Propafenone Hydrochloride: Package Insert and Label Information
PROPAFENONE HYDROCHLORIDE- propafenone hydrochloride capsule, extended release
Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., USA
- In the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST), a long-term, multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial in patients with asymptomatic non-life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias who had a myocardial infarction more than 6 days but less than 2 years previously, an increased rate of death or reversed cardiac arrest rate (7.7%; 56/730) was seen in patients treated with encainide or flecainide (Class IC antiarrhythmics) compared with that seen in patients assigned to placebo (3 %; 22/725). The average duration of treatment with encainide or flecainide in this trial was 10 months.
- The applicability of the CAST results to other populations (e.g., those without recent myocardial infarction) or other antiarrhythmic drugs is uncertain, but at present, it is prudent to consider any IC antiarrhythmic to have a significant proarrhythmic risk in patients with structural heart disease. Given the lack of any evidence that these drugs improve survival, antiarrhythmic agents should generally be avoided in patients with non-life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, even if the patients are experiencing unpleasant, but not life-threatening, symptoms or signs.
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules are indicated to prolong the time to recurrence of symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with episodic (most likely paroxysmal or persistent) AF who do not have structural heart disease.
- The use of propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules in patients with permanent AF or in patients exclusively with atrial flutter or paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) has not been evaluated. Do not use propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules to control ventricular rate during AF.
- Some patients with atrial flutter treated with propafenone have developed 1:1 conduction, producing an increase in ventricular rate. Concomitant treatment with drugs that increase the functional atrioventricular (AV) nodal refractory period is recommended.
- The effect of propafenone on mortality has not been determined [see Boxed Warning].
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules can be taken with or without food. Do not crush or further divide the contents of the capsule.
The dose of propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules must be individually titrated on the basis of response and tolerance. Initiate therapy with propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules 225 mg given every 12 hours. Dosage may be increased at a minimum of 5-day intervals to 325 mg given every 12 hours. If additional therapeutic effect is needed, the dose of propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules may be increased to 425 mg given every 12 hours.
In patients with hepatic impairment or those with significant widening of the QRS complex or second- or third-degree AV block, consider reducing the dose.
The combination of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibition and either cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) deficiency or CYP2D6 inhibition with the simultaneous administration of propafenone may significantly increase the concentration of propafenone and thereby increase the risk of proarrhythmia and other adverse events. Therefore, avoid simultaneous use of propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules with both a CYP2D6 inhibitor and a CYP3A4 inhibitor [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4), Drug Interactions (7.1)].
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Propafenone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules USP are supplied as hard gelatin capsules containing 225 mg, 325 mg or 425 mg of propafenone hydrochloride, USP.
The 225 mg capsule has a white opaque body imprinted with “408” in black ink and white opaque cap imprinted with Glenmark logo “G” in black ink.
The 325 mg capsule has a white opaque body imprinted with “409” in black ink and white opaque cap imprinted with Glenmark logo “G” in black ink.
The 425 mg capsule has a white opaque body imprinted with “410” and single band in black ink and white opaque cap imprinted with Glenmark logo “G” and single band in black ink.
Propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules are contraindicated in the following circumstances:
- Heart failure
- Cardiogenic shock
- Sinoatrial, atrioventricular and intraventricular disorders of impulse generation or conduction (e.g., sick sinus node syndrome, AV block) in the absence of an artificial pacemaker
- Known Brugada Syndrome
- Marked hypotension
- Bronchospastic disorders or severe obstructive pulmonary disease
- Marked electrolyte imbalance
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Proarrhythmic Effects
Propafenone has caused new or worsened arrhythmias. Such proarrhythmic effects include sudden death and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, asystole and torsade de pointes. It may also worsen premature ventricular contractions or supraventricular arrhythmias, and it may prolong the QT interval. It is therefore essential that each patient given propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules be evaluated electrocardiographically prior to and during therapy to determine whether the response to propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules supports continued treatment. Because propafenone prolongs the QRS interval in the electrocardiogram, changes in the QT interval are difficult to interpret [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].
In the propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules Atrial Fibrillation Trial (RAFT) trial [see Clinical Studies (14)], there were too few deaths to assess the long-term risk to patients. There were 5 deaths, 3 in the pooled group for propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules (0.8%) and 2 in the placebo group (1.6%). In the overall database of 8 trials of propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules and immediate-release propafenone hydrochloride, the mortality rate was 2.5% per year on propafenone and 4% per year on placebo. Concurrent use of propafenone with other antiarrhythmic agents has not been well studied.
In a U.S. uncontrolled, open-label, multicenter trial using the immediate-release formulation in patients with symptomatic supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), 1.9% (9/474) of these patients experienced ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) during the trial. However, in 4 of the 9 patients, the ventricular tachycardia was of atrial origin. Six of the 9 patients that developed ventricular arrhythmias did so within 14 days of onset of therapy. About 2.3% (11/474) of all patients had recurrence of SVT during the trial which could have been a change in the patients’ arrhythmia behavior or could represent a proarrhythmic event. Case reports in patients treated with propafenone for atrial fibrillation/flutter have included increased premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), VT, VF, torsades de pointes, asystole, and death.
Overall in clinical trials with propafenone hydrochloride immediate-release (which included patients treated for ventricular arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation/flutter, and PSVT), 4.7% of all patients had new or worsened ventricular arrhythmia possibly representing a proarrhythmic event (0.7% was an increase in PVCs; 4% a worsening or new appearance of VT or VF). Of the patients who had worsening of VT (4%), 92% had a history of VT and/or VT/VF, 71% had coronary artery disease, and 68% had a prior myocardial infarction. The incidence of proarrhythmia in patients with less serious or benign arrhythmias, which include patients with an increase in frequency of PVCs, was 1.6%. Although most proarrhythmic events occurred during the first week of therapy, late events also were seen and the CAST trial [see Boxed Warning: Mortality] suggests that an increased risk of proarrhythmia is present throughout treatment.
5.2 Unmasking Brugada Syndrome
Brugada Syndrome may be unmasked after exposure to propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules. Perform an ECG after initiation of propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules and discontinue the drug if changes are suggestive of Brugada Syndrome [see Contraindications (4)].
5.3 Use with Drugs that Prolong the QT Interval and Antiarrhythmic Agents
The use of propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules in conjunction with other drugs that prolong the QT interval has not been extensively studied. Such drugs may include many antiarrhythmics, some phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants, and oral macrolides. Withhold Class IA and III antiarrhythmic agents for at least 5 half-lives prior to dosing with propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules. Avoid the use of propafenone with Class IA and III antiarrhythmic agents (including quinidine and amiodarone). There is only limited experience with the concomitant use of Class IB or IC antiarrhythmics.
5.4 Drug Interactions: Simultaneous Use with Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 Isoenzymes 2D6 and 3A4
Propafenone is metabolized by CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CYP1A2 isoenzymes. Approximately 6% of Caucasians in the U.S. population are naturally deficient in CYP2D6 activity and other demographic groups are deficient to a somewhat lesser extent. Drugs that inhibit these CYP pathways (such as desipramine, paroxetine, ritonavir, sertraline for CYP2D6; ketoconazole, erythromycin, saquinavir, and grapefruit juice for CYP3A4; and amiodarone and tobacco smoke for CYP1A2) can be expected to cause increased plasma levels of propafenone.
Increased exposure to propafenone may lead to cardiac arrhythmias and exaggerated beta-adrenergic blocking activity. Because of its metabolism, the combination of CYP3A4 inhibition and either CYP2D6 deficiency or CYP2D6 inhibition in users of propafenone is potentially hazardous. Therefore, avoid simultaneous use of propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules with both a CYP2D6 inhibitor and a CYP3A4 inhibitor.
5.5 Use in Patients with a History of Heart Failure
Propafenone exerts a negative inotropic activity on the myocardium as well as beta-blockade effects and may provoke overt heart failure. In the U.S. trial (RAFT) in patients with symptomatic AF, heart failure was reported in 4 (1%) patients receiving propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules (all doses) compared with 1 (0.8%) patient receiving placebo. Proarrhythmic effects more likely occur when propafenone is administered to patients with heart failure (NYHA III and IV) or severe myocardial ischemia [see Contraindications (4)].
In clinical trial experience with propafenone hydrochloride immediate-release, new or worsened congestive heart failure has been reported in 3.7% of patients with ventricular arrhythmia. These events were more likely in subjects with pre-existing heart failure and coronary artery disease. New onset of heart failure attributable to propafenone developed in less than 0.2% of patients with ventricular arrhythmia and in 1.9% of patients with paroxysmal AF or PSVT.
5.6 Conduction Disturbances
Propafenone slows atrioventricular conduction and may also cause dose-related first-degree AV block. Average PR interval prolongation and increases in QRS duration are also dose-related. Do not give propafenone to patients with atrioventricular and intraventricular conduction defects in the absence of a pacemaker [see Contraindications (4), Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].
In a U.S. trial (RAFT) in 523 patients with a history of symptomatic AF treated with propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules, sinus bradycardia (rate less than 50 beats/min) was reported with the same frequency with propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules and placebo.
5.7 Effects on Pacemaker Threshold
Propafenone may alter both pacing and sensing thresholds of implanted pacemakers and defibrillators. During and after therapy, monitor and re-program these devices accordingly.
Agranulocytosis has been reported in patients receiving propafenone. Generally, the agranulocytosis occurred within the first 2 months of propafenone therapy and upon discontinuation of therapy the white count usually normalized by 14 days. Unexplained fever or decrease in white cell count, particularly during the initial 3 months of therapy, warrant consideration of possible agranulocytosis or granulocytopenia. Instruct patients to report promptly any signs of infection such as fever, sore throat, or chills.
5.9 Use in Patients with Hepatic Dysfunction
Propafenone is highly metabolized by the liver. Severe liver dysfunction increases the bioavailability of propafenone to approximately 70% compared with 3% to 40% in patients with normal liver function when given propafenone hydrochloride immediate-release tablets. In 8 patients with moderate to severe liver disease administered propafenone hydrochloride immediate-release tablets, the mean half-life was approximately 9 hours. No trials have compared bioavailability of propafenone from propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules in patients with normal and impaired hepatic function. Increased bioavailability of propafenone in these patients may result in excessive accumulation. Carefully monitor patients with impaired hepatic function for excessive pharmacological effects [see Overdosage (10)].
5.10 Use in Patients with Renal Dysfunction
Approximately 50% of propafenone metabolites are excreted in the urine following administration of propafenone hydrochloride immediate-release tablets. No trials have been performed to assess the percentage of metabolites eliminated in the urine following the administration of propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules.
In patients with impaired renal function, monitor for signs of overdosage [see Overdosage (10)].
5.11 Use in Patients with Myasthenia Gravis
Exacerbation of myasthenia gravis has been reported during propafenone therapy.
5.12 Elevated ANA Titers
Positive ANA titers have been reported in patients receiving propafenone. They have been reversible upon cessation of treatment and may disappear even in the face of continued propafenone therapy. These laboratory findings were usually not associated with clinical symptoms, but there is one published case of drug-induced lupus erythematosis (positive rechallenge); it resolved completely upon discontinuation of therapy. Carefully evaluate patients who develop an abnormal ANA test and if persistent or worsening elevation of ANA titers is detected, consider discontinuing therapy.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared with rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The data described below reflect exposure to propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules 225 mg twice daily in 126 patients, to propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules 325 mg twice daily in 135 patients, to propafenone hydrochloride extended-release capsules 425 mg twice daily in 136 patients, and to placebo in 126 patients for up to 39 weeks (mean: 20 weeks) in a placebo-controlled trial (RAFT) conducted in the U.S. The most commonly reported adverse events with propafenone (greater than 5% and greater than placebo), excluding those not reasonably associated with the use of the drug or because they were associated with the condition being treated, were dizziness, palpitations, chest pain, dyspnea, taste disturbance, nausea, fatigue, anxiety, constipation, upper respiratory tract infection, edema, and influenza. The frequency of discontinuation due to adverse events was 17%, and the rate was highest during the first 14 days of treatment.
Cardiac-related adverse events occurring in greater than or equal to 2% of the patients in any of the RAFT propafenone extended-release treatment groups and more common with propafenone than with placebo, excluding those that are common in the population and those not plausibly related to drug therapy, included the following: angina pectoris, atrial flutter, AV block first-degree, bradycardia, congestive cardiac failure, cardiac murmur, edema, dyspnea, rales, wheezing, and cardioactive drug level above therapeutic.
Propafenone prolongs the PR and QRS intervals in patients with atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Prolongation of the QRS interval makes it difficult to interpret the effect of propafenone on the QT interval [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].
Non-cardiac related adverse events occurring in greater than or equal to 2% of the patients in any of the RAFT propafenone extended-release treatment groups and more common with propafenone than with placebo, excluding those that are common in the population and those not plausibly related to drug therapy, included the following: blurred vision, constipation, diarrhea, dry mouth, flatulence, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, weakness, upper respiratory tract infection, blood alkaline phosphatase increased, hematuria, muscle weakness, dizziness (excluding vertigo), headache, taste disturbance, tremor, somnolence, anxiety, depression, ecchymosis.
No clinically important differences in incidence of adverse reactions were noted by age or gender. Too few non-Caucasian patients were enrolled to assess adverse events according to race.
Adverse events occurring in 2% or more of the patients in any of the ERAFT [see Clinical Studies (14)] propafenone extended-release treatment groups and not listed above include the following: bundle branch block left, bundle branch block right, conduction disorders, sinus bradycardia, and hypotension.
Other adverse events reported with propafenone clinical trials not already listed elsewhere in the prescribing information include the following adverse events by body system and preferred term.
Blood and Lymphatic System
Anemia, lymphadenopathy, spleen disorder, thrombocytopenia.
Unstable angina, atrial hypertrophy, cardiac arrest, coronary artery disease, extrasystoles, myocardial infarction, nodal arrhythmia, palpitations, pericarditis, sinoatrial block, sinus arrest, sinus arrhythmia, supraventricular extrasystoles, ventricular extrasystoles, ventricular hypertrophy.
Ear and Labyrinth
Hearing impaired, tinnitus, vertigo.
Eye hemorrhage, eye inflammation, eyelid ptosis, miosis, retinal disorder, visual acuity reduced.
Abdominal distension, abdominal pain, duodenitis, dyspepsia, dysphagia, eructation, gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, gingival bleeding, glossitis, glossodynia, gum pain, halitosis, intestinal obstruction, melena, mouth ulceration, pancreatitis, peptic ulcer, rectal bleeding, sore throat.
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions
Chest pain, feeling hot, hemorrhage, malaise, pain, pyrexia.
Abnormal heart sounds, abnormal pulse, carotid bruit, decreased blood chloride, decreased blood pressure, decreased blood sodium, decreased hemoglobin, decreased neutrophil count, decreased platelet count, decreased prothrombin level, decreased red blood cell count, decreased weight, glycosuria present, increased alanine aminotransferase, increased aspartate aminotransferase, increased blood bilirubin, increased blood cholesterol, increased blood creatinine, increased blood glucose, increased blood lactate dehydrogenase, increased blood pressure, increased blood prolactin, increased blood triglycerides, increased blood urea, increased blood uric acid, increased eosinophil count, increased gamma-glutamyltransferase, increased monocyte count, increased prostatic specific antigen, increased prothrombin level, increased weight, increased white blood cell count, ketonuria present, proteinuria present.
Metabolism and Nutrition
Anorexia, dehydration, diabetes mellitus, gout, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypokalemia.
Musculoskeletal, Connective Tissue and Bone
Arthritis, bursitis, collagen-vascular disease, costochondritis, joint disorder, muscle cramps, muscle spasms, myalgia, neck pain, pain in jaw, sciatica, tendonitis.
Amnesia, ataxia, balance impaired, brain damage, cerebrovascular accident, dementia, gait abnormal, hypertonia, hypothesia, insomnia, paralysis, paresthesia, peripheral neuropathy, speech disorder, syncope, tongue hypoesthesia.
Decreased libido, emotional disturbance, mental disorder, neurosis, nightmare, sleep disorder.
Renal and Urinary
Dysuria, nocturia, oliguria, pyuria, renal failure, urinary casts, urinary frequency, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, urine abnormal.
Reproductive System and Breast
Breast pain, impotence, prostatism.
Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal
Atelectasis, breath sounds decreased, chronic obstructive airways disease, cough, epistaxis, hemoptysis, lung disorder, pleural effusion, pulmonary congestion, rales, respiratory failure, rhinitis, throat tightness.
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue
Alopecia, dermatitis, dry skin, erythema, nail abnormality, petechiae, pruritus, sweating increased, urticaria.
Arterial embolism limb, deep limb venous thrombosis, flushing, hematoma, hypertension, hypertensive crisis, hypotension, labile blood pressure, pallor, peripheral coldness, peripheral vascular disease, thrombosis.
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