Tacrolimus: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 4 of 11)

Heart Transplantation

The incidence of adverse reactions was determined based on two trials in primary orthotopic heart transplantation. In a trial conducted in Europe, 314 patients received a regimen of antibody induction, corticosteroids, and azathioprine (AZA) in combination with tacrolimus (n = 157) or cyclosporine (n = 157) for 18 months. The trial population had a mean age of 51 years (range 18 to 65); the distribution was 82% male, and the composition was White (96%), Black (3%), and Other (1%).

The most common adverse reactions (≥ 15%) observed in tacrolimus-treated heart transplant patients are: abnormal renal function, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, CMV infection, tremor, hyperglycemia, leukopenia, infection, anemia, bronchitis, pericardial effusion, urinary tract infection, and hyperlipemia. Based on reported adverse reaction terms related to decreased renal function, nephrotoxicity was reported in approximately 59% of heart transplantation patients in the European trial.

Adverse reactions in heart transplant patients in the European trial are presented below:

Table 9. Heart Transplantation: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥ 15% of Patients Treated with Tacrolimus in Conjunction with Azathioprine (AZA)

Tacrolimus/AZA (N = 157)

Cyclosporine/AZA (N = 157)

Cardiovascular System

Hypertension

62%

69%

Pericardial Effusion

15%

14%

Body as a Whole

CMV Infection

32%

30%

Infection

24%

21%

Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders

Diabetes Mellitus

26%

16%

Hyperglycemia

23%

17%

Hyperlipemia

18%

27%

Hemic and Lymphatic System

Anemia

50%

36%

Leukopenia

48%

39%

Urogenital System

Kidney Function Abnormal

56%

57%

Urinary Tract Infection

16%

12%

Respiratory System

Bronchitis

17%

18%

Nervous System

Tremor

15%

6%

In the European trial, the cyclosporine trough concentrations were above the pre-defined target range (i.e., 100 to 200 ng/mL) at Day 122 and beyond in 32% to 68% of the patients in the cyclosporine treatment arm, whereas the tacrolimus trough concentrations were within the pre-defined target range (i.e., 5 to 15 ng/mL) in 74% to 86% of the patients in the tacrolimus treatment arm.

In a U.S. trial, the incidence of adverse reactions was based on 331 heart transplant patients that received corticosteroids and tacrolimus in combination with sirolimus (n = 109), tacrolimus in combination with MMF (n = 107) or cyclosporine modified in combination with MMF (n = 115) for 1 year. The trial population had a mean age of 53 years (range 18 to 75); the distribution was 78% male, and the composition was White (83%), African-American (13%) and Other (4%).

Only selected targeted treatment-emergent adverse reactions were collected in the U.S. heart transplantation trial. Those reactions that were reported at a rate of 15% or greater in patients treated with tacrolimus and MMF include the following: any target adverse reactions (99%), hypertension (89%), hyperglycemia requiring antihyperglycemic therapy (70%) , hypertriglyceridemia (65%), anemia (hemoglobin < 10.0 g/dL) (65%), fasting blood glucose > 140 mg/dL (on two separate occasions) (61%), hypercholesterolemia (57%), hyperlipidemia (34%), WBCs < 3000 cells/mcL (34%), serious bacterial infections (30%), magnesium < 1.2 mEq/L (24%), platelet count < 75,000 cells/mcL (19%), and other opportunistic infections (15%).

Other targeted treatment-emergent adverse reactions in tacrolimus-treated patients occurred at a rate of less than 15%, and include the following: Cushingoid features, impaired wound healing, hyperkalemia, Candida infection, and CMV infection/syndrome. Other less frequently observed adverse reactions in heart transplantation patients are described under the subsection “Less Frequently Reported Adverse Reactions (> 3% and < 15%) in Liver, Kidney and Heart Transplant Studies.”

New Onset Diabetes After Transplant

Kidney Transplantation

New Onset Diabetes After Transplant (NODAT) is defined as a composite of fasting plasma glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, HbA 1C ≥ 6%, insulin use ≥ 30 days, or oral hypoglycemic use. In a trial in kidney transplant patients (Study 2), NODAT was observed in 75% in the tacrolimus-treated and 61% in the NEORAL ® -treated patients without pre-transplant history of diabetes mellitus (Table 10) [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] .

Table 10. Incidence of New Onset Diabetes After Transplant at 1 year in Kidney Transplant Recipients in a Phase 3 Trial (Study 2)

Parameter

Treatment Group

Tacrolimus/MMF (N = 212)

NEORAL/MMF (N = 212)

NODAT

112/150 (75%)

93/152 (61%)

Fasting Plasma Glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL

96/150 (64%)

80/152 (53%)

HbA 1c ≥ 6%

59/150 (39%)

28/152 (18%)

Insulin Use ≥ 30 days

9/150 (6%)

4/152 (3%)

Oral Hypoglycemic Use

15/150 (10%)

5/152 (3%)

In early trials of tacrolimus, Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus (PTDM) was evaluated with a more limited criterion of “use of insulin for 30 or more consecutive days with < 5-day gap” in patients without a prior history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Data are presented in Tables 11 to 14. PTDM was reported in 20% of tacrolimus/Azathioprine (AZA)-treated kidney transplant patients without pre-transplant history of diabetes mellitus in a Phase 3 trial (Table 11). The median time to onset of PTDM was 68 days. Insulin dependence was reversible in 15% of these PTDM patients at one year and in 50% at 2 years post-transplant. African-American and Hispanic kidney transplant patients were at an increased risk of development of PTDM (Table 12).

Table 11. Incidence of Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus and Insulin Use at 2 Years in Kidney Transplant Recipients in a Phase 3 Trial using Azathioprine (AZA)
*
Use of insulin for 30 or more consecutive days, with < 5-day gap, without a prior history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

Status of PTDM *

Tacrolimus/AZA

CsA/AZA

Patients without pre-transplant history of diabetes mellitus

151

151

New onset PTDM *, 1 st Year

30/151 (20%)

6/151 (4%)

Still insulin-dependent at one year in those without prior history of diabetes

25/151 (17%)

5/151 (3%)

New onset PTDM * post 1 year

1

0

Patients with PTDM * at 2 years

16/151 (11%)

5/151 (3%)

Table 12. Development of Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus by Race or Ethnicity and by Treatment Group During First Year Post Kidney Transplantation in a Phase 3 Trial
*
Use of insulin for 30 or more consecutive days, with < 5-day gap, without a prior history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

Patient Race

Patients Who Developed PTDM *

Tacrolimus

Cyclosporine

African-American

15/41 (37%)

3 (8%)

Hispanic

5/17 (29%)

1 (6%)

Caucasian

10/82 (12%)

1 (1%)

Other

0/11 (0%)

1 (10%)

Total

30/151 (20%)

6 (4%)

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