Tacrolimus: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 3 of 11)

6.1 Clinical Studies Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. In addition, the clinical trials were not designed to establish comparative differences across study arms with regards to the adverse reactions discussed below.

Kidney Transplant

The incidence of adverse reactions was determined in three randomized kidney transplant trials. One of the trials used azathioprine (AZA) and corticosteroids and two of the trials used mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and corticosteroids concomitantly for maintenance immunosuppression.

Tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in conjunction with azathioprine and corticosteroids following kidney transplantation was assessed in trial where 205 patients received tacrolimus-based immunosuppression and 207 patients received cyclosporine based immunosuppression. The trial population had a mean age of 43 years (mean ± sd was 43 ± 13 years on tacrolimus and 44 ± 12 years on cyclosporine arm), the distribution was 61% male, and the composition was White (58%), Black (25%), Hispanic (12%) and Other (5%). The 12 month post-transplant information from this trial is presented below.

The most common adverse reactions (≥ 30%) observed in tacrolimus-treated kidney transplant patients are: infection, tremor, hypertension, abnormal renal function, constipation, diarrhea, headache, abdominal pain, insomnia, nausea, hypomagnesemia, urinary tract infection, hypophosphatemia, peripheral edema, asthenia, pain, hyperlipidemia, hyperkalemia and anemia.

Adverse reactions that occurred in ≥ 15% of kidney transplant patients treated with tacrolimus in conjunction with azathioprine are presented below:

Table 4. Kidney Transplantation: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥ 15% of Patients Treated with Tacrolimus in Conjunction with Azathioprine (AZA)

Tacrolimus/AZA (N = 205)

Cyclosporine/AZA (N = 207)

Nervous System

Tremor

54%

34%

Headache

44%

38%

Insomnia

32%

30%

Paresthesia

23%

16%

Dizziness

19%

16%

Gastrointestinal

Diarrhea

44%

41%

Nausea

38%

36%

Constipation

35%

43%

Vomiting

29%

23%

Dyspepsia

28%

20%

Cardiovascular

Hypertension

50%

52%

Chest Pain

19%

13%

Urogenital

Creatinine Increased

45%

42%

Urinary Tract Infection

34%

35%

Metabolic and Nutritional

Hypophosphatemia

49%

53%

Hypomagnesemia

34%

17%

Hyperlipemia

31%

38%

Hyperkalemia

31%

32%

Diabetes Mellitus

24%

9%

Hypokalemia

22%

25%

Hyperglycemia

22%

16%

Edema

18%

19%

Hemic and Lymphatic

Anemia

30%

24%

Leukopenia

15%

17%

Miscellaneous

Infection

45%

49%

Peripheral Edema

36%

48%

Asthenia

34%

30%

Abdominal Pain

33%

31%

Pain

32%

30%

Fever

29%

29%

Back Pain

24%

20%

Respiratory System

Dyspnea

22%

18%

Cough Increased

18%

15%

Musculoskeletal

Arthralgia

25%

24%

Skin

Rash

17%

12%

Pruritus

15%

7%

Two trials were conducted for tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in conjunction with MMF and corticosteroids. In the non-US trial (Study 1), the incidence of adverse reactions was based on 1,195 kidney transplant patients that received tacrolimus (Group C, n = 403), or one of two cyclosporine (CsA) regimens (Group A, n = 384 and Group B, n = 408) in combination with MMF and corticosteroids; all patients, except those in one of the two cyclosporine groups, also received induction with daclizumab. The trial population had a mean age of 46 years (range 17 to 76), the distribution was 65% male, and the composition was 93% Caucasian. The 12 month post-transplant information from this trial is presented below.

Adverse reactions that occurred in ≥ 10% of kidney transplant patients treated with tacrolimus in conjunction with MMF in Study 1 [Note: This trial was conducted entirely outside of the United States. Such trials often report a lower incidence of adverse reactions in comparison to U.S. trials] are presented below:

Table 5. Kidney Transplantation: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥ 10% of Patients Treated with Tacrolimus in Conjunction with MMF (Study 1)
Key: Group A = CsA/MMF/CS, B = CsA/MMF/CS/Daclizumab, C = Tac/MMF/CS/Daclizumab CsA = Cyclosporine, CS = Corticosteroids, Tac = Tacrolimus, MMF = mycophenolate mofetil

Tacrolimus (Group C) (N = 403)

Cyclosporine (Group A) (N = 384)

Cyclosporine (Group B) (N = 408)

Diarrhea

25%

16%

13%

Urinary Tract Infection

24%

28%

24%

Anemia

17%

19%

17%

Hypertension

13%

14%

12%

Leukopenia

13%

10%

10%

Edema Peripheral

11%

12%

13%

Hyperlipidemia

10%

15%

13%

In the U.S. trial (Study 2) with tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in conjunction with MMF and corticosteroids, 424 kidney transplant patients received tacrolimus (n = 212) or cyclosporine (n = 212) in combination with MMF 1 gram twice daily, basiliximab induction, and corticosteroids. The trial population had a mean age of 48 years (range 17 to 77), the distribution was 63% male, and the composition was White (74%), Black (20%), Asian (3%) and other (3%). The 12 month post-transplant information from this trial is presented below.

Adverse reactions that occurred in ≥15% of kidney transplant patients treated with tacrolimus in conjunction with MMF in Study 2 are presented below:

Table 6. Kidney Transplantation: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥ 15% of Patients Treated with Tacrolimus in Conjunction with MMF (Study 2)

Tacrolimus/MMF (N = 212)

Cyclosporine/MMF (N = 212)

Gastrointestinal Disorders

Diarrhea

44%

26%

Nausea

39%

47%

Constipation

36%

41%

Vomiting

26%

25%

Dyspepsia

18%

15%

Injury, Poisoning, and Procedural Complications

Post-Procedural Pain

29%

27%

Incision Site Complication

28%

23%

Graft Dysfunction

24%

18%

Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders

Hypomagnesemia

28%

22%

Hypophosphatemia

28%

21%

Hyperkalemia

26%

19%

Hyperglycemia

21%

15%

Hyperlipidemia

18%

25%

Hypokalemia

16%

18%

Nervous System Disorders

Tremor

34%

20%

Headache

24%

25%

Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders

Anemia

30%

28%

Leukopenia

16%

12%

Miscellaneous

Edema Peripheral

35%

46%

Hypertension

32%

35%

Insomnia

30%

21%

Urinary Tract Infection

26%

22%

Blood Creatinine Increased

23%

23%

Less frequently observed adverse reactions in both liver transplantation and kidney transplantation patients are described under the subsection Less Frequently Reported Adverse Reactions.

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