When Propofol Injectable Emulsion is used in patients with increased intracranial pressure or impaired cerebral circulation, significant decreases in mean arterial pressure should be avoided because of the resultant decreases in cerebral perfusion pressure. To avoid significant hypotension and decreases in cerebral perfusion pressure, an infusion or slow bolus of approximately 20 mg every 10 seconds should be utilized instead of rapid, more frequent, and/or larger boluses of Propofol Injectable Emulsion. Slower induction, titrated to clinical responses, will generally result in reduced induction dosage requirements (1 mg/kg to 2 mg/kg). When increased ICP is suspected, hyperventilation and hypocarbia should accompany the administration of Propofol Injectable Emulsion (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Slower rates of administration should be utilized in premedicated patients, geriatric patients, patients with recent fluid shifts, and patients who are hemodynamically unstable. Fluid deficits should be corrected prior to administration of Propofol Injectable Emulsion. In those patients where additional fluid therapy may be contraindicated, other measures, e.g., elevation of lower extremities, or use of pressor agents, may be useful to offset the hypotension which is associated with the induction of anesthesia with Propofol Injectable Emulsion.
Patients should be advised that performance of activities requiring mental alertness, such as operating a motor vehicle, or hazardous machinery or signing legal documents may be impaired for some time after general anesthesia or sedation.
Studies conducted in young animals and children suggest repeated or prolonged use of general anesthetic or sedation drugs in children younger than 3 years may have negative effects on their developing brains. Discuss with parents and caregivers the benefits, risks, and timing and duration of surgery or procedures requiring anesthetic and sedation drugs (see WARNINGS, Pediatric Neurotoxicity).
The induction dose requirements of Propofol Injectable Emulsion may be reduced in patients with intramuscular or intravenous premedication, particularly with narcotics (e.g., morphine, meperidine, and fentanyl, etc.) and combinations of opioids and sedatives (e.g., benzodiazepines, barbiturates, chloral hydrate, droperidol, etc.). These agents may increase the anesthetic or sedative effects of Propofol Injectable Emulsion and may also result in more pronounced decreases in systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures and cardiac output.
During maintenance of anesthesia or sedation, the rate of Propofol Injectable Emulsion administration should be adjusted according to the desired level of anesthesia or sedation and may be reduced in the presence of supplemental analgesic agents (e.g., nitrous oxide or opioids). The concurrent administration of potent inhalational agents (e.g., isoflurane, enflurane, and halothane) during maintenance with Propofol Injectable Emulsion has not been extensively evaluated. These inhalational agents can also be expected to increase the anesthetic or sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of Propofol Injectable Emulsion.
The concomitant use of valproate and propofol may lead to increased blood levels of propofol. Reduce the dose of propofol when coadministering with valproate. Monitor patients closely for signs of increased sedation or cardiorespiratory depression.
Propofol Injectable Emulsion does not cause a clinically significant change in onset, intensity or duration of action of the commonly used neuromuscular blocking agents (e.g., succinylcholine and nondepolarizing muscle relaxants).
No significant adverse interactions with commonly used premedications or drugs used during anesthesia or sedation (including a range of muscle relaxants, inhalational agents, analgesic agents, and local anesthetic agents) have been observed in adults. In pediatric patients, administration of fentanyl concomitantly with Propofol Injectable Emulsion may result in serious bradycardia.
Long-term studies in animals have not been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of propofol.
Propofol was not mutagenic in the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and TA1538. Propofol was not mutagenic in either the gene mutation/gene conversion test using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or in vitro cytogenetic studies in Chinese hamsters. In the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay with Chinese Hamsters propofol administration did not produce chromosome aberrations.
Impairment of Fertility
Female Wistar rats administered either 0, 10, or 15 mg/kg/day propofol intravenously from 2 weeks before pregnancy to day 7 of gestation did not show impaired fertility (0.65 and 1 times the human induction dose of 2.5 mg/kg based on body surface area). Male fertility in rats was not affected in a dominant lethal study at intravenous doses up to 15 mg/kg/day for 5 days.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. In animal reproduction studies, decreased pup survival concurrent with increased maternal mortality was observed with intravenous administration of propofol to pregnant rats either prior to mating and during early gestation or during late gestation and early lactation at exposures less than the human induction dose of 2.5 mg/kg. In pregnant rats administered 15 mg/kg/day intravenous propofol (equivalent to the human induction dose) from two weeks prior to mating to early in gestation (Gestation Day 7), offspring that were allowed to mate had increased postimplantation losses. The pharmacological activity (anesthesia) of the drug on the mother is probably responsible for the adverse effects seen in the offspring. Published studies in pregnant primates demonstrate that the administration of anesthetic and sedation drugs that block NMDA receptors and/or potentiate GABA activity during the period of peak brain development increases neuronal apoptosis in the developing brain of the offspring when used for longer than 3 hours. There are no data on pregnancy exposures in primates corresponding to periods prior to the third trimester in humans [See Data].
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Pregnant rats were administered propofol intravenously at 0, 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg/day (0.3, 0.65, and 1 times the human induction dose of 2.5 mg/kg based on body surface area) during organogenesis (Gestational Days 6 to 15). Propofol did not cause adverse effects to the fetus at exposures up to 1 times the human induction dose despite evidence of maternal toxicity (decreased weight gain in all groups).
Pregnant rabbits were administered propofol intravenously at 0, 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg/day (0.65, 1.3, 2 times the human induction dose of 2.5 mg/kg based on body surface area comparison) during organogenesis (Gestation Days 6 to 18). Propofol treatment decreased total numbers of corpora lutea in all treatment groups but did not cause fetal malformations at any dose despite maternal toxicity (one maternal death from anesthesia-related respiratory depression in the high dose group).
Pregnant rats were administered propofol intravenously at 0, 10, and 15 mg/kg/day (0.65 and 1 times the human induction dose of 2.5 mg/kg based on body surface area) from late gestation through lactation (Gestation Day 16 to Lactation Day 22). Decreased pup survival was noted at all doses in the presence of maternal toxicity (deaths from anesthesia-induced respiratory depression). This study did not evaluate neurobehavioral function including learning and memory in the pups.
Pregnant rats were administered propofol intravenously at 0, 10, or 15 mg/kg/day (0.3 and 1 times the human induction dose of 2.5 mg/kg based on body surface area) from 2 weeks prior to mating to Gestational Day 7. Pup (F1) survival was decreased on Day 15 and 22 of lactation at maternally toxic doses of 10 and 15 mg/kg/day. When F1 offspring were allowed to mate, postimplantation losses were increased in the 15 mg/kg/day treatment group.
In a published study in primates, administration of an anesthetic dose of ketamine for 24 hours on Gestation Day 122 increased neuronal apoptosis in the developing brain of the fetus. In other published studies, administration of either isoflurane or propofol for 5 hours on Gestation Day 120 resulted in increased neuronal and oligodendrocyte apoptosis in the developing brain of the offspring. With respect to brain development, this time period corresponds to the third trimester of gestation in the human. The clinical significance of these findings is not clear; however, studies in juvenile animals suggest neuroapoptosis correlates with long-term cognitive deficits (see WARNINGS, Pediatric Neurotoxicity; PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use; and ANIMAL TOXICOLOGY AND/OR PHARMACOLOGY).
Propofol Injectable Emulsion is not recommended for obstetrics, including cesarean section deliveries.
Propofol Injectable Emulsion crosses the placenta, and as with other general anesthetic agents, the administration of Propofol Injectable Emulsion may be associated with neonatal depression.
Propofol Injectable Emulsion is not recommended for use in nursing mothers because Propofol Injectable Emulsion has been reported to be excreted in human milk and the effects of oral absorption of small amounts of propofol are not known.
The safety and effectiveness of Propofol Injectable Emulsion have been established for induction of anesthesia in pediatric patients aged 3 years and older and for the maintenance of anesthesia aged 2 months and older.
Propofol Injectable Emulsion is not recommended for the induction of anesthesia in patients younger than 3 years of age and for the maintenance of anesthesia in patients younger than 2 months of age as safety and effectiveness have not been established.
Propofol Injectable Emulsion is not indicated for use in pediatric patients for ICU sedation or for MAC sedation for surgical, nonsurgical or diagnostic procedures as safety and effectiveness have not been established.
There have been anecdotal reports of serious adverse events and death in pediatric patients with upper respiratory tract infections receiving Propofol Injectable Emulsion for ICU sedation.
In one multicenter clinical trial of ICU sedation in critically ill pediatric patients that excluded patients with upper respiratory tract infections, the incidence of mortality observed in patients who received Propofol Injectable Emulsion (n = 222) was 9%, while that for patients who received standard sedative agents (n = 105) was 4%. While causality has not been established, Propofol Injectable Emulsion is not indicated for sedation in pediatric patients until further studies have been performed to document its safety in that population (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics, Pediatric Patients and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
In pediatric patients, abrupt discontinuation of Propofol Injectable Emulsion following prolonged infusion may result in flushing of the hands and feet, agitation, tremulousness and hyperirritability. Increased incidences of bradycardia (5%), agitation (4%), and jitteriness (9%) have also been observed.
Published juvenile animal studies demonstrate that the administration of anesthetic and sedation drugs, such as Propofol Injectable Emulsion, that either block NMDA receptors or potentiate the activity of GABA during the period of rapid brain growth or synaptogenesis, results in widespread neuronal and oligodendrocyte cell loss in the developing brain and alterations in synaptic morphology and neurogenesis. Based on comparisons across species, the window of vulnerability to these changes is believed to correlate with exposures in the third trimester of gestation through the first several months of life, but may extend out to approximately 3 years of age in humans.
In primates, exposure to 3 hours of ketamine that produced a light surgical plane of anesthesia did not increase neuronal cell loss, however, treatment regimens of 5 hours or longer of isoflurane increased neuronal cell loss. Data from isoflurane-treated rodents and ketamine-treated primates suggest that the neuronal and oligodendrocyte cell losses are associated with prolonged cognitive deficits in learning and memory. The clinical significance of these nonclinical findings is not known, and healthcare providers should balance the benefits of appropriate anesthesia in pregnant women, neonates, and young children who require procedures with the potential risks suggested by the nonclinical data (see WARNINGS, Pediatric Neurotoxicity, Pregnancy, ANIMAL TOXICOLOGY AND/OR PHARMACOLOGY).
The effect of age on induction dose requirements for propofol was assessed in an open-label study involving 211 unpremedicated patients with approximately 30 patients in each decade between the ages of 16 and 80. The average dose to induce anesthesia was calculated for patients up to 54 years of age and for patients 55 years of age or older. The average dose to induce anesthesia in patients up to 54 years of age was 1.99 mg/kg and in patients above 54 it was 1.66 mg/kg. Subsequent clinical studies have demonstrated lower dosing requirements for subjects greater than 60 years of age.
A lower induction dose and a slower maintenance rate of administration of Propofol Injectable Emulsion should be used in elderly patients. In this group of patients, rapid (single or repeated) bolus administration should not be used in order to minimize undesirable cardiorespiratory depression including hypotension, apnea, airway obstruction, and/or oxygen desaturation. All dosing should be titrated according to patient condition and response (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Elderly, Debilitated or ASA-PS III or IV Patients and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Geriatrics).
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact TEVA Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc. at 1-888-838-2872 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
Adverse event information is derived from controlled clinical trials and worldwide marketing experience. In the description below, rates of the more common events represent U.S./Canadian clinical study results. Less frequent events are also derived from publications and marketing experience in over 8 million patients; there are insufficient data to support an accurate estimate of their incidence rates. These studies were conducted using a variety of premedicants, varying lengths of surgical/diagnostic procedures, and various other anesthetic/sedative agents. Most adverse events were mild and transient.
The following estimates of adverse events for Propofol Injectable Emulsion include data from clinical trials in general anesthesia/MAC sedation (N = 2,889 adult patients). The adverse events listed below as probably causally related are those events in which the actual incidence rate in patients treated with Propofol Injectable Emulsion was greater than the comparator incidence rate in these trials. Therefore, incidence rates for anesthesia and MAC sedation in adults generally represent estimates of the percentage of clinical trial patients which appeared to have probable causal relationship.
The adverse experience profile from reports of 150 patients in the MAC sedation clinical trials is similar to the profile established with Propofol Injectable Emulsion during anesthesia (see below). During MAC sedation clinical trials, significant respiratory events included cough, upper airway obstruction, apnea, hypoventilation, and dyspnea.
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