Carcinogenesis — Oral
Risperidone was administered in the diet at doses of 0.63, 2.5, and 10 mg/kg for 18 months to mice and for 25 months to rats. These doses are equivalent to approximately 0.2, 0.75, and 3 times (mice) and 0.4, 1.5, and 6 times (rats) the MRHD of 16 mg/day, based on mg/m2 body surface area. A maximum tolerated dose was not achieved in male mice. There was a significant increase in pituitary gland adenomas, endocrine pancreatic adenomas, and mammary gland adenocarcinomas. The table below summarizes the multiples of the human dose on mg/m2 (mg/kg) basis at which these tumors occurred.
|Multiples of Maximum Human Dose in mg/m2 (mg/kg)|
|Tumor Type||Species||Sex||Lowest Effect Level||Highest No-Effect Level|
|Pituitary adenomas||mouse||Female||0.75 (9.4)||0.2 (2.4)|
|Endocrine pancreas adenomas||rat||Male||1.5 (9.4)||0.4 (2.4)|
|Mammary gland adenocarcinomas||mouse||Female||0.2 (2.4)||none|
|rat||Male||6.0 (37.5)||1.5 (9.4)|
|Mammary gland neoplasm, Total||rat||Male||1.5 (9.4)||0.4 (2.4)|
Antipsychotic drugs have been shown to chronically elevate prolactin levels in rodents. Serum prolactin levels were not measured during the risperidone carcinogenicity studies; however, measurements during subchronic toxicity studies showed that risperidone elevated serum prolactin levels 5–6 fold in mice and rats at the same doses used in the carcinogenicity studies. An increase in mammary, pituitary, and endocrine pancreas neoplasms has been found in rodents after chronic administration of other antipsychotic drugs and is considered to be prolactin-mediated. The relevance for human risk of the findings of prolactin-mediated endocrine tumors in rodents is unclear [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
Carcinogenesis — Intramuscular
Risperidone was evaluated in a 24-month carcinogenicity study in which SPF Wistar rats were treated every 2 weeks with intramuscular (IM) injections of either 5 mg/kg or 40 mg/kg of risperidone. These doses are 1 and 8 times the MRHD (50 mg) on a mg/m2 basis. A control group received injections of 0.9% NaCl, and a vehicle control group was injected with placebo microspheres. There was a significant increase in pituitary gland adenomas, endocrine pancreas adenomas, and adrenomedullary pheochromocytomas at 8 times the IM MRHD on a mg/m2 basis. The incidence of mammary gland adenocarcinomas was significantly increased in female rats at both doses (1 and 8 times the IM MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). A significant increase in renal tubular tumors (adenoma, adenocarcinomas) was observed in male rats at 8 times the IM MRHD on a mg/m2 basis. Plasma exposures (AUC) in rats were 0.3 and 2 times (at 5 and 40 mg/kg, respectively) the expected plasma exposure (AUC) at the IM MRHD.
Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists have been shown to chronically elevate prolactin levels in rodents. Serum prolactin levels were not measured during the carcinogenicity studies of oral risperidone; however, measurements taken during subchronic toxicity studies showed that oral risperidone elevated serum prolactin levels 5- to 6-fold in mice and rats at the same doses used in the oral carcinogenicity studies. Serum prolactin levels increased in a dose-dependent manner up to 6- and 1.5-fold in male and female rats, respectively, at the end of the 24-month treatment with risperidone every 2 weeks IM. Increases in the incidence of pituitary gland, endocrine pancreas, and mammary gland neoplasms have been found in rodents after chronic administration of other antipsychotic drugs and may be prolactin-mediated.
The relevance for human risk of the findings of prolactin-mediated endocrine tumors in rodents is unknown [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
No evidence of mutagenic or clastogenic potential for risperidone was found in the in vitro tests of Ames gene mutation, the mouse lymphoma assay, rat hepatocyte DNA-repair assay, the chromosomal aberration test in human lymphocytes, Chinese hamster ovary cells, or in the in vivo micronucleus test in mice, and the sex-linked recessive lethal test in Drosophila.
In addition, no evidence of mutagenic potential was found in the in vitro Ames reverse mutation test for RISPERDAL CONSTA®.
Impairment of Fertility
Oral risperidone (0.16 to 5 mg/kg) impaired mating, but not fertility, in rat reproductive studies at doses 0.1 to 3 times the oral maximum recommended human dose (MRHD of 16 mg/day) based on mg/m2 body surface area. The effect appeared to be in females, since impaired mating behavior was not noted in the male fertility study. In a subchronic study in Beagle dogs in which oral risperidone was administered at doses of 0.31 to 5 mg/kg, sperm motility and concentration were decreased at doses 0.6 to 10 times the oral MRHD on mg/m2 basis. Dose-related decreases were also noted in serum testosterone at the same doses. Serum testosterone and sperm parameters partially recovered, but remained decreased after treatment was discontinued. A no-effect dose could not be determined in either rat or dog.
The effectiveness of RISPERDAL CONSTA® in the treatment of schizophrenia was established, in part, on the basis of extrapolation from the established effectiveness of the oral formulation of risperidone. In addition, the effectiveness of RISPERDAL CONSTA® in the treatment of schizophrenia was established in a 12-week, placebo-controlled trial in adult psychotic inpatients and outpatients who met the DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia.
Efficacy data were obtained from 400 patients with schizophrenia who were randomized to receive injections of 25 mg, 50 mg, or 75 mg RISPERDAL CONSTA® or placebo every 2 weeks. During a 1-week run-in period, patients were discontinued from other antipsychotics and were titrated to a dose of 4 mg oral RISPERDAL®. Patients who received RISPERDAL CONSTA® were given doses of oral RISPERDAL® (2 mg for patients in the 25-mg group, 4 mg for patients in the 50-mg group, and 6 mg for patients in the 75-mg group) for the 3 weeks after the first injection to provide therapeutic plasma concentrations until the main release phase of risperidone from the injection site had begun. Patients who received placebo injections were given placebo tablets.
Efficacy was evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), a validated, multi-item inventory, composed of five subscales to evaluate positive symptoms, negative symptoms, disorganized thoughts, uncontrolled hostility/excitement, and anxiety/depression.
The primary efficacy variable in this trial was change from baseline to endpoint in the total PANSS score. The mean total PANSS score at baseline for schizophrenic patients in this study was 81.5.
Total PANSS scores showed significant improvement in the change from baseline to endpoint in schizophrenic patients treated with each dose of RISPERDAL CONSTA® (25 mg, 50 mg, or 75 mg) compared with patients treated with placebo. While there were no statistically significant differences between the treatment effects for the three dose groups, the effect size for the 75 mg dose group was actually numerically less than that observed for the 50 mg dose group.
Subgroup analyses did not indicate any differences in treatment outcome as a function of age, race, or gender.
The effectiveness of RISPERDAL CONSTA® for the maintenance treatment of Bipolar I Disorder was established in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of adult patients who met DSM-IV criteria for Bipolar Disorder Type I, who were stable on medications or experiencing an acute manic or mixed episode.
A total of 501 patients were treated during a 26-week open-label period with RISPERDAL CONSTA® (starting dose of 25 mg, and titrated, if deemed clinically desirable, to 37.5 mg or 50 mg; in patients not tolerating the 25 mg dose, the dose could be reduced to 12.5 mg). In the open-label phase, 303 (60%) patients were judged to be stable and were randomized to double-blind treatment with either the same dose of RISPERDAL CONSTA® or placebo and monitored for relapse. The primary endpoint was time to relapse to any mood episode (depression, mania, hypomania, or mixed).
Time to relapse was delayed in patients receiving RISPERDAL CONSTA® monotherapy as compared to placebo. The majority of relapses were due to manic rather than depressive symptoms. Based on their bipolar disorder history, subjects entering this study had had, on average, more manic episodes than depressive episodes.
The effectiveness of RISPERDAL CONSTA® as an adjunct to treatment with lithium or valproate for the maintenance treatment of Bipolar Disorder was established in a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of adult patients who met DSM-IV criteria for Bipolar Disorder Type I and who experienced at least 4 episodes of mood disorder requiring psychiatric/clinical intervention in the previous 12 months, including at least 2 episodes in the 6 months prior to the start of the study.
A total of 240 patients were treated during a 16-week open-label period with RISPERDAL CONSTA® (starting dose of 25 mg, and titrated, if deemed clinically desirable, to 37.5 mg or 50 mg), as adjunctive therapy in addition to continuing their treatment as usual for their bipolar disorder, which consisted of mood stabilizers (primarily lithium and valproate), antidepressants, and/or anxiolytics. All oral antipsychotics were discontinued after the first three weeks of the initial RISPERDAL CONSTA® injection. In the open-label phase, 124 (51.7%) were judged to be stable for at least the last 4 weeks and were randomized to double-blind treatment with either the same dose of RISPERDAL CONSTA® or placebo in addition to continuing their treatment as usual and monitored for relapse during a 52-week period. The primary endpoint was time to relapse to any new mood episode (depression, mania, hypomania, or mixed).
Time to relapse was delayed in patients receiving adjunctive therapy with RISPERDAL CONSTA® as compared to placebo. The relapse types were about half depressive and half manic or mixed episodes.
RISPERDAL CONSTA® (risperidone) is available in dosage strengths of 12.5 mg, 25 mg, 37.5 mg, or 50 mg risperidone. It is provided as a dose pack, consisting of a vial containing the risperidone microspheres, a pre-filled syringe containing 2 mL of diluent for RISPERDAL CONSTA® , a vial adapter, and two Terumo SurGuard® 3 Needles for intramuscular injection (a 21 G UTW 1-inch needle with needle protection device for deltoid administration and a 20 G TW 2-inch needle with needle protection device for gluteal administration).
12.5-mg vial/kit (NDC 50458-309-11): 41 mg (equivalent to 12.5 mg of risperidone) of a white to off-white powder provided in a vial with a violet flip-off cap (NDC 50458-309-01).
25-mg vial/kit (NDC 50458-306-11): 78 mg (equivalent to 25 mg of risperidone) of a white to off-white powder provided in a vial with a pink flip-off cap (NDC 50458-306-01).
37.5-mg vial/kit (NDC 50458-307-11): 116 mg (equivalent to 37.5 mg of risperidone) of a white to off-white powder provided in a vial with a green flip-off cap (NDC 50458-307-01).
50-mg vial/kit (NDC 50458-308-11): 152 mg (equivalent to 50 mg of risperidone) of a white to off-white powder provided in a vial with a blue flip-off cap (NDC 50458-308-01).
Storage and Handling
The entire dose pack should be stored in the refrigerator (36°–46°F; 2°–8°C) and protected from light.
If refrigeration is unavailable, RISPERDAL CONSTA® can be stored at temperatures not exceeding 77°F (25°C) for no more than 7 days prior to administration. Do not expose unrefrigerated product to temperatures above 77°F (25°C).
Keep out of reach of children.
Physicians are advised to discuss the following issues with patients for whom they prescribe RISPERDAL CONSTA®.
Patients should be advised of the risk of orthostatic hypotension and instructed in nonpharmacologic interventions that help to reduce the occurrence of orthostatic hypotension (e.g., sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes before attempting to stand in the morning and slowly rising from a seated position) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
Interference with Cognitive and Motor Performance
Because RISPERDAL CONSTA® has the potential to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills, patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that treatment with RISPERDAL CONSTA® does not affect them adversely [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)].
Patients should be advised to inform their physicians if they are taking, or plan to take, any prescription or over-the-counter drugs, since there is a potential for interactions [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Patients should be advised to avoid alcohol during treatment with RISPERDAL CONSTA® [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].
Advise patients to notify their healthcare provider if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during treatment with RISPERDAL CONSTA®. Advise patients that RISPERDAL CONSTA® may cause extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms in a neonate. Advise patients that there is a pregnancy registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to RISPERDAL CONSTA® during pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Advise breastfeeding women using RISPERDAL CONSTA® to monitor infants for somnolence, failure to thrive, jitteriness, and extrapyramidal symptoms (tremors and abnormal muscle movements) and to seek medical care if they notice these signs [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)].
Advise females of reproductive potential that RISPERDAL CONSTA® may impair fertility due to an increase in serum prolactin levels. The effects on fertility are reversible [see Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].
Product of Ireland
Risperidone active ingredient is manufactured by:
Wallingstown, Little Island, County Cork, Ireland
Microspheres are manufactured by:
Diluent is manufactured by:
Vetter Pharma Fertigung GmbH & Co. KG
RISPERDAL CONSTA® is manufactured for:
Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Titusville, NJ 08560
© 2007 Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies
(see bottom panel for
Single use only
risperiDONE Long-Acting Injection
DOSE PACK CONTENTS:
- One 12.5 mg vial of risperidone extended-release microspheres for injection
- One pre-filled syringe containing 2 mL of diluent
- One Vial Adapter
- One 21-gauge UTW 1″ Terumo SurGuard® 3 safety needle for deltoid injection
- One 20-gauge TW 2″ Terumo SurGuard® 3 safety needle for gluteal injection
Do not substitute any components of the dose pack.
For deltoid or gluteal intramuscular injection only Each injection should be administered by a healthcare professional.
PLEASE READ COMPLETE INSTRUCTIONS PRIOR TO USE.
DrugInserts.com provides trustworthy package insert and label information about marketed drugs as submitted by manufacturers to the US Food and Drug Administration. Package information is not reviewed or updated separately by DrugInserts.com. Every individual package label entry contains a unique identifier which can be used to secure further details directly from the US National Institutes of Health and/or the FDA.