Sildenafil: Package Insert and Label Information
SILDENAFIL — sildenafil citrate for suspension
Camber Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Sildenafil for oral suspension is indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) (World Health Organization [WHO] Group I) in adults to improve exercise ability and delay clinical worsening [ see Clinical Studies (14)] .
Pediatric Patients (1 to 17 Years old)
Sildenafil for oral suspension is indicated in pediatric patients 1 to 17 years old for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) (WHO Group I) to improve exercise ability and, in pediatric patients too young to perform standardized exercise testing, pulmonary hemodynamics thought to underlie improvements in exercise [ see Clinical Studies (14)].
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2.1 Sildenafil for Oral Suspension
The recommended dosage of sildenafil for oral suspension is 20 mg three times a day. Dose may be titrated to a maximum of 80 mg three times a day, if required, based on symptoms and tolerability [ see Clinical Studies (14)].
Although dose-response improvement in exercise ability was not observed in short-term studies in adults with PAH, the delay in clinical worsening with long-term use of sildenafil in Study A1481324 supports dosing up to a maximum of 80 mg three times a day [ see Clinical Studies (14)] .
2.2 Recommended Dosage in Pediatric Patients
The recommended dosage in patients ≤20 kg is 10 mg three times a day.
For pediatric patients 20 kg to 45 kg, the recommended dosage is 20 mg three times a day. For pediatric patients 45 kg and greater, the recommended dosage is 20 mg three times a day. A maximum dose in pediatric patients has not been identified. Based on the experience in adults, dose may be titrated to a maximum of 40 mg three times a day for pediatric patients >45 kg, if required, based on symptoms and tolerability [ see Clinical Studies (14)].
2.3 Reconstitution of the Powder for Oral Suspension
Note: Reconstitute the contents of the bottle with a
total volume of 90 mL (60 mL followed by 30 mL). Refer to the detailed instructions below.
1.Tap the bottle to loosen the powder.
2. Add 60 mL of water to the bottle.
3. Replace the cap and shake the bott le vigorously for a minimum of 30 seconds.
4. Add another 30 mL of water to the bottle.
5. Replace the cap and shake the bottle vigorously for a minimum of 30 seconds.
6. Remove cap and press the bottle adaptor into the neck of the bottle. Replace the cap on the bottle.
7. Write the expiration date of the reconstituted oral suspension on the bottle label (the expiration date of the reconstituted oral suspension is 60 days from the date of reconstitution).
Do not mix with any other medication or additional flavoring agent.
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Sildenafil for Oral Suspension
White to off-white crystalline powders containing 1.57 g of sildenafil citrate (equivalent to 1.12 g of sildenafil) in a bottle for reconstitution to 10 mg/mL. Following reconstitution with 90 mL of water, the total volume of the oral suspension is 112 mL. A 2 mL oral dosing syringe (with 0.5 mL and 2 mL dose markings) and a press-in bottle adaptor are also provided.
Sildenafil for oral suspension is contraindicated in patients with:
- Concomitant use of organic nitrates in any form, either regularly or intermittently, because of the greater risk of hypotension [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].
- Concomitant use of riociguat, a guanylate cyclase stimulator. Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, including sildenafil, may potentiate the hypotensive effects of riociguat.
- Known hypersensitivity to sildenafil or any component of the oral suspension. Hypersensitivity, including anaphylactic reaction, anaphylactic shock and anaphylactoid reaction, has been reported in association with the use of sildenafil.
5 Sildenafil Warnings and Precautions
Sildenafil has vasodilatory properties, resulting in mild and transient decreases in blood pressure. Before prescribing sildenafil, carefully consider whether patients with certain underlying conditions could be adversely affected by such vasodilatory effects (e.g., patients on antihypertensive therapy or with resting hypotension [blood pressure less than 90/50], fluid depletion, severe left ventricular outflow obstruction, or autonomic dysfunction). Monitor blood pressure when co-administering blood pressure lowering drugs with sildenafil.
5.2 Worsening Pulmonary Vascular Occlusive Disease
Pulmonary vasodilators may significantly worsen the cardiovascular status of patients with pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD). Since there are no clinical data on administration of sildenafil to patients with veno-occlusive disease, administration of sildenafil to such patients is not recommended. Should signs of pulmonary edema occur when sildenafil is administered, consider the possibility of associated PVOD.
The incidence of epistaxis was 13% in patients taking sildenafil with PAH secondary to CTD. This effect was not seen in idiopathic PAH (sildenafil 3%, placebo 2%) patients. The incidence of epistaxis was also higher in sildenafil-treated patients with a concomitant oral vitamin K antagonist (9% versus 2% in those not treated with concomitant vitamin K antagonist). The safety of sildenafil is unknown in patients with bleeding disorders or active peptic ulceration.
5.4 Visual Loss
When used to treat erectile dysfunction, non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), a cause of decreased vision including permanent loss of vision, has been reported post marketing in temporal association with the use of PDE-5 inhibitors, including sildenafil. Most patients had underlying anatomic or vascular risk factors for developing NAION, including low cup to disc ratio (“crowded disc”).
Advise patients to seek immediate medical attention in the event of a sudden loss of vision in one or both eyes while taking sildenafil. There are no controlled clinical data on the safety or efficacy of sildenafil in patients with retinitis pigmentosa, a minority of whom have genetic disorders of retinal phosphodiesterases. Therefore, use of sildenafil in patients with retinitis pigmentosa is not recommended.
5.5 Hearing Loss
Cases of sudden decrease or loss of hearing, which may be accompanied by tinnitus and dizziness, have been reported in temporal association with the use of PDE-5 inhibitors, including sildenafil. In some of the cases, medical conditions and other factors were reported that may have played a role. In many cases, medical follow-up information was limited. It is not possible to determine whether these reported events are related directly to the use of sildenafil, to the patient’s underlying risk factors for hearing loss, a combination of these factors, or to other factors. Advise patients to seek prompt medical attention in the event of sudden decrease or loss of hearing while taking PDE-5 inhibitors, including sildenafil.
5.6 Combination with other PDE-5 inhibitors
Sildenafil is also marketed as VIAGRA®. The safety and efficacy of combinations of sildenafil with VIAGRA or other PDE-5 inhibitors have not been studied. Inform patients taking sildenafil not to take VIAGRA or other PDE5 inhibitors.
Use sildenafil with caution in patients with anatomical deformation of the penis (e.g., angulation, cavernosal fibrosis, or Peyronie’s disease) or in patients who have conditions, which may predispose them to priapism (e.g., sickle cell anemia, multiple myeloma, or leukemia). In the event of an erection that persists longer than 4 hours, the patient should seek immediate medical assistance. If priapism (painful erection greater than 6 hours in duration) is not treated immediately, penile tissue damage and permanent loss of potency could result. \
5.8 Vaso-occlusive Crisis in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to Sickle Cell Anemia
In a small, prematurely terminated study of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to sickle cell disease, vaso-occlusive crises requiring hospitalization were more commonly reported by patients who received sildenafil than by those randomized to placebo. The effectiveness and safety of sildenafil in the treatment of PH secondary to sickle cell disease has not been established.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
The following serious adverse events are discussed elsewhere in the labeling:
- Hypotension [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- Vision Loss [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Hearing Loss [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
- Priapism [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
- Vaso-occlusive Crisis in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to Sickle Cell Disease [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
In a 12-week, placebo-controlled clinical study and an open-label extension study (SUPER-1) in 277 sildenafil-treated adults with PAH (WHO Group I) [ see Clinical Studies (14)] the adverse reactions that were reported by at least 10% of sildenafil-treated patients in any dosing group, and were more frequent in sildenafil-treated patients than in placebo-treated patients are shown in Table 1. Adverse reactions were generally transient and mild to moderate in nature. The overall frequency of discontinuation in sildenafil-treated patients was 3% (20 mg and 40 mg three times a day) and 8% (80 mg three times a day). The overall frequency of discontinuation for placebo was 3%. Table 1. Most Common Adverse Reactions in Patients Treated with Sildenafil 20 mg, 40 mg, 80 mg and Placebo three times per day in SUPER-1 (More Frequent in Sildenafil-Treated Patients than Placebo-Treated Patients)
|Sildenafil 20 mg (n = 69)||Sildenafil 40 mg (n = 67)||Sildenafil 80 mg (n = 71)||Placebo (n = 70)|
|Pain in Limb||7%||15%||9%||6%|
In a placebo-controlled fixed dose titration study (PACES-1) of sildenafil (starting with recommended dose of 20 mg and increased to 40 mg and then 80 mg all three times a day) as an adjunct to intravenous epoprostenol in patients with PAH, no new safety issues were identified except for edema, which occurred in 25% of subjects in the combined sildenafil + epoprostenol group compared with 13% of subjects in the epoprostenol group [ see Clinical Studies (14)].
In a study to assess the effects of multiple doses of sildenafil on mortality in adults with PAH (StudyA1481324), the lower dose 5 mg TID group showed a higher observed number of deaths (all related to underlying disease/disease under study), serious adverse events, and severe adverse events than the 20 mg and 80 mg TID groups [ see Clinical Studies (14)] . Overall, the safety data for sildenafil 80 mg TID dose in Study A1481324 was consistent with the established safety profile of sildenafil in previous adult PAH studies.
Sildenafil was studied in a total of 234 PAH pediatric patients 1 to 17 years of age in a 16-week, double-blind placebo-controlled study (STARTS-1); 220 patients continued in a long-term extension study (STARTS-2). Erection increased was observed in 9% of patients treated with sildenafil in STARTS-1. No other new adverse reactions were identified in pediatric patients [ see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of sildenafil (marketed for both PAH and erectile dysfunction). Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
In postmarketing experience with sildenafil at doses indicated for erectile dysfunction, serious cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and vascular events, including myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, ventricular arrhythmia, cerebrovascular hemorrhage, transient ischemic attack, hypertension, pulmonary hemorrhage, and subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhages have been reported in temporal association with the use of the drug. Most, but not all, of these patients had preexisting cardiovascular risk factors. Many of these events were reported to occur during or shortly after sexual activity, and a few were reported to occur shortly after the use of sildenafil without sexual activity. Others were reported to have occurred hours to days after use concurrent with sexual activity. It is not possible to determine whether these events are related directly to sildenafil, to sexual activity, to the patient’s underlying cardiovascular disease, or to a combination of these or other factors.
Seizure, seizure recurrence
NAION [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.4), Patient Counseling Information (17)].
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