequency, Urinary retention.
Incidence Less than 1%, Possibly Causally Related
The following lists adverse reactions that occurred with an incidence of less than 1% in clinical trials of tramadol and/or reported in postmarketing experience with tramadol-containing products.
Body as a Whole: Accidental injury, Allergic reaction, Anaphylaxis, Death, Suicidal tendency, Weight loss, Serotonin syndrome (mental status change, hyperreflexia, fever, shivering, tremor, agitation, diaphoresis, seizures and coma).
Cardiovascular: Orthostatic hypotension, Syncope, Tachycardia.
Central Nervous System: Abnormal gait, Amnesia, Cognitive dysfunction, Depression, Difficulty in concentration, Hallucinations, Paresthesia, Seizure, Tremor.
Skin: Stevens-Johnson syndrome/Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Urticaria, Vesicles.
Special Senses: Dysgeusia.
Urogenital:Dysuria, Menstrual disorder.
Other Adverse Experiences, Causal Relationship Unknown
A variety of other adverse events were reported infrequently in patients taking tramadol hydrochloride during clinical trials and/or reported in postmarketing experience. A causal relationship between tramadol hydrochloride and these events has not been determined. However, the most significant events are listed below as alerting information to the physician.
Cardiovascular: Abnormal ECG, Hypertension, Hypotension, Myocardial ischemia, Palpitations, Pulmonary edema, Pulmonary embolism.
Central Nervous System: Migraine.
Gastrointestinal: Gastrointestinal bleeding, Hepatitis, Stomatitis, Liver failure.
Laboratory Abnormalities: Creatinine increase, Elevated liver enzymes, Hemoglobin decrease, Proteinuria.
Sensory: Cataracts, Deafness, Tinnitus.
DrugInserts.com provides trustworthy package insert and label information about marketed drugs as submitted by manufacturers to the US Food and Drug Administration. Package information is not reviewed or updated separately by DrugInserts.com. Every individual package label entry contains a unique identifier which can be used to secure further details directly from the US National Institutes of Health and/or the FDA.