RANOLAZINE- ranolazine tablet, extended release
ANI Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Ranolazine extended-release tablets are indicated for the treatment of chronic angina.
Ranolazine extended-release tablets may be used with beta-blockers, nitrates, calcium channel blockers, anti-platelet therapy, lipid-lowering therapy, ACE inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers.
Initiate ranolazine extended-release tablet dosing at 500 mg twice daily and increase to 1,000 mg twice daily, as needed, based on clinical symptoms. Take ranolazine extended-release tablets with or without meals. Swallow ranolazine extended-release tablets whole; do not crush, break, or chew.
The maximum recommended daily dose of ranolazine extended-release tablets are 1,000 mg twice daily.
If a dose of ranolazine extended-release tablets are missed, take the prescribed dose at the next scheduled time; do not double the next dose.
Dose adjustments may be needed when ranolazine extended-release tablets are taken in combination with certain other drugs [see Drug Interactions (7.1)]. Limit the maximum dose of ranolazine extended-release tablets to 500 mg twice daily in patients on moderate CYP3A inhibitors such as diltiazem, verapamil, and erythromycin. Use of ranolazine extended-release tablets with strong CYP3A inhibitors is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4), Drug Interactions (7.1)]. Use of P-gp inhibitors, such as cyclosporine, may increase exposure to ranolazine. Titrate ranolazine based on clinical response [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].
Ranolazine extended-release tablets are supplied as film-coated, extended-release tablets in the following strengths:
- 500 mg tablets are pink oval shaped, with “AM59” on one side and blank on the other side.
- 1,000 mg tablets are brown oblong shaped, with “A60” on one side and blank on the other side.
Ranolazine extended-release tablets are contraindicated in patients:
- Taking strong inhibitors of CYP3A [see Drug Interactions (7.1)]
- Taking inducers of CYP3A [see Drug Interactions (7.1)]
- With liver cirrhosis [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)]
Ranolazine blocks IKr and prolongs the QTc interval in a dose-related manner.
Clinical experience in an acute coronary syndrome population did not show an increased risk of proarrhythmia or sudden death [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. However, there is little experience with high doses (>1,000 mg twice daily) or exposure, other QT-prolonging drugs, potassium channel variants resulting in a long QT interval, in patients with a family history of (or congenital) long QT syndrome, or in patients with known acquired QT interval prolongation.
Acute renal failure has been observed in some patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance [CrCL] <30 mL/min) while taking ranolazine extended-release tablets. If acute renal failure develops (e.g., marked increase in serum creatinine associated with an increase in blood urea nitrogen [BUN]), discontinue ranolazine extended-release tablets and treat appropriately [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7)].
Monitor renal function after initiation and periodically in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment (CrCL <60 mL/min) for increases in serum creatinine accompanied by an increase in BUN.
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
A total of 2018 patients with chronic angina were treated with ranolazine in controlled clinical trials. Of the patients treated with ranolazine extended-release tablets, 1026 were enrolled in three double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized studies (CARISA, ERICA, MARISA) of up to 12 weeks’ duration. In addition, upon study completion, 1251 patients received treatment with ranolazine extended-release tablets in open-label, long-term studies; 1227 patients were exposed to ranolazine for more than 1 year, 613 patients for more than 2 years, 531 patients for more than 3 years, and 326 patients for more than 4 years.
At recommended doses, about 6% of patients discontinued treatment with ranolazine extended-release tablets because of an adverse event in controlled studies in angina patients compared to about 3% on placebo. The most common adverse events that led to discontinuation more frequently on ranolazine than placebo were dizziness (1.3% versus 0.1%), nausea (1% versus 0%), asthenia, constipation, and headache (each about 0.5% versus 0%). Doses above 1,000 mg twice daily are poorly tolerated.
In controlled clinical trials of angina patients, the most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse reactions (>4% and more common on ranolazine extended-release tablets than on placebo) were dizziness (6.2%), headache (5.5%), constipation (4.5%), and nausea (4.4%). Dizziness may be dose-related. In open-label, long-term treatment studies, a similar adverse reaction profile was observed.
The following additional adverse reactions occurred at an incidence of 0.5 to 4.0% in patients treated with ranolazine extended-release tablets and were more frequent than the incidence observed in placebo-treated patients:
Cardiac Disorders – bradycardia, palpitations
Ear and Labyrinth Disorders – tinnitus, vertigo
Eye Disorders – blurred vision
Gastrointestinal Disorders – abdominal pain, dry mouth, vomiting, dyspepsia
General Disorders and Administrative Site Adverse Events – asthenia, peripheral edema
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders – anorexia
Nervous System Disorders – syncope (vasovagal)
Psychiatric Disorders – confusional state
Renal and Urinary Disorders – hematuria
Respiratory , Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders – dyspnea
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders – hyperhidrosis
Vascular Disorders – hypotension, orthostatic hypotension
Other (<0.5%) but potentially medically important adverse reactions observed more frequently with ranolazine extended-release tablets than placebo treatment in all controlled studies included: angioedema, renal failure, eosinophilia, chromaturia, blood urea increased, hypoesthesia, paresthesia, tremor, pulmonary fibrosis, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and pancytopenia.
A large clinical trial in acute coronary syndrome patients was unsuccessful in demonstrating a benefit for ranolazine extended-release tablets, but there was no apparent proarrhythmic effect in these high-risk patients [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].
Ranolazine extended-release tablets produce elevations of serum creatinine by 0.1 mg/dL, regardless of previous renal function, likely because of inhibition of creatinine’s tubular secretion. In general, the elevation has a rapid onset, shows no signs of progression during long-term therapy, is reversible after discontinuation of ranolazine extended-release tablets, and is not accompanied by changes in BUN. In healthy volunteers, ranolazine extended-release tablets 1,000 mg twice daily had no effect upon the glomerular filtration rate. More marked and progressive increases in serum creatinine, associated with increases in BUN or potassium, indicating acute renal failure, have been reported after initiation of ranolazine extended-release tablets in patients with severe renal impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2), Use in Specific Populations (8.7)].
The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of ranolazine extended-release tablets. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure:
Nervous System Disorders – Abnormal coordination, myoclonus, paresthesia, tremor and other serious neurologic adverse events have been reported to occur, sometimes concurrently, in patients taking ranolazine. The onset of events was often associated with an increase in ranolazine dose or exposure. Many patients reported symptom resolution following drug discontinuation or dose decrease.
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders – Cases of hypoglycemia have been reported in diabetic patients on antidiabetic medication.
Psychiatric Disorders – hallucination
Renal and Urinary Disorders – dysuria, urinary retention
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders – angioedema, pruritus, rash
Strong CYP3A Inhibitors
Do not use ranolazine extended-release tablets with strong CYP3A inhibitors, including ketoconazole, itraconazole, clarithromycin, nefazodone, nelfinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, and saquinavir [see Contraindications (4), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Moderate CYP3A Inhibitors
Limit the dose of ranolazine extended-release tablets to 500 mg twice daily in patients on moderate CYP3A inhibitors, including diltiazem, verapamil, erythromycin, fluconazole, and grapefruit juice or grapefruit-containing products [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Concomitant use of ranolazine extended-release tablets and P-gp inhibitors, such as cyclosporine, may result in increases in ranolazine concentrations. Titrate ranolazine extended-release tablets based on clinical response in patients concomitantly treated with predominant P-gp inhibitors such as cyclosporine [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
Do not use ranolazine extended-release tablets with CYP3A inducers such as rifampin, rifabutin, rifapentine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and St. John’s wort [see Contraindications (4), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Drugs Metabolized by CYP3A
Limit the dose of simvastatin in patients on any dose of ranolazine extended-release tablets to 20 mg once daily, when ranolazine is co-administered. Dose adjustment of other sensitive CYP3A substrates (e.g., lovastatin) and CYP3A substrates with a narrow therapeutic range (e.g., cyclosporine, tacrolimus, sirolimus) may be required as ranolazine extended-release tablets may increase plasma concentrations of these drugs [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Drugs Transported by P-gp
Concomitant use of ranolazine and digoxin results in increased exposure to digoxin. The dose of digoxin may have to be adjusted [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Drugs Metabolized by CYP2D6
The exposure to CYP2D6 substrates, such as tricyclic antidepressants and antipsychotics, may be increased during co-administration with ranolazine extended-release tablets, and lower doses of these drugs may be required.
Drugs Transported by OCT2
In subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus, concomitant use of ranolazine extended-release tablets 1,000 mg twice daily and metformin results in increased plasma levels of metformin. When ranolazine extended-release tablets 1,000 mg twice daily is co-administered with metformin, metformin dose should not exceed 1,700 mg/day. Monitor blood glucose levels and risks associated with high exposures of metformin.
Metformin exposure was not significantly increased when given with ranolazine extended-release tablets 500 mg twice daily [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3].
There are no available data on ranolazine extended-release tablets use in pregnant women to inform any drug-associated risks. Studies in rats and rabbits showed no evidence of fetal harm at exposures 4 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) (see Data).
In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and of miscarriage of clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
Embryofetal toxicity studies were conducted in rats and rabbits orally administered ranolazine during organogenesis. In rats, decreased fetal weight and reduced ossification were observed at doses (corresponding to 4-fold the AUC for the MRHD) that caused maternal weight loss. No adverse fetal effects were observed in either species exposed (AUC) to ranolazine at exposures (AUC) equal to the MRHD.
There are no data on the presence of ranolazine in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. However, ranolazine is present in rat milk [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for ranolazine extended-release tablets and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from ranolazine extended-release tablets or from the underlying maternal condition.
Adult female rats were administered ranolazine orally from gestation day 6 through postnatal day 20. No adverse effects on pup development, behavior, or reproduction parameters were observed at a maternal dosage level of 60 mg/kg/day (equal to the MHRD based on AUC). At maternally toxic doses, male and female pups exhibited increased mortality and decreased body weight, and female pups showed increased motor activity. The pups were potentially exposed to low amounts of ranolazine via the maternal milk.
Safety and effectiveness have not been established in pediatric patients.
Of the chronic angina patients treated with ranolazine extended-release tablets in controlled studies, 496 (48%) were ≥65 years of age, and 114 (11%) were ≥75 years of age. No overall differences in efficacy were observed between older and younger patients. There were no differences in safety for patients ≥65 years compared to younger patients, but patients ≥75 years of age on ranolazine extended-release tablets, compared to placebo, had a higher incidence of adverse events, serious adverse events, and drug discontinuations due to adverse events. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should usually start at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease, or other drug therapy.
Ranolazine extended-release tablets are contraindicated in patients with liver cirrhosis. In a study of cirrhotic patients, the Cmax of ranolazine was increased 30% in cirrhotic patients with mild (Child-Pugh Class A) hepatic impairment, but increased 80% in cirrhotic patients with moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic impairment compared to patients without hepatic impairment. This increase was not enough to account for the 3-fold increase in QT prolongation seen in cirrhotic patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].
A pharmacokinetic study of ranolazine extended-release tablets in subjects with severe renal impairment (CrCL <30 mL/min) was stopped when 2 of 4 subjects developed acute renal failure after receiving ranolazine extended-release tablets 500 mg twice daily for 5 days (lead-in phase) followed by 1,000 mg twice a day (1 dose in one subject and 11 doses in the other). Increases in creatinine, BUN, and potassium were observed in 3 subjects during the 500 mg lead-in phase. One subject required hemodialysis, while the other 2 subjects improved upon drug discontinuation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Monitor renal function periodically in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment. Discontinue ranolazine extended-release tablets if acute renal failure develops.
In a separate study, Cmax was increased between 40% and 50% in patients with mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment compared to patients with no renal impairment, suggesting a similar increase in exposure in patients with renal failure independent of the degree of impairment. The pharmacokinetics of ranolazine has not been assessed in patients on dialysis.
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