PLIAGLIS: Package Insert and Label Information
PLIAGLIS- lidocaine and tetracaine cream
Taro Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
PLIAGLIS is indicated for use on intact skin in adults to provide topical local analgesia for superficial dermatological procedures such as dermal filler injection, pulsed dye laser therapy, facial laser resurfacing, and laser-assisted tattoo removal.
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2.1 Important Dosage and Administration Instructions
- For use in adults only.
- PLIAGLIS should only be applied to intact skin.
- PLIAGLIS should not be applied to a procedure site after the procedure has been performed.
- Remove PLIAGLIS if skin irritation or a burning sensation occurs during application.
- In order to minimize the risk of systemic toxicity, do not exceed the recommended amount of drug to apply or the duration of the application [see Overdosage (10)].
- Avoid eye and lip contact with PLIAGLIS.
- Wash hands after handling PLIAGLIS.
- Upon removal from the treatment site, discard the used PLIAGLIS in a location that is out of the reach of children and pets. Access to PLIAGLIS by children or pets should be prevented during usage and storage of the product [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
- Use only as directed.
2.2 Recommended Dosing Duration
- For superficial dermatological procedures, such as dermal filler injection, non-ablative laser facial resurfacing, or pulsed-dye laser therapy, apply PLIAGLIS to intact skin for 20 to 30 minutes prior to the procedure. See Table 1 for instructions on the amount to apply.
- For superficial dermatological procedures, such as laser-assisted tattoo removal, apply PLIAGLIS to intact skin for 60 minutes prior to the procedure. See Table 1 for instructions on the amount to apply.
2.3 Recommended Dosage
The dose of PLIAGLIS that provides effective local dermal analgesia depends on the duration of the application. Although not specifically studied, a shorter duration of application may result in a less complete dermal analgesia or a shorter duration of adequate dermal analgesia.
Determine the amount of drug to apply
The amount (length) of PLIAGLIS that should be dispensed is determined by the size of the area to be treated (see Table 1).
- Using the ruler on the applicator included in the carton, squeeze out and measure the amount of PLIAGLIS that approximates the amount required to achieve proper coverage.
- Spread PLIAGLIS evenly and thinly (approximately 1 mm or the thickness of a dime) across the treatment area using a flat-surfaced tool such as a metal spatula or tongue depressor.
- After waiting the required application time, remove the PLIAGLIS by grasping a free-edge with your fingers and pulling it away from the skin.
|Surface Area of Treatment Site (inch2)||Length of PLIAGLIS for 1 mm Thickness (inch)||Weight of PLIAGLIS Dispensed (g)|
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Each gram of PLIAGLIS contains lidocaine 70 mg and tetracaine 70 mg and is a smooth, white to off-white, viscous cream.
- PLIAGLIS is contraindicated in patients with a known history of sensitivity to lidocaine or tetracaine, local anesthetics of the amide or ester type, or to any other component of the product [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ].
- PLIAGLIS is contraindicated in patients with para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) hypersensitivity.
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Cases of methemoglobinemia have been reported in association with local anesthetic use. Although all patients are at risk for methemoglobinemia, patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, congenital or idiopathic methemoglobinemia, cardiac or pulmonary compromise, infants under 6 months of age, and concurrent exposure to oxidizing agents or their metabolites are more susceptible to developing clinical manifestations of the condition. If local anesthetics must be used in these patients, close monitoring for symptoms and signs of methemoglobinemia is recommended.
Signs of methemoglobinemia may occur immediately or may be delayed some hours after exposure, and are characterized by a cyanotic skin discoloration and/or abnormal coloration of the blood. Methemoglobin levels may continue to rise; therefore, immediate treatment is required to avert more serious central nervous system and cardiovascular adverse effects, including seizures, coma, arrhythmias, and death. Discontinue PLIAGLIS and any other oxidizing agents. Depending on the severity of the signs and symptoms, patients may respond to supportive care, i.e., oxygen therapy, hydration. A more severe clinical presentation may require treatment with methylene blue, exchange transfusion, or hyperbaric oxygen.
- Application of PLIAGLIS for longer times than those recommended or application of PLIAGLIS over larger surface areas than those recommended could result in absorption of lidocaine and tetracaine at doses that could lead to serious adverse effects [see Overdosage (10)].
- When PLIAGLIS is used concomitantly with other products containing local anesthetic agents, consider the amount absorbed from all formulations since the systemic toxic effects are thought to be additive and potentially synergistic with lidocaine and tetracaine.
- PLIAGLIS is not recommended for use on mucous membranes or on areas with a compromised skin barrier because these uses have not been adequately studied. Application to broken or inflamed skin may result in toxic blood concentrations of lidocaine and tetracaine from increased absorption.
- Use PLIAGLIS with caution in patients who may be more sensitive to the systemic effects of lidocaine and tetracaine, including the acutely ill or debilitated.
- Patients with severe hepatic disease or pseudocholinesterase deficiency, because of their inability to metabolize local anesthetics normally, are at a greater risk of developing toxic plasma concentrations of lidocaine and tetracaine.
5.3 Risks of Secondary Exposure to Children and Pets
Used PLIAGLIS contains a large amount of lidocaine and tetracaine. The potential exists for a small child or pet to suffer serious adverse effects from ingesting PLIAGLIS, although this risk with PLIAGLIS has not been evaluated. After use, replace the cap securely on the tube. It is important to store and dispose of PLIAGLIS out of the reach of children and pets.
5.4 Anaphylactic Reactions
Allergic or anaphylactic reactions have been associated with lidocaine and tetracaine and may occur with other components of PLIAGLIS. They are characterized by urticaria, angioedema, bronchospasm, and shock. If an allergic reaction occurs, seek emergency help immediately.
5.5 Eye Irritation
Avoid contact of PLIAGLIS with the eyes based on the findings of severe eye irritation with the use of similar products in animals. Also, the loss of protective reflexes may predispose to corneal irritation and potential abrasion. If eye contact occurs, immediately wash out the eye with water or saline and protect the eye until sensation returns.
Lidocaine has been shown to inhibit viral and bacterial growth. The effect of PLIAGLIS on intradermal injections of live vaccines has not been determined.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
The following adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling:
- Methemoglobinemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- Overexposure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- Risks of Secondary Exposure in Children and Pets [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- Anaphylactic Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Eye Irritation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
However, the adverse reaction information from clinical trials does provide a basis for identifying the adverse events that appear to be related to drug use and for approximating their incidence in clinical practice.
PLIAGLIS has been evaluated for safety in 2159 persons undergoing a superficial dermal procedure. PLIAGLIS was studied in 11 placebo-controlled and 1 active-controlled trials, and in open-label safety trials. All 2159 persons were exposed to only a single application of PLIAGLIS. Adverse reactions were assessed by collecting spontaneously reported adverse reactions, and observations made on formal evaluation of the skin for specific reactions.
Most common adverse reactions in clinical trials
Localized Reactions: In clinical studies, the most common local reactions were erythema (47%), skin discoloration (e.g., blanching, ecchymosis, and purpura) (16%), and edema (14%). There were no serious adverse reactions. However, one patient withdrew due to burning pain at the treatment site.
Other Localized Reactions: The following dermal adverse reactions occurred in 1% or less of PLIAGLIS-treated patients: ecchymosis, petechial rash, vesiculobullous rash, perifollicular erythema, perifollicular edema, pruritus, rash, maculopapular rash, dry skin, contact dermatitis, and acne.
Systemic (Dose-Related) Reactions: Across all trials, 19 subjects experienced a systemic adverse reaction, 15 of whom were treated with PLIAGLIS and 4 with placebo. The frequency of systemic adverse reactions was greater for the PLIAGLIS group (1%) than the placebo group (0.3%). The most common systemic adverse events were headache, vomiting, dizziness, and fever, all of which occurred with a frequency of <1%. Other systemic reactions were syncope, nausea, confusion, dehydration, hyperventilation, hypotension, nervousness, paresthesia, pharyngitis, stupor, pallor, and sweating.
Systemic adverse reactions of lidocaine and tetracaine are similar in nature to those observed with other amide and ester local anesthetic agents, including CNS excitation and/or depression (lightheadedness, nervousness, apprehension, euphoria, confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, tinnitus, blurred or double vision, vomiting, sensation of heat, cold or numbness, twitching, tremors, convulsions, unconsciousness, respiratory depression and arrest). Excitatory CNS reactions may be brief or not occur at all, in which case the first manifestation may be drowsiness merging into unconsciousness. Signs of CNS toxicity may start at plasma concentrations of lidocaine at 1000 ng/mL. The plasma concentrations at which tetracaine toxicity may occur are less well characterized; however, systemic toxicity with tetracaine is thought to occur with much lower plasma concentrations compared with lidocaine. The toxicity of co-administered local anesthetics is thought to be at least additive. Cardiovascular manifestations may include bradycardia, hypotension and cardiovascular collapse leading to arrest.
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of PLIAGLIS.
Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Eye disorders: Eyelid swelling
Skin: Pruritus, Rash, Skin Burning Sensation, Erythema, Urticaria
Other: Drug ineffective
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
7.1 Antiarrhythmic Drugs
PLIAGLIS should be used with caution in patients receiving Class I antiarrhythmic drugs (such as tocainide and mexiletine) since the systemic toxic effects are thought to be additive and potentially synergistic with lidocaine and tetracaine.
7.2 Local Anesthetics
When PLIAGLIS is used concomitantly with other products containing local anesthetic agents, the amount absorbed from all formulations should be considered since the systemic toxic effects are thought to be additive and potentially synergistic with lidocaine and tetracaine.
7.3 Drugs That May Cause Methemoglobinemia When Used with PLIAGLIS
Patients who are administered local anesthetics are at increased risk of developing methemoglobinemia when concurrently exposed to the following drugs, which could include other local anesthetics:
Examples of Drugs Associated with Methemoglobinemia:
|Nitrates/Nitrites||nitric oxide, nitroglycerin, nitroprusside, nitrous oxide|
|Local anesthetics||articaine, benzocaine, bupivacaine, lidocaine, mepivacaine, prilocaine, procaine, ropivacaine, tetracaine|
|Antineoplastic agents||cyclophosphamide, flutamide, hydroxyurea, ifosfamide, rasburicase|
|Antibiotics||dapsone, nitrofurantoin, para-aminosalicylic acid, sulfonamides|
|Anticonvulsants||phenobarbital, phenytoin, sodium valproate|
|Other drugs||acetaminophen, metoclopramide, quinine, sulfasalazine|
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