Rifampin: Package Insert and Label Information
RIFAMPIN — rifampin capsule
Lupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of rifampin capsules USP and other antibacterial drugs, rifampin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.
Rifampin Capsules USP for oral administration contains 150 mg or 300 mg rifampin per capsule. The 150 mg and 300 mg capsules also contain, as inactive ingredients: corn starch, crospovidone, D & C Red no. 28, FD & C Blue no. 1, FD & C Red no. 40, gelatin, magnesium stearate, potassium hydroxide, pregelatinized starch, propylene glycol, shellac, sodium lauryl sulphate and titanium dioxide.
Rifampin is a semisynthetic antibiotic derivative of rifamycin SV. Rifampin is a red-brown crystalline powder very slightly soluble in water at neutral pH, freely soluble in chloroform, soluble in ethyl acetate and in methanol. Its molecular weight is 822.95 and its chemical formula is C43 H58 N4 O12 . The chemical name for rifampin is either:
5,6,9,17,19,21-hexahydroxy-23-methoxy-2,4,12,16,18,20,22–heptamethyl-8-[N-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)formimidoyl]-2,7-(epoxypentadeca[1,11,13]trienimino)naphtho[2,1-b ]furan-1,11(2H)-dione 21-acetate.
Its structural formula is:
Rifampin is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Peak serum concentrations in healthy adults and pediatric populations vary widely from individual to individual. Following a single 600 mg oral dose of rifampin in healthy adults, the peak serum concentration averages 7 mcg/mL but may vary from 4 to 32 mcg/mL. Absorption of rifampin is reduced by about 30% when the drug is ingested with food.
Rifampin is widely distributed throughout the body. It is present in effective concentrations in many organs and body fluids, including cerebrospinal fluid. Rifampin is about 80% protein bound. Most of the unbound fraction is not ionized and, therefore, diffuses freely into tissues.
In healthy adults, the mean biological half-life of rifampin in serum averages 3.35 ± 0.66 hours after a 600 mg oral dose, with increases up to 5.08 ± 2.45 hours reported after a 900 mg dose. With repeated administration, the half-life decreases and reaches average values of approximately 2 to 3 hours. The half-life does not differ in patients with renal failure at doses not exceeding 600 mg daily, and consequently, no dosage adjustment is required. The half-life of rifampin at a dose of 720 mg daily has not been established in patients with renal failure. Following a single 900 mg oral dose of rifampin in patients with varying degrees of renal insufficiency, the mean half-life increased from 3.6 hours in healthy adults to 5.0, 7.3, and 11.0 hours in patients with glomerular filtration rates of 30 to 50 mL/min, less than 30 mL/min, and in anuric patients, respectively. Refer to the WARNINGS section for information regarding patients with hepatic insufficiency.
After absorption, rifampin is rapidly eliminated in the bile, and an enterohepatic circulation ensues. During this process, rifampin undergoes progressive deacetylation so that nearly all the drug in the bile is in this form in about 6 hours. This metabolite has antibacterial activity. Intestinal reabsorption is reduced by deacetylation, and elimination is facilitated. Up to 30% of a dose is excreted in the urine, with about half of this being unchanged drug.
In one study, pediatric patients 6 to 58 months old were given rifampin suspended in simple syrup or as dry powder mixed with applesauce at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight. Peak serum concentrations of 10.7 ± 3.7 and 11.5 ± 5.1 mcg/mL were obtained 1 hour after preprandial ingestion of the drug suspension and the applesauce mixture, respectively. After the administration of either preparation, the t1/2 of rifampin averaged 2.9 hours. It should be noted that in other studies in pediatric populations, at doses of 10 mg/kg body weight, mean peak serum concentrations of 3.5 mcg/mL to 15 mcg/mL have been reported.
Rifampin inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis organisms. Specifically, it interacts with bacterial RNA polymerase but does not inhibit the mammalian enzyme.
Organisms resistant to rifampin are likely to be resistant to other rifamycins.
In the treatment of both tuberculosis and the meningococcal carrier state (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE ), the small number of resistant cells present within large populations of susceptible cells can rapidly become predominant. In addition, resistance to rifampin has been determined to occur as single-step mutations of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Since resistance can emerge rapidly, appropriate susceptibility tests should be performed in the event of persistent positive cultures.
Activity in vitro and in vivo
Rifampin has bactericidal activity in vitro against slow and intermittently growing M tuberculosis organisms.
Rifampin has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE ).
Aerobic Gram-Negative Microorganisms:
The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown.
At least 90% of the following bacteria exhibit an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than or equal to the susceptible breakpoint for rifampin against isolates of similar genus or organism group. However, the efficacy of rifampin in treating clinical infections caused by these bacteria has not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.
Aerobic Gram-Positive Microorganisms:
Staphylococcus aureus (including Methicillin-Resistant S aureus /MRSA)
Aerobic Gram-Negative Microorganisms:
ß-lactamase production should have no effect on rifampin activity.
For specific information regarding susceptibility test interpretive criteria and associated test methods and quality control standards recognized by FDA for this drug, please see: https://www.fda.gov/STIC.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
In the treatment of both tuberculosis and the meningococcal carrier state, the small number of resistant cells present within large populations of susceptible cells can rapidly become the predominant type. Bacteriologic cultures should be obtained before the start of therapy to confirm the susceptibility of the organism to rifampin and they should be repeated throughout therapy to monitor the response to treatment. Since resistance can emerge rapidly, susceptibility tests should be performed in the event of persistent positive cultures during the course of treatment. If test results show resistance to rifampin and the patient is not responding to therapy, the drug regimen should be modified.
Rifampin is indicated in the treatment of all forms of tuberculosis.
A three-drug regimen consisting of rifampin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide is recommended in the initial phase of short-course therapy which is usually continued for 2 months. The Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis, the American Thoracic Society, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that either streptomycin or ethambutol be added as a fourth drug in a regimen containing isoniazid (INH), rifampin, and pyrazinamide for initial treatment of tuberculosis unless the likelihood of INH resistance is very low. The need for a fourth drug should be reassessed when the results of susceptibility testing are known. If community rates of INH resistance are currently less than 4%, an initial treatment regimen with less than four drugs may be considered.
Following the initial phase, treatment should be continued with rifampin and isoniazid for at least 4 months. Treatment should be continued for longer if the patient is still sputum or culture positive, if resistant organisms are present, or if the patient is HIV positive.
Rifampin IV is indicated for the initial treatment and retreatment of tuberculosis when the drug cannot be taken by mouth.
Rifampin is indicated for the treatment of asymptomatic carriers of Neisseria meningitidis to eliminate meningococci from the nasopharynx. Rifampin is not indicated for the treatment of meningococcal infection because of the possibility of the rapid emergence of resistant organisms (See WARNINGS .)
Rifampin should not be used indiscriminately, and, therefore, diagnostic laboratory procedures, including serotyping and susceptibility testing, should be performed for establishment of the carrier state and the correct treatment. So that the usefulness of rifampin in the treatment of asymptomatic meningococcal carriers is preserved, the drug should be used only when the risk of meningococcal disease is high.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of rifampin and other antibacterial drugs, rifampin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Rifampin capsules are contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to rifampin or any of the components, or to any of the rifamycins. (See WARNINGS .)
Rifampin is contraindicated in patients who are also receiving ritonavir-boosted saquinavir due to an increased risk of severe hepatocellular toxicity. (See PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions.)
Rifampin is contraindicated in patients who are also receiving atazanavir, darunavir, fosamprenavir, saquinavir, or tipranavir due to the potential of rifampin to substantially decrease plasma concentrations of these antiviral drugs, which may result in loss of antiviral efficacy and/or development of viral resistance.
Rifampin is contraindicated in patients receiving praziquantel since therapeutically effective blood levels of praziquantel may not be achieved. In patients receiving rifampin who need immediate treatment with praziquantel alternative agents should be considered. However, if treatment with praziquantel is necessary, rifampin should be discontinued 4 weeks before administration of praziquantel. Treatment with rifampin can then be restarted one day after completion of praziquantel treatment.
Rifampin is contraindicated in patients receiving lurasidone. Concomitant use of lurasidone with strong CYP3A4 inducers (e.g., rifampin) decreased the exposure of lurasidone compared to the use of lurasidone alone. (See PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions.)
Hepatotoxicity of hepatocellular, cholestatic, and mixed patterns has been reported in patients treated with rifampin. Severity ranged from asymptomatic elevations in liver enzymes, isolated jaundice/hyperbilirubinemia, symptomatic self-limited hepatitis to fulminant liver failure and death. Severe hepatic dysfunction including fatalities were reported in patients with liver disease and in patients taking rifampin with other hepatotoxic agents.
Monitor for symptoms and clinical/laboratory signs of liver injury, especially if treatment is prolonged or given with other hepatotoxic drugs. Patients with impaired liver function should be given rifampin only in cases of necessity and then under strict medical supervision. In these patients, careful monitoring of liver function should be done prior to therapy and then every 2 to 4 weeks during therapy. If signs of hepatic damage occur or worsen, discontinue rifampin. Rifampin has enzyme-inducing properties, including induction of delta amino levulinic acid synthetase. Isolated reports have associated porphyria exacerbation with rifampin administration.
The possibility of rapid emergence of resistant meningococci restricts the use of rifampin capsules to short-term treatment of the asymptomatic carrier state. Rifampin capsules are not to be used for the treatment of meningococcal disease.
Systemic hypersensitivity reactions were reported with rifampin capsules administration. Signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity reactions may include fever, rash, urticaria, angioedema, hypotension, acute bronchospasm, conjunctivitis, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, elevated liver transaminases or flu-like syndrome (weakness, fatigue, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, headache, chills, aches, itching, sweats, dizziness, shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, syncope, palpitations). Manifestations of hypersensitivity, such as fever, lymphadenopathy or laboratory abnormalities (including eosinophilia, liver abnormalities) may be present even though rash is not evident. Monitor patients receiving rifampin capsules for signs and/or symptoms of hypersensitivity reactions. If these signs or symptoms occur, discontinue rifampin capsules and administer supportive measures.
Cases of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome have been reported with rifampin. If symptoms or signs of severe cutaneous adverse reactions develop, discontinue rifampin capsules immediately and institute appropriate therapy.
Rifampin may cause vitamin K–dependent coagulation disorders and bleeding (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Monitor coagulation tests during rifampin treatment (prothrombin time and other coagulation tests) in patients at risk of vitamin K deficiency (such as those with chronic liver disease, poor nutritional status, on prolonged antibacterial drugs or anticoagulants). Consider discontinuation of rifampin capsules if abnormal coagulation tests and/or bleeding occur. Supplemental vitamin K administration should be considered when appropriate.
Pulmonary toxicity manifested as interstitial lung disease (including, but not limited to, pneumonitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, eosinophilic pneumonia, pulmonary infiltrates, and organizing pneumonia) has been reported with rifampin treatment. Pulmonary toxicity could be fatal. If symptoms or signs of severe pulmonary toxicity (including respiratory failure, pulmonary fibrosis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome) develop, discontinue rifampin capsules immediately and initiate appropriate treatment.
Postmarketing reports suggest that concomitant administration of high doses of cefazolin and rifampin may prolong the prothrombin time, leading to severe vitamin K–dependent coagulation disorders that may be life-threatening or fatal. Avoid concomitant use of cefazolin and rifampin in patients at increased risk for bleeding. If no alternative treatment options are available, closely monitor prothrombin time and other coagulation tests, and administer vitamin K as indicated.
Postmarketing cases of paradoxical drug reaction (recurrence or appearance of new symptoms, physical and radiological signs in a patient who had previously shown improvement with appropriate antimycobacterial treatment, in the absence of disease relapse, poor treatment compliance, drug resistance, side effects of treatment, or secondary infection/diagnosis) have been reported with Rifampin capsules (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Paradoxical drug reactions are often transient and should not be misinterpreted as failure to respond to treatment. If worsening of symptoms or signs occurs during antimycobacterial treatment, consider paradoxical drug reaction in the differential diagnosis, monitor, or treat accordingly.
Cases of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremia syndrome, some fatal, have been reported with rifampin. Discontinue Rifampin if clinical symptoms and laboratory findings consistent with TMA occur. The findings of unexplained thrombocytopenia and anemia should prompt further evaluation and consideration of the diagnosis of TMA.
Rifampin capsules should be used with caution in patients with a history of diabetes mellitus, as diabetes management may be more difficult.
Prescribing rifampin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
For the treatment of tuberculosis, rifampin is usually administered on a daily basis. Doses of rifampin greater than 600 mg given once or twice weekly have resulted in a higher incidence of adverse reactions, including the “flu syndrome” (fever, chills, and malaise), hematopoietic reactions (leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, or acute hemolytic anemia), cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and hepatic reactions, shortness of breath, shock, anaphylaxis, and renal failure. Recent studies indicate that regimens using twice-weekly doses of rifampin 600 mg plus isoniazid 15 mg/kg are much better tolerated.
Rifampin is not recommended for intermittent therapy; the patient should be cautioned against intentional or accidental interruption of the daily dosage regimen since rare renal hypersensitivity reactions have been reported when therapy was resumed in such cases.
Rifampin has enzyme induction properties that can enhance the metabolism of endogenous substrates including adrenal hormones, thyroid hormones, and vitamin D. Rifampin and isoniazid have been reported to alter vitamin D metabolism. In some cases, reduced levels of circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D have been accompanied by reduced serum calcium and phosphate, and elevated parathyroid hormone.
DrugInserts.com provides trustworthy package insert and label information about marketed drugs as submitted by manufacturers to the US Food and Drug Administration. Package information is not reviewed or updated separately by DrugInserts.com. Every individual package label entry contains a unique identifier which can be used to secure further details directly from the US National Institutes of Health and/or the FDA.