Risperidone: Package Insert and Label Information

RISPERIDONE- risperidone solution
West-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp

WARNING: INCREASED MORTALITY IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA-RELATED PSYCHOSIS

Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Risperidone oral solution is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

1.1 Schizophrenia

Risperidone oral solution is indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia. Efficacy was established in 4 short-term trials in adults, 2 short-term trials in adolescents (ages 13 to 17 years), and one long-term maintenance trial in adults [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].

1.2 Bipolar Mania

Monotherapy

Risperidone oral solution is indicated for the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder. Efficacy was established in 2 short-term trials in adults and one short-term trial in children and adolescents (ages 10 to 17 years) [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].

Adjunctive Therapy

Risperidone oral solution adjunctive therapy with lithium or valproate is indicated for the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder. Efficacy was established in one short-term trial in adults [see Clinical Studies (14.3)].

1.3 Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder

Risperidone oral solution is indicated for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder, including symptoms of aggression towards others, deliberate self-injuriousness, temper tantrums, and quickly changing moods. Efficacy was established in 3 short-term trials in children and adolescents (ages 5 to 17 years) [see Clinical Studies (14.4)].

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Table 1. Recommended Daily Dosage by Indication

Initial Dose

Titration (Increments)

Target Dose

Effective Dose Range

Schizophrenia: Adults (2.1)

2 mg

1 to 2 mg

4 to 8 mg

4 to 16 mg

Schizophrenia: Adolescents (2.1)

0.5 mg

0.5 to 1 mg

3 mg

1 to 6 mg

Bipolar Mania: Adults (2.2)

2 to 3 mg

1 mg

1 to 6 mg

1 to 6 mg

Bipolar Mania: Children and Adolescents (2.2)

0.5 mg

0.5 to 1 mg

1 to 2.5 mg

1 to 6 mg

Irritability in Autistic Disorder (2.3)

0.25 mg Can increase to 0.5 mg by Day 4: (body weight less than 20 kg)

0.5 mg Can increase to 1 mg by Day 4: (body weight greater than or equal to 20 kg)

After Day 4, at intervals of > 2 weeks: 0.25 mg

(body weight less than 20 kg)

0.5 mg (body weight greater than or equal to 20 kg)

0.5 mg (body weight less than 20 kg)

1 mg (body weight greater than or equal to 20 kg)

0.5 to 3 mg

Severe Renal and Hepatic Impairment in Adults: Use a lower starting dose of 0.5 mg twice daily. May increase to dosages above 1.5 mg twice daily at intervals of one week or longer.

2.1 Schizophrenia

Adults

Usual Initial Dose: Risperidone can be administered once or twice daily. Initial dosing is 2 mg per day. May increase the dose at intervals of 24 hours or greater, in increments of 1 to 2 mg per day, as tolerated, to a recommended dose of 4 to 8 mg per day. In some patients, slower titration may be appropriate. Efficacy has been demonstrated in a range of 4 mg to 16 mg per day. However, doses above 6 mg per day for twice daily dosing were not demonstrated to be more efficacious than lower doses, were associated with more extrapyramidal symptoms and other adverse effects, and are generally not recommended. In a single study supporting once-daily dosing, the efficacy results were generally stronger for 8 mg than for 4 mg. The safety of doses above 16 mg per day has not been evaluated in clinical trials [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].

Adolescents

The initial dose is 0.5 mg once daily, administered as a single-daily dose in the morning or evening. The dose may be adjusted at intervals of 24 hours or greater, in increments of 0.5 mg or 1 mg per day, as tolerated, to a recommended dose of 3 mg per day. Although efficacy has been demonstrated in studies of adolescent patients with schizophrenia at doses between 1 mg to 6 mg per day, no additional benefit was observed above 3 mg per day, and higher doses were associated with more adverse events. Doses higher than 6 mg per day have not been studied.

Patients experiencing persistent somnolence may benefit from administering half the daily dose twice daily.

Maintenance Therapy

While it is unknown how long a patient with schizophrenia should remain on risperidone, the effectiveness of risperidone 2 mg per day to 8 mg per day at delaying relapse was demonstrated in a controlled trial in adult patients who had been clinically stable for at least 4 weeks and were then followed for a period of 1 to 2 years [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Both adult and adolescent patients who respond acutely should generally be maintained on their effective dose beyond the acute episode. Patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for maintenance treatment.

Reinitiation of Treatment in Patients Previously Discontinued: Although there are no data to specifically address reinitiation of treatment, it is recommended that after an interval off risperidone, the initial titration schedule should be followed.

Switching From Other Antipsychotics: There are no systematically collected data to specifically address switching schizophrenic patients from other antipsychotics to risperidone, or treating patients with concomitant antipsychotics.

2.2 Bipolar Mania

Usual Dose

Adults: The initial dose range is 2 mg to 3 mg per day. The dose may be adjusted at intervals of 24 hours or greater, in increments of 1 mg per day. The effective dose range is 1 mg to 6 mg per day, as studied in the short-term, placebo-controlled trials. In these trials, short-term (3 week) anti-manic efficacy was demonstrated in a flexible dosage range of 1 mg to 6 mg per day [see Clinical Studies (14.2,14.3)]. Risperidone doses higher than 6 mg per day were not studied.

Pediatrics: The initial dose is 0.5 mg once daily, administered as a single-daily dose in the morning or evening. The dose may be adjusted at intervals of 24 hours or greater, in increments of 0.5 mg or 1 mg per day, as tolerated, to the recommended target dose of 1 mg to 2.5 mg per day. Although efficacy has been demonstrated in studies of pediatric patients with bipolar mania at doses between 0.5 mg and 6 mg per day, no additional benefit was observed above 2.5 mg per day, and higher doses were associated with more adverse events. Doses higher than 6 mg per day have not been studied.

Patients experiencing persistent somnolence may benefit from administering half the daily dose twice daily.

Maintenance Therapy: There is no body of evidence available from controlled trials to guide a clinician in the longer-term management of a patient who improves during treatment of an acute manic episode with risperidone. While it is generally agreed that pharmacological treatment beyond an acute response in mania is desirable, both for maintenance of the initial response and for prevention of new manic episodes, there are no systematically obtained data to support the use of risperidone in such longer-term treatment (i.e., beyond 3 weeks). The physician who elects to use risperidone for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term risks and benefits of the drug for the individual patient.

2.3 Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder — Pediatrics (Children and Adolescents)

The dosage of risperidone should be individualized according to the response and tolerability of the patient. The total daily dose of risperidone can be administered once daily, or half the total daily dose can be administered twice daily.

For patients with body weight less than 20 kg, initiate dosing at 0.25 mg per day. For patients with body weight greater than or equal to 20 kg, initiate dosing at 0.5 mg per day. After a minimum of four days, the dose may be increased to the recommended dose of 0.5 mg per day for patients less than 20 kg and 1.0 mg per day for patients greater than or equal to 20 kg. Maintain this dose for a minimum of 14 days. In patients not achieving sufficient clinical response, the dose may be increased at intervals of 2 weeks or greater, in increments of 0.25 mg per day for patients less than 20 kg, or increments of 0.5 mg per day for patients greater than or equal to 20 kg. The effective dose range is 0.5 mg to 3 mg per day. No dosing data are available for children who weigh less than 15 kg.

Once sufficient clinical response has been achieved and maintained, consider gradually lowering the dose to achieve the optimal balance of efficacy and safety. The physician who elects to use risperidone for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term risks and benefits of the drug for the individual patient.

Patients experiencing persistent somnolence may benefit from a once-daily dose administered at bedtime or administering half the daily dose twice daily, or a reduction of the dose.

2.4 Dosing in Patients with Severe Renal or Hepatic Impairment

For patients with severe renal impairment (CLcr < 30 mL/min) or hepatic impairment (10 to 15 points on Child Pugh System), the initial starting dose is 0.5 mg twice daily. The dose may be increased in increments of 0.5 mg or less, administered twice daily. For doses above 1.5 mg twice daily, increase in intervals of one week or greater [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6 and 8.7)].

2.5 Dose Adjustments for Specific Drug Interactions

When risperidone is co-administered with enzyme inducers (e.g., carbamazepine), the dose of risperidone should be increased up to double the patient’s usual dose. It may be necessary to decrease the risperidone dose when enzyme inducers such as carbamazepine are discontinued [see Drug Interactions (7.1)]. Similar effect may be expected with co-administration of risperidone with other enzyme inducers (e.g., phenytoin, rifampin, and phenobarbital).

When fluoxetine or paroxetine is co-administered with risperidone, the dose of risperidone should be reduced. The risperidone dose should not exceed 8 mg per day in adults when co-administered with these drugs. When initiating therapy, risperidone should be titrated slowly. It may be necessary to increase the risperidone dose when enzyme inhibitors such as fluoxetine or paroxetine are discontinued [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].

2.6 Administration of Risperidone Oral Solution

Risperidone Oral Solution can be administered directly from the calibrated pipette, or can be mixed with a beverage prior to administration. Risperidone Oral Solution is compatible in the following beverages: water, coffee, orange juice, and low-fat milk; it is NOT compatible with either cola or tea.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

risperiDONE Oral Solution USP is available in 1 mg/mL strength.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Risperidone is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to either risperidone or paliperidone, or to any of the excipients in the risperidone oral solution formulation. Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylactic reactions and angioedema, have been reported in patients treated with risperidone and in patients treated with paliperidone. Paliperidone is a metabolite of risperidone.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis

Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Analyses of 17 placebo-controlled trials (modal duration of 10 weeks), largely in patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs, revealed a risk of death in drug-treated patients of between 1.6 to 1.7 times the risk of death in placebo-treated patients. Over the course of a typical 10-week controlled trial, the rate of death in drug-treated patients was about 4.5%, compared to a rate of about 2.6% in the placebo group. Although the causes of death were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g., pneumonia) in nature. Observational studies suggest that, similar to atypical antipsychotic drugs, treatment with conventional antipsychotic drugs may increase mortality. The extent to which the findings of increased mortality in observational studies may be attributed to the antipsychotic drug as opposed to some characteristic(s) of the patients is not clear.

In two of four placebo-controlled trials in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis, a higher incidence of mortality was observed in patients treated with furosemide plus risperidone when compared to patients treated with risperidone alone or with placebo plus furosemide. No pathological mechanism has been identified to explain this finding, and no consistent pattern for cause of death was observed.

Risperidone is not approved for the treatment of dementia-related psychosis [see Boxed Warning].

5.2 Cerebrovascular Adverse Reactions, Including Stroke, in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis

Cerebrovascular adverse reactions (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack), including fatalities, were reported in patients (mean age 85 years; range 73 to 97) in trials of risperidone in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis. In placebo-controlled trials, there was a significantly higher incidence of cerebrovascular adverse events in patients treated with risperidone compared to patients treated with placebo. Risperidone is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

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