Prilosec: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 2 of 8)

5.5 Cutaneous and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been reported in patients taking PPIs, including omeprazole. These events have occurred as both new onset and an exacerbation of existing autoimmune disease. The majority of PPI-induced lupus erythematosus cases were CLE.

The most common form of CLE reported in patients treated with PPIs was subacute CLE (SCLE) and occurred within weeks to years after continuous drug therapy in patients ranging from infants to the elderly. Generally, histological findings were observed without organ involvement.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is less commonly reported than CLE in patients receiving PPIs. PPI associated SLE is usually milder than non-drug induced SLE. Onset of SLE typically occurred within days to years after initiating treatment primarily in patients ranging from young adults to the elderly. The majority of patients presented with rash; however, arthralgia and cytopenia were also reported.

Avoid administration of PPIs for longer than medically indicated. If signs or symptoms consistent with CLE or SLE are noted in patients receiving PRILOSEC, discontinue the drug and refer the patient to the appropriate specialist for evaluation. Most patients improve with discontinuation of the PPI alone in 4 to 12 weeks. Serological testing (e.g., ANA) may be positive and elevated serological test results may take longer to resolve than clinical manifestations.

5.6 Interaction with Clopidogrel

Avoid concomitant use of PRILOSEC with clopidogrel. Clopidogrel is a prodrug. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by clopidogrel is entirely due to an active metabolite. The metabolism of clopidogrel to its active metabolite can be impaired by use with concomitant medications, such as omeprazole, that inhibit CYP2C19 activity. Concomitant use of clopidogrel with 80 mg omeprazole reduces the pharmacological activity of clopidogrel, even when administered 12 hours apart. When using PRILOSEC, consider alternative anti-platelet therapy [see Drug Interactions (7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

5.7 Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B-12) Deficiency

Daily treatment with any acid-suppressing medications over a long period of time (e.g., longer than 3 years) may lead to malabsorption of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B-12) caused by hypo- or achlorhydria. Rare reports of cyanocobalamin deficiency occurring with acid-suppressing therapy have been reported in the literature. This diagnosis should be considered if clinical symptoms consistent with cyanocobalamin deficiency are observed in patients treated with PRILOSEC.

5.8 Hypomagnesemia

Hypomagnesemia, symptomatic and asymptomatic, has been reported rarely in patients treated with PPIs for at least three months, in most cases after a year of therapy. Serious adverse events include tetany, arrhythmias, and seizures. In most patients, treatment of hypomagnesemia required magnesium replacement and discontinuation of the PPI.

For patients expected to be on prolonged treatment or who take PPIs with medications such as digoxin or drugs that may cause hypomagnesemia (e.g., diuretics), health care professionals may consider monitoring magnesium levels prior to initiation of PPI treatment and periodically [see Adverse Reactions (6.3)].

5.9 Interaction with St. John’s Wort or Rifampin

Drugs which induce CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 (such as St. John’s Wort or rifampin) can substantially decrease omeprazole concentrations [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Avoid concomitant use of PRILOSEC with St. John’s Wort or rifampin.

5.10 Interactions with Diagnostic Investigations for Neuroendocrine Tumors

Serum chromogranin A (CgA) levels increase secondary to drug-induced decreases in gastric acidity. The increased CgA level may cause false positive results in diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors. Healthcare providers should temporarily stop PRILOSEC treatment at least 14 days before assessing CgA levels and consider repeating the test if initial CgA levels are high. If serial tests are performed (e.g., for monitoring), the same commercial laboratory should be used for testing, as reference ranges between tests may vary [see Drug Interactions (7)].

5.11 Interaction with Methotrexate

Literature suggests that concomitant use of PPIs with methotrexate (primarily at high dose) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. In high-dose methotrexate administration a temporary withdrawal of the PPI may be considered in some patients [see Drug Interactions (7)].

5.12 Fundic Gland Polyps

PPI use is associated with an increased risk of fundic gland polyps that increases with long-term use, especially beyond one year. Most PPI users who developed fundic gland polyps were asymptomatic and fundic gland polyps were identified incidentally on endoscopy. Use the shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following serious adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in labeling:

Acute Interstitial Nephritis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
Clostridium difficile -Associated Diarrhea [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
Bone Fracture [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
Cutaneous and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B-12) Deficiency [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
Hypomagnesemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]
Fundic Gland Polyps [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience with PRILOSEC

Monotherapy

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

The safety data described below reflect exposure to omeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules in 3096 patients from worldwide clinical trials (465 patients from US studies and 2631 patients from international studies). Indications clinically studied in US trials included duodenal ulcer, resistant ulcer, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The international clinical trials were double blind and open-label in design. The most common adverse reactions reported (i.e., with an incidence rate ≥2%) from PRILOSEC-treated patients enrolled in these studies included headache (7%), abdominal pain (5%), nausea (4%), diarrhea (4%), vomiting (3%), and flatulence (3%).

Additional adverse reactions that were reported with an incidence ≥1% included acid regurgitation (2%), upper respiratory infection (2%), constipation (2%), dizziness (2%), rash (2%), asthenia (1%), back pain (1%), and cough (1%).

The clinical trial safety profile in patients greater than 65 years of age was similar to that in patients 65 years of age or less.

The clinical trial safety profile in pediatric patients who received omeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules was similar to that in adult patients. Unique to the pediatric population, however, adverse reactions of the respiratory system were frequently reported in the 1 month to <1 year age group, the 1 to <2 year age group, and the 2 to 16 year age group (42%, 75%, and 19%, respectively). In addition, otitis media was frequently reported in the 1 month to <1 year age group (22%), fever was frequently reported in the 1 to <2 year age group (33% ), and accidental injuries were frequently reported in the 2 to 16 year age group (4%) [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].

6.2 Clinical Trials Experience with PRILOSEC in Combination Therapy for H. pylori Eradication

In clinical trials using either dual therapy with omeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules and clarithromycin, or triple therapy with omeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, no adverse reactions unique to these drug combinations were observed. Adverse reactions observed were limited to those previously reported with omeprazole, clarithromycin, or amoxicillin alone.

Dual Therapy (omeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules/clarithromycin)

Adverse reactions observed in controlled clinical trials using combination therapy with omeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules and clarithromycin (n = 346) that differed from those previously described for omeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules alone were taste perversion (15%), tongue discoloration (2%), rhinitis (2%), pharyngitis (1%), and flu-syndrome (1%). (For more information on clarithromycin, refer to the clarithromycin prescribing information, Adverse Reactions section.)

Triple Therapy (omeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules/clarithromycin/amoxicillin)

The most frequent adverse reactions observed in clinical trials using combination therapy with omeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin (n = 274) were diarrhea (14%), taste perversion (10%), and headache (7%). None of these occurred at a higher frequency than that reported by patients taking antimicrobial agents alone. (For more information on clarithromycin or amoxicillin, refer to the respective prescribing information, Adverse Reactions sections.)

6.3 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of omeprazole. Because these reactions are voluntarily reported from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their actual frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Body As a Whole: Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock, angioedema, bronchospasm, interstitial nephritis, urticaria, (see also Skin below); fever; pain; fatigue; malaise; systemic lupus erythematosus

Cardiovascular: Chest pain or angina, tachycardia, bradycardia, palpitations, elevated blood pressure, peripheral edema

Endocrine: Gynecomastia

Gastrointestinal: Pancreatitis (some fatal), anorexia, irritable colon, fecal discoloration, esophageal candidiasis, mucosal atrophy of the tongue, stomatitis, abdominal swelling, dry mouth, microscopic colitis, fundic gland polyps.

Gastroduodenal carcinoids have been reported in patients with ZE syndrome on long-term treatment with omeprazole. This finding is believed to be a manifestation of the underlying condition, which is known to be associated with such tumors.

Hepatic: Liver disease including hepatic failure (some fatal), liver necrosis (some fatal), hepatic encephalopathy hepatocellular disease, cholestatic disease, mixed hepatitis, jaundice, and elevations of liver function tests [ALT, AST, GGT, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin]

Infections and Infestations: Clostridium difficile -associated diarrhea

Metabolism and Nutritional disorders: Hypoglycemia, hypomagnesemia, with or without hypocalcemia and/or hypokalemia, hyponatremia, weight gain

Musculoskeletal: Muscle weakness, myalgia, muscle cramps, joint pain, leg pain, bone fracture

Nervous System/Psychiatric: Psychiatric and sleep disturbances including depression, agitation, aggression, hallucinations, confusion, insomnia, nervousness, apathy, somnolence, anxiety, and dream abnormalities; tremors, paresthesia; vertigo

Respiratory: Epistaxis, pharyngeal pain

Skin: Severe generalized skin reactions including toxic epidermal necrolysis (some fatal), Stevens-Johnson syndrome, cutaneous lupus erythematosus and erythema multiforme; photosensitivity; urticaria; rash; skin inflammation; pruritus; petechiae; purpura; alopecia; dry skin; hyperhidrosis

Special Senses: Tinnitus, taste perversion

Ocular: Optic atrophy, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, optic neuritis, dry eye syndrome, ocular irritation, blurred vision, double vision

Urogenital: Interstitial nephritis, hematuria, proteinuria, elevated serum creatinine, microscopic pyuria, urinary tract infection, glycosuria, urinary frequency, testicular pain

Hematologic: Agranulocytosis (some fatal), hemolytic anemia, pancytopenia, neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, leukocytosis

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

Table 3 and Table 4 include drugs with clinically important drug interactions and interaction with diagnostics when administered concomitantly with omeprazole and instructions for preventing or managing them.

Consult the labeling of concomitantly used drugs to obtain further information about interactions with PPIs.

Table 3: Clinically Relevant Interactions Affecting Drugs Co-Administered with Omeprazole and Interaction with Diagnostics

Antiretrovirals

Clinical Impact:

The effect of PPIs on antiretroviral drugs is variable. The clinical importance and the mechanisms behind these interactions are not always known.

Decreased exposure of some antiretroviral drugs (e.g., rilpivirine, atazanavir and nelfinavir) when used concomitantly with omeprazole may reduce antiviral effect and promote the development of drug resistance [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Increased exposure of other antiretroviral drugs (e.g., saquinavir) when used concomitantly with omeprazole may increase toxicity [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
There are other antiretroviral drugs which do not result in clinically relevant interactions with omeprazole.

Intervention:

Rilpivirine-containing products: Concomitant use with PRILOSEC is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4)].

Atazanavir: Avoid concomitant use with PRILOSEC. See prescribing information for atazanavir for dosing information.

Nelfinavir: Avoid concomitant use with PRILOSEC. See prescribing information for nelfinavir.

Saquinavir: See the prescribing information for saquinavir for monitoring of potential saquinavir-related toxicities.

Other antiretrovirals: See prescribing information for specific antiretroviral drugs.

Warfarin

Clinical Impact:

Increased INR and prothrombin time in patients receiving PPIs, including omeprazole, and warfarin concomitantly. Increases in INR and prothrombin time may lead to abnormal bleeding and even death.

Intervention:

Monitor INR and prothrombin time and adjust the dose of warfarin, if needed, to maintain target INR range.

Methotrexate

Clinical Impact:

Concomitant use of omeprazole with methotrexate (primarily at high dose) may elevate and prolong serum concentrations of methotrexate and/or its metabolite hydroxymethotrexate, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. No formal drug interaction studies of high-dose methotrexate with PPIs have been conducted [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)].

Intervention:

A temporary withdrawal of PRILOSEC may be considered in some patients receiving high-dose methotrexate.

CYP2C19 Substrates (e.g., clopidogrel, citalopram, cilostazol, phenytoin, diazepam)

Clopidogrel

Clinical Impact:

Concomitant use of omeprazole 80 mg results in reduced plasma concentrations of the active metabolite of clopidogrel and a reduction in platelet inhibition [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

There are no adequate combination studies of a lower dose of omeprazole or a higher dose of clopidogrel in comparison with the approved dose of clopidogrel.

Intervention:

Avoid concomitant use with PRILOSEC. Consider use of alternative anti-platelet therapy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].

Citalopram

Clinical Impact:

Increased exposure of citalopram leading to an increased risk of QT prolongation [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Intervention:

Limit the dose of citalopram to a maximum of 20 mg per day. See prescribing information for citalopram.

Cilostazol

Clinical Impact:

Increased exposure of one of the active metabolites of cilostazol (3,4-dihydro-cilostazol) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Intervention:

Reduce the dose of cilostazol to 50 mg twice daily. See prescribing information for cilostazol.

Phenytoin

Clinical Impact:

Potential for increased exposure of phenytoin.

Intervention:

Monitor phenytoin serum concentrations. Dose adjustment may be needed to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations. See prescribing information for phenytoin.

Diazepam

Clinical Impact:

Increased exposure of diazepam [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Intervention:

Monitor patients for increased sedation and reduce the dose of diazepam as needed.

Digoxin

Clinical Impact:

Potential for increased exposure of digoxin [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Intervention:

Monitor digoxin concentrations. Dose adjustment may be needed to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations. See digoxin prescribing information.

Drugs Dependent on Gastric pH for Absorption (e.g., iron salts, erlotinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, mycophenolate mofetil, ketoconazole/itraconazole)

Clinical Impact:

Omeprazole can reduce the absorption of other drugs due to its effect on reducing intragastric acidity.

Intervention:

Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF): Co-administration of omeprazole in healthy subjects and in transplant patients receiving MMF has been reported to reduce the exposure to the active metabolite, mycophenolic acid (MPA), possibly due to a decrease in MMF solubility at an increased gastric pH. The clinical relevance of reduced MPA exposure on organ rejection has not been established in transplant patients receiving PRILOSEC and MMF. Use PRILOSEC with caution in transplant patients receiving MMF [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

See the prescribing information for other drugs dependent on gastric pH for absorption.

Combination Therapy with Clarithromycin and Amoxicillin

Clinical Impact:

Concomitant administration of clarithromycin with other drugs can lead to serious adverse reactions, including potentially fatal arrhythmias, and are contraindicated.

Amoxicillin also has drug interactions.

Intervention:

See Contraindications , Warnings and Precautions in prescribing information for clarithromycin.

See Drug Interactions in prescribing information for amoxicillin.

Tacrolimus

Clinical Impact:

Potential for increased exposure of tacrolimus, especially in transplant patients who are intermediate or poor metabolizers of CYP2C19.

Intervention:

Monitor tacrolimus whole blood concentrations. Dose adjustment may be needed to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations. See prescribing information for tacrolimus.

Interactions with Investigations of Neuroendocrine Tumors

Clinical Impact:

Serum chromogranin A (CgA) levels increase secondary to PPI-induced decreases in gastric acidity. The increased CgA level may cause false positive results in diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10), Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].

Intervention:

Temporarily stop PRILOSEC treatment at least 14 days before assessing CgA levels and consider repeating the test if initial CgA levels are high. If serial tests are performed (e.g., for monitoring), the same commercial laboratory should be used for testing, as reference ranges between tests may vary.

Interaction with Secretin Stimulation Test

Clinical Impact:

Hyper-response in gastrin secretion in response to secretin stimulation test, falsely suggesting gastrinoma.

Intervention:

Temporarily stop PRILOSEC treatment at least 14 days before assessing to allow gastrin levels to return to baseline [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].

False Positive Urine Tests for THC

Clinical Impact:

There have been reports of false positive urine screening tests for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in patients receiving PPIs.

Intervention:

An alternative confirmatory method should be considered to verify positive results.

Other

Clinical Impact:

There have been clinical reports of interactions with other drugs metabolized via the cytochrome P450 system (e.g., cyclosporine, disulfiram).

Intervention:

Monitor patients to determine if it is necessary to adjust the dosage of these other drugs when taken concomitantly with PRILOSEC.

Table 4: Clinically Relevant Interactions Affecting Omeprazole When Co-Administered with Other Drugs

CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 Inducers

Clinical Impact:

Decreased exposure of omeprazole when used concomitantly with strong inducers [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Intervention:

St. John’s Wort, rifampin: Avoid concomitant use with PRILOSEC [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].

Ritonavir-containing products: see prescribing information for specific drugs.

CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 Inhibitors

Clinical Impact:

Increased exposure of omeprazole [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Intervention:

Voriconazole: Dose adjustment of PRILOSEC is not normally required. However, in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, who may require higher doses, dose adjustment may be considered.

See prescribing information for voriconazole.

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