TICE BCG- bacillus calmette-guerin powder, for suspension
Organon Pharmaceuticals USA
TICE® BCG contains live, attenuated mycobacteria. Because of the potential risk for transmission, it should be prepared, handled, and disposed of as a biohazard material (see PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections).
BCG infections have been reported in health care workers, primarily from exposures resulting from accidental needle sticks or skin lacerations during the preparation of BCG for administration. Nosocomial infections have been reported in patients receiving parenteral drugs that were prepared in areas in which BCG was reconstituted. BCG is capable of dissemination when administered by the intravesical route, and serious infections, including fatal infections, have been reported in patients receiving intravesical BCG (see WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, and ADVERSE REACTIONS sections).
TICE® BCG for intravesical use, is an attenuated, live culture preparation of the Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin (BCG) strain of Mycobacterium bovis. 1 The TICE strain was developed at the University of Illinois from a strain originated at the Pasteur Institute.
The medium in which the BCG organism is grown for preparation of the freeze-dried cake is composed of the following ingredients: glycerin, asparagine, citric acid, potassium phosphate, magnesium sulfate, and iron ammonium citrate. The final preparation prior to freeze drying also contains lactose. The freeze-dried BCG preparation is delivered in glass vials, each containing 1 to 8 × 108 colony forming units (CFU) of TICE BCG which is equivalent to approximately 50 mg wet weight. Determination of in vitro potency is achieved through colony counts derived from a serial dilution assay. A single dose consists of 1 reconstituted vial (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
For intravesical use the entire vial is reconstituted with sterile saline. TICE BCG is viable upon reconstitution.
No preservatives have been added.
TICE® BCG induces a granulomatous reaction at the local site of administration. Intravesical TICE BCG has been used as a therapy for, and prophylaxis against, recurrent tumors in patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the urinary bladder, and to prevent recurrence of Stage TaT1 papillary tumors of the bladder at high risk of recurrence. The precise mechanism of action is unknown.
To evaluate the efficacy of intravesical administration of TICE® BCG in the treatment of carcinoma in situ , patients were identified who had been treated with TICE BCG under 6 different Investigational New Drug (IND) applications in which the most important shared aspect was the use of an induction plus maintenance schedule. Patients received TICE BCG (50 mg; 1 to 8 x 108 CFU) intravesically, once weekly for at least 6 weeks and once monthly thereafter for up to 12 months. A longer maintenance was given in some cases. The study population consisted of 153 patients, 132 males, 19 females, and 2 unidentified as to gender. Thirty patients lacking baseline documentation of CIS and 4 patients lost to follow-up were not evaluable for treatment response. Therefore, 119 patients were available for efficacy evaluation. The mean age was 69 years (range: 38–97 years). There were 2 categories of clinical response: (1) Complete Histological Response (CR), defined as complete resolution of carcinoma in situ documented by cystoscopy and cytology, with or without biopsy; and (2) Complete Clinical Response Without Cytology (CRNC), defined as an apparent complete disappearance of tumor upon cystoscopy. The results of a 1987 analysis of the evaluable patients are shown in Table I.
|No. (%) of patients||153||119 (78%)||54 (46%)||36 (30%)||90 (76%)|
A 1989 update of these data is presented in Table II. The median duration of follow-up was 47 months.
|1989 Status of 90 Responders (CR or CRNC)|
|1987 Response |
There was no significant difference in response rates between patients with or without prior intravesical chemotherapy. The median duration of response, calculated from the Kaplan-Meier curve as median time to recurrence, is estimated at 4 years or greater. The incidence of cystectomy for 90 patients who achieved a complete response (CR or CRNC) was 11%. The median time to cystectomy in patients who achieved a complete response (CR or CRNC) exceeded 74 months.
The efficacy of intravesical TICE BCG in preventing the recurrence of a TaT1 bladder cancer after complete transurethral resection of all papillary tumors was evaluated in 2 open-label, randomized phase III clinical trials. Initial diagnosis of patients included in the studies was determined by cystoscopic biopsies. One was conducted by the Southwestern Oncology Group (SWOG) in patients at high risk of recurrence. High risk was defined as 2 occurrences of tumor within 56 weeks, any stage T1 tumor, or 3 or more tumors presenting simultaneously. The second study was conducted at the Nijmegen University Hospital; Nijmegen, The Netherlands. In this study patients were not selected for high risk of recurrence. In both studies treatment was initiated between 1 and 2 weeks after transurethral resection (TUR).
In the SWOG trial (study 8795) patients were randomized to TICE BCG or mitomycin C (MMC). Both drugs were given intravesically weekly for 6 weeks, at 8 and 12 weeks, and then monthly for a total treatment duration of 1 year. Cystoscopy and urinary cytology were performed every 3 months for 2 years. Patients with progressive disease or residual or recurrent disease at or after the 6 month follow-up were removed from the study and were classified as treatment failures.
A total of 469 patients was entered into the study: 237 to the TICE BCG arm and 232 to the MMC arm. Twenty-two patients were subsequently found to be ineligible, and 66 patients had concurrent CIS, and were analyzed separately. Four patients were lost to follow-up, leaving 191 evaluable patients in the TICE BCG arm and 186 in the MMC arm. Of the patients, 84% were male and 16% were female. The average age of these patients was 65 years old.
The Kaplan-Meier estimates of 2-year disease-free survival are shown in Table III. The difference in disease-free survival time between the 2 groups was statistically significant by the log rank test (P =0.03). The 95% confidence interval of the difference in 2-year disease-free survival was 12% ± 10%. No statistically significant differences between the groups were noted in time to tumor progression, tumor invasion, or overall survival.
|TICE BCG Arm |
|MMC Arm |
|Estimated disease-free survival at 2 years||57%||45%|
|95% Confidence Interval (CI)||(50%, 65%)||(38%, 53%)|
In the Nijmegen study, the efficacy of 3 treatments was compared: TICE substrain BCG, Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene substrain BCG (BCG-RIVM), and MMC.
TICE BCG and BCG-RIVM were given intravesically weekly for 6 weeks. In contrast to the SWOG study, maintenance BCG was not given. Mitomycin C was given intravesically weekly for 4 weeks and then monthly for a total duration of treatment of 6 months. Cystoscopy and urinary cytology were performed every 3 months until recurrence.
A total of 469 patients was enrolled and randomized. Thirty-two patients were not evaluable, 17 were ineligible, 15 were withdrawn before treatment, and 50 had concurrent CIS and were analyzed separately, leaving 387 evaluable patients: 117 in the TICE BCG arm, 134 in the BCG-RIVM arm, and 136 in the MMC arm. Twenty-eight patients (24%) in the TICE BCG arm, 32 patients (24%) in the BCG-RIVM arm, and 24 patients (18%) in the MMC arm had TaG1 tumors. The median duration of follow-up was 22 months (range: 3–54 months).
The Kaplan-Meier estimates of 2-year disease-free survival are shown in Table IV. The differences in disease-free survival among the 3 arms were not statistically significant by the log-rank test (P =0.08).
|TICE BCG Arm |
|BCG-RIVM Arm |
|MMC Arm |
|Estimated disease-free survival at 2 years||53%||62%||64%|
|95% Confidence Interval (CI)||(44%, 64%)||(53%, 72%)||(55%, 74%)|
In both the SWOG 8795 study and the Nijmegen study, acute toxicity was more common, and usually more severe, with TICE BCG than with MMC (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).
TICE BCG Indications and Usage
TICE® BCG is indicated for the treatment and prophylaxis of carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the urinary bladder, and for the prophylaxis of primary or recurrent stage Ta and/or T1 papillary tumors following transurethral resection (TUR). TICE BCG is not recommended for stage TaG1 papillary tumors, unless they are judged to be at high risk of tumor recurrence.
TICE BCG is not indicated for papillary tumors of stages higher than T1.
TICE® BCG should not be used in immunosuppressed patients or persons with congenital or acquired immune deficiencies, whether due to concurrent disease (e.g., AIDS, leukemia, lymphoma) cancer therapy (e.g., cytotoxic drugs, radiation), or immunosuppressive therapy (e.g., corticosteroids).
Treatment should be postponed until resolution of a concurrent febrile illness, urinary tract infection, or gross hematuria. Seven to 14 days should elapse before BCG is administered following biopsy, TUR, or traumatic catheterization.
TICE BCG should not be administered to persons with active tuberculosis. Active tuberculosis should be ruled out in individuals who are PPD positive before starting treatment with TICE BCG.
BCG LIVE (TICE® BCG) is not a vaccine for the prevention of cancer. BCG Vaccine USP, not BCG LIVE (TICE BCG), should be used for the prevention of tuberculosis. For vaccination use, refer to BCG Vaccine USP prescribing information.
TICE BCG is an infectious agent. Physicians using this product should be familiar with the literature on the prevention and treatment of BCG-related complications, and should be prepared in such emergencies to contact an infectious disease specialist with experience in treating the infectious complications of intravesical BCG. The treatment of the infectious complications of BCG requires long-term, multiple-drug antibiotic therapy. Special culture media are required for mycobacteria, and physicians administering intravesical BCG or those caring for these patients should have these media readily available.
Instillation of TICE BCG with an actively bleeding mucosa may promote systemic BCG infection. Treatment should be postponed for at least 1 week following transurethral resection, biopsy, traumatic catheterization, or gross hematuria.
Deaths have been reported as a result of systemic BCG infection and sepsis.2,3 Patients should be monitored for the presence of symptoms and signs of toxicity after each intravesical treatment. Febrile episodes with flu-like symptoms lasting more than 72 hours, fever ≥103°F, systemic manifestations increasing in intensity with repeated instillations, or persistent abnormalities of liver function tests suggest systemic BCG infection and may require antituberculous therapy. Local symptoms (prostatitis, epididymitis, orchitis) lasting more than 2 to 3 days may also suggest active infection (see WARNINGS, Management of Serious BCG Complications section).
The use of TICE BCG may cause tuberculin sensitivity. Since this is a valuable aid in the diagnosis of tuberculosis, it is advisable to determine the tuberculin reactivity by PPD skin testing before treatment.
Intravesical instillations of BCG should be postponed during treatment with antibiotics, since antimicrobial therapy may interfere with the effectiveness of TICE BCG (see PRECAUTIONS). TICE BCG should not be used in individuals with concurrent infections.
Small bladder capacity has been associated with increased risk of severe local reactions and should be considered in deciding to use TICE BCG therapy.
Acute, localized irritative toxicities of TICE BCG may be accompanied by systemic manifestations, consistent with a “flu-like” syndrome. Systemic adverse effects of 1 to 2 days’ duration such as malaise, fever, and chills often reflect hypersensitivity reactions. However, symptoms such as fever of ≥38.5°C (101.3°F), or acute localized inflammation such as epididymitis, prostatitis, or orchitis persisting longer than 2 to 3 days suggest active infection, and evaluation for serious infectious complication should be considered.
In patients who develop persistent fever or experience an acute febrile illness consistent with BCG infection, 2 or more antimycobacterial agents should be administered while diagnostic evaluation, including cultures, is conducted. BCG treatment should be discontinued. Negative cultures do not necessarily rule out infection. Physicians using this product should be familiar with the literature on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of BCG-related complications and, when appropriate, should consult an infectious disease specialist or other physician with experience in the diagnosis and treatment of mycobacterial infections.
TICE BCG is sensitive to the most commonly used antituberculous agents (isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol). TICE BCG is not sensitive to pyrazinamide.
TICE® BCG contains live mycobacteria and should be prepared and handled using aseptic technique (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Preparation of Agent section). BCG infections have been reported in health care workers preparing BCG for administration. Needle stick injuries should be avoided during the handling and mixing of TICE BCG. Nosocomial infections have been reported in patients receiving parenteral drugs which were prepared in areas in which BCG was prepared.4
BCG is capable of dissemination when administered by intravesical route, and serious reactions, including fatal infections, have been reported in patients receiving intravesical BCG.3 Care should be taken not to traumatize the urinary tract or to introduce contaminants into the urinary system. Seven to 14 days should elapse before TICE BCG is administered following TUR, biopsy, or traumatic catheterization.
TICE BCG should be administered with caution to persons in groups at high risk for HIV infection.
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