Sumatriptan: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 2 of 4)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of sumatriptan tablets, sumatriptan nasal spray, and sumatriptan injection. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. These reactions have been chosen for inclusion due to either their seriousness, frequency of reporting, or causal connection to sumatriptan or a combination of these factors.

Cardiovascular

Hypotension, palpitations.

Neurological

Dystonia, tremor.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Ergot-Containing Drugs

Ergot-containing drugs have been reported to cause prolonged vasospastic reactions. Because these effects may be additive, use of ergotamine-containing or ergot-type medications (like dihydroergotamine or methysergide) and sumatriptan tablets within 24 hours of each other is contraindicated.

7.2 Monoamine Oxidase-A Inhibitors

MAO‑A inhibitors increase systemic exposure by 7 fold. Therefore, the use of sumatriptan tablets in patients receiving MAO‑A inhibitors is contraindicated [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

7.3 Other 5-HT1 Agonists

Because their vasospastic effects may be additive, coadministration of sumatriptan tablets and other 5‑HT1 agonists (e.g., triptans) within 24 hours of each other is contraindicated.

7.4 Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors/Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors and Serotonin Syndrome

Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported during coadministration of triptans and SSRIs, SNRIs, TCAs, and MAO inhibitors [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Data from a prospective pregnancy exposure registry and epidemiological studies of pregnant women have not detected an increased frequency of birth defects or a consistent pattern of birth defects among women exposed to sumatriptan compared with the general population (see Data). In developmental toxicity studies in rats and rabbits, oral administration of sumatriptan to pregnant animals was associated with embryolethality, fetal abnormalities, and pup mortality. When administered by the intravenous route to pregnant rabbits, sumatriptan was embryolethal (see Data).

In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and of miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively. The reported rate of major birth defects among deliveries to women with migraine ranged from 2.2% to 2.9% and the reported rate of miscarriage was 17%, which were similar to rates reported in women without migraine.

Clinical Considerations

Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk: Several studies have suggested that women with migraine may be at increased risk of preeclampsia during pregnancy.

Data

Human Data: The Sumatriptan/Naratriptan/Treximet (sumatriptan and naproxen sodium) Pregnancy Registry, a population-based international prospective study, collected data for sumatriptan from January 1996 to September 2012. The Registry documented outcomes of 626 infants and fetuses exposed to sumatriptan during pregnancy (528 with earliest exposure during the first trimester, 78 during the second trimester, 16 during the third trimester, and 4 unknown). The occurrence of major birth defects (excluding fetal deaths and induced abortions without reported defects and all spontaneous pregnancy losses) during first-trimester exposure to sumatriptan was 4.2% (20/478 [95% CI: 2.6% to 6.5%]) and during any trimester of exposure was 4.2% (24/576 [95% CI: 2.7% to 6.2%]). The sample size in this study had 80% power to detect at least a 1.73 to 1.91 fold increase in the rate of major malformations. The number of exposed pregnancy outcomes accumulated during the registry was insufficient to support definitive conclusions about overall malformation risk or for making comparisons of the frequencies of specific birth defects. Of the 20 infants with reported birth defects after exposure to sumatriptan in the first trimester, 4 infants had ventricular septal defects, including one infant who was exposed to both sumatriptan and naratriptan, and 3 infants had pyloric stenosis. No other birth defect was reported for more than 2 infants in this group.

In a study using data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, live births to women who reported using triptans or ergots during pregnancy were compared with those of women who did not. Of the 2,257 births with first-trimester exposure to sumatriptan, 107 infants were born with malformations (relative risk 0.99 [95% CI: 0.91 to 1.21]). A study using linked data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway to the Norwegian Prescription Database compared pregnancy outcomes in women who redeemed prescriptions for triptans during pregnancy, as well as a migraine disease comparison group who redeemed prescriptions for sumatriptan before pregnancy only, compared with a population control group. Of the 415 women who redeemed prescriptions for sumatriptan during the first trimester, 15 had infants with major congenital malformations (OR 1.16 [95% CI: 0.69 to 1.94]) while for the 364 women who redeemed prescriptions for sumatriptan before, but not during, pregnancy, 20 had infants with major congenital malformations (OR 1.83 [95% CI: 1.17 to 2.88]), each compared with the population comparison group. Additional smaller observational studies evaluating use of sumatriptan during pregnancy have not suggested an increased risk of teratogenicity.

Animal Data: Oral administration of sumatriptan to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis resulted in an increased incidence of fetal blood vessel (cervicothoracic and umbilical) abnormalities. The highest no-effect dose for embryofetal developmental toxicity in rats was 60 mg/kg/day, or approximately 3 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 200 mg/day on a mg/m2 basis. Oral administration of sumatriptan to pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis resulted in increased incidences of embryolethality and fetal cervicothoracic vascular and skeletal abnormalities. Intravenous administration of sumatriptan to pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis resulted in an increased incidence of embryolethality. The highest oral and intravenous no-effect doses for developmental toxicity in rabbits were 15 (approximately 2 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) and 0.75 mg/kg/day, respectively.

Oral administration of sumatriptan to rats prior to and throughout gestation resulted in embryofetal toxicity (decreased body weight, decreased ossification, increased incidence of skeletal abnormalities). The highest no-effect dose was 50 mg/kg/day, or approximately 2 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis. In offspring of pregnant rats treated orally with sumatriptan during organogenesis, there was a decrease in pup survival. The highest no-effect dose for this effect was 60 mg/kg/day, or approximately 3 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis. Oral treatment of pregnant rats with sumatriptan during the latter part of gestation and throughout lactation resulted in a decrease in pup survival. The highest no-effect dose for this finding was 100 mg/kg/day, or approximately 5 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary
Sumatriptan is excreted in human milk following subcutaneous administration (see Data). There is no information regarding sumatriptan concentrations in milk from lactating women following administration of sumatriptan tablets. There are no data on the effects of sumatriptan on the breastfed infant or the effects of sumatriptan on milk production.

The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for sumatriptan tablets and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from sumatriptan or from the underlying maternal condition.

Clinical Considerations
Infant exposure to sumatriptan can be minimized by avoiding breastfeeding for 12 hours after treatment with sumatriptan tablets.

DataFollowing subcutaneous administration of a 6 mg dose of sumatriptan injection in 5 lactating volunteers, sumatriptan was present in milk.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Sumatriptan tablets are not recommended for use in patients younger than 18 years of age.

Two controlled clinical trials evaluated sumatriptan nasal spray (5 to 20 mg) in 1,248 adolescent migraineurs aged 12 to 17 years who treated a single attack. The trials did not establish the efficacy of sumatriptan nasal spray compared with placebo in the treatment of migraine in adolescents. Adverse reactions observed in these clinical trials were similar in nature to those reported in clinical trials in adults.

Five controlled clinical trials (2 single-attack trials, 3 multiple-attack trials) evaluating oral sumatriptan (25 to 100 mg) in pediatric patients aged 12 to 17 years enrolled a total of 701 adolescent migraineurs. These trials did not establish the efficacy of oral sumatriptan compared with placebo in the treatment of migraine in adolescents. Adverse reactions observed in these clinical trials were similar in nature to those reported in clinical trials in adults. The frequency of all adverse reactions in these patients appeared to be both dose- and age‑ dependent, with younger patients reporting reactions more commonly than older adolescents.

Postmarketing experience documents that serious adverse reactions have occurred in the pediatric population after use of subcutaneous, oral, and/or intranasal sumatriptan. These reports include reactions similar in nature to those reported rarely in adults, including stroke, visual loss, and death. A myocardial infarction has been reported in a 14‑year‑old male following the use of oral sumatriptan; clinical signs occurred within 1 day of drug administration. Clinical data to determine the frequency of serious adverse reactions in pediatric patients who might receive subcutaneous, oral, or intranasal sumatriptan are not presently available.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Clinical trials of sumatriptan tablets did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and older to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

A cardiovascular evaluation is recommended for geriatric patients who have other cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, smoking, obesity, strong family history of CAD) prior to receiving sumatriptan tablets [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

8.6 Hepatic Impairment

The maximum single dose in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment should not exceed 50 mg. Sumatriptan tablets are contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

10 OVERDOSAGE

Patients in clinical trials (N = 670) received single oral doses of 140 to 300 mg without significant adverse reactions. Volunteers (N = 174) received single oral doses of 140 to 400 mg without serious adverse reactions.

Overdose in animals has been fatal and has been heralded by convulsions, tremor, paralysis, inactivity, ptosis, erythema of the extremities, abnormal respiration, cyanosis, ataxia, mydriasis, salivation, and lacrimation.

The elimination half-life of sumatriptan is approximately 2.5 hours [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] , and therefore monitoring of patients after overdose with sumatriptan tablets should continue for at least 12 hours or while symptoms or signs persist.

It is unknown what effect hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis has on the serum concentrations of sumatriptan.

11 DESCRIPTION

Sumatriptan tablets, USP contain sumatriptan succinate USP, a selective 5‑HT1B/1D receptor agonist. Sumatriptan succinate, USP is chemically designated as 3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-N-methyl-indole-5-methanesulfonamide succinate (1:1), and it has the following structure:

chemical structure

The molecular formula is C14 H21 N3 O2 S•C4 H6 O4 , representing a molecular weight of 413.5. Sumatriptan succinate, USP is a white to off‑white powder that is readily soluble in water and in saline.

Each sumatriptan tablet, USP for oral administration contains 35, 70, or 140 mg of sumatriptan succinate, USP equivalent to 25, 50, or 100 mg of sumatriptan, respectively. Each tablet also contains the inactive ingredients croscarmellose sodium, dibasic calcium phosphate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium bicarbonate, and opadry. The components of opadry yellow used in the formulation of 25 mg tablets are hypromellose, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol 6000, iron oxide yellow, and polysorbate 80. The components of opadry pink used in the formulation of 50 mg tablets are hypromellose, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol 400, and iron oxide red. The components of opadry white used in the formulation of 100 mg tablets are hypromellose, titanium dioxide, and polyethylene glycol 400.

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Sumatriptan binds with high affinity to human cloned 5‑HT1B/1D receptors. Sumatriptan presumably exerts its therapeutic effects in the treatment of migraine headache through agonist effects at the 5‑HT1B/1D receptors on intracranial blood vessels and sensory nerves of the trigeminal system, which result in cranial vessel constriction and inhibition of pro‑inflammatory neuropeptide release.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Blood Pressure

Significant elevation in blood pressure, including hypertensive crisis, has been reported in patients with and without a history of hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].

Peripheral (Small) Arteries

In healthy volunteers (N = 18), a trial evaluating the effects of sumatriptan on peripheral (small vessel) arterial reactivity failed to detect a clinically significant increase in peripheral resistance.

Heart Rate

Transient increases in blood pressure observed in some patients in clinical trials carried out during sumatriptan’s development as a treatment for migraine were not accompanied by any clinically significant changes in heart rate.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

The mean maximum concentration following oral dosing with 25 mg is 18 ng/mL (range: 7 to 47 ng/mL) and 51 ng/mL (range: 28 to 100 ng/mL) following oral dosing with 100 mg of sumatriptan. This compares with a Cmax of 5 and 16 ng/mL following dosing with a 5 and 20 mg intranasal dose, respectively. The mean Cmax following a 6 mg subcutaneous injection is 71 ng/mL (range: 49 to 110 ng/mL). The bioavailability is approximately 15%, primarily due to presystemic metabolism and partly due to incomplete absorption. The Cmax is similar during a migraine attack and during a migraine‑free period, but the Tmax is slightly later during the attack, approximately 2.5 hours compared with 2.0 hours. When given as a single dose, sumatriptan displays dose proportionality in its extent of absorption (area under the curve [AUC]) over the dose range of 25 to 200 mg, but the Cmax after 100 mg is approximately 25% less than expected (based on the 25 mg dose).

Effect of Food: A food effect trial involving administration of sumatriptan tablets 100 mg to healthy volunteers under fasting conditions and with a high‑ fat meal indicated that the Cmax and AUC were increased by 15% and 12%, respectively, when administered in the fed state.

Distribution

Protein binding, determined by equilibrium dialysis over the concentration range of 10 to 1,000 ng/mL is low, approximately 14% to 21%. The effect of sumatriptan on the protein binding of other drugs has not been evaluated. The apparent volume of distribution is 2.7 L/kg.

Metabolism

In vitro studies with human microsomes suggest that sumatriptan is metabolized by MAO, predominantly the A isoenzyme. Most of a radiolabeled dose of sumatriptan excreted in the urine is the major metabolite indole acetic acid (IAA) or the IAA glucuronide, both of which are inactive.

Elimination

The elimination half-life of sumatriptan is approximately 2.5 hours. Radiolabeled 14 C-sumatriptan administered orally is largely renally excreted (about 60%) with about 40% found in the feces. Most of the radiolabeled compound excreted in the urine is the major metabolite, IAA, which is inactive, or the IAA glucuronide. Only 3% of the dose can be recovered as unchanged sumatriptan.

Specific Populations

Age: The pharmacokinetics of sumatriptan in the elderly (mean age: 72 years, 2 males and 4 females) and in subjects with migraine (mean age: 38 years, 25 males and 155 females) were similar to that in healthy male subjects (mean age: 30 years).

Patients with Renal Impairment: The effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of sumatriptan has not been examined.

Patients with Hepatic Impairment: The liver plays an important role in the presystemic clearance of orally administered sumatriptan. Accordingly, the bioavailability of sumatriptan following oral administration may be markedly increased in patients with liver disease. In one small trial of patients with moderate liver impairment (n = 8) matched for sex, age, and weight with healthy subjects (n = 8), the hepatically-impaired patients had an approximately 70% increase in AUC and Cmax and a Tmax 40 minutes earlier compared with the healthy subjects.

The pharmacokinetics of sumatriptan in patients with severe hepatic impairment has not been studied. The use of sumatriptan tablets in this population is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4), Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].

Male and Female Patients: In a trial comparing females to males, no pharmacokinetic differences were observed between genders for AUC, Cmax , Tmax , and half‑life.

Racial Groups: The systemic clearance and Cmax of subcutaneous sumatriptan were similar in black (n = 34) and Caucasian (n = 38) healthy male subjects. Oral sumatriptan has not been evaluated for race differences.

Drug Interaction Studies

Monoamine Oxidase-A Inhibitors:Treatment with MAO-A inhibitors generally leads to an increase of sumatriptan plasma levels [see Contraindications (4), Drug Interactions (7.2)].

Due to gut and hepatic metabolic first-pass effects, the increase of systemic exposure after coadministration of an MAO-A inhibitor with oral sumatriptan is greater than after coadministration of the MAO inhibitors with subcutaneous sumatriptan.

In a trial of 14 healthy females, pretreatment with an MAO-A inhibitor decreased the clearance of subcutaneous sumatriptan, resulting in a 2 fold increase in the area under the sumatriptan plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), corresponding to a 40% increase in elimination half-life.

A small trial evaluating the effect of pretreatment with an MAO-A inhibitor on the bioavailability from a 25 mg oral sumatriptan tablet resulted in an approximately 7 fold increase in systemic exposure.

Alcohol: Alcohol consumed 30 minutes prior to sumatriptan ingestion had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of sumatriptan.

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