In addition to the adverse drug reactions identified in clinical trials in Table 6 and Table 7 , the following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Hepatobiliary — hepatitis, jaundice
Hematologic — hemolytic anemia, agranulocytosis, pancytopenia
Immune — hypersensitivity reactions, anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions (including shock), hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH)
Renal — interstitial nephritis
Nervous system disorders — seizures
Psychiatric disorders — delirium
Respiratory — eosinophilic pneumonia
Skin and Appendages –erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, (DRESS), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), dermatitis exfoliative
Post-marketing experience with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection in pediatric patients suggests a similar safety profile to that seen in adults.
The following adverse reaction has also been reported for piperacillin for injection:
Skeletal — prolonged neuromuscular blockade [see Drug Interactions ( 7.5)].
Piperacillin may inactivate aminoglycosides by converting them to microbiologically inert amides.
In vivo inactivation:
When aminoglycosides are administered in conjunction with piperacillin to patients with end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis, the concentrations of the aminoglycosides (especially tobramycin) may be significantly reduced and should be monitored.
Sequential administration of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection and tobramycin to patients with either normal renal function or mild to moderate renal impairment has been shown to modestly decrease serum concentrations of tobramycin but no dosage adjustment is considered necessary.
In vitro inactivation:
Due to the in vitro inactivation of aminoglycosides by piperacillin, piperacillin and tazobactam for injection and aminoglycosides are recommended for separate administration. Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection and aminoglycosides should be reconstituted, diluted, and administered separately when concomitant therapy with aminoglycosides is indicated. Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection is compatible with amikacin and gentamicin for simultaneous Y-site infusion in certain diluents and at specific concentrations. Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection is not compatible with tobramycin for simultaneous Y-site infusion [see Dosage and Administration (2.8)].
Probenecid administered concomitantly with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection prolongs the half-life of piperacillin by 21% and that of tazobactam by 71% because probenecid inhibits tubular renal secretion of both piperacillin and tazobactam. Probenecid should not be co-administered with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection unless the benefit outweighs the risk.
Studies have detected an increased incidence of acute kidney injury in patients concomitantly administered piperacillin/tazobactam and vancomycin as compared to vancomycin alone [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6)]. Monitor kidney function in patients concomitantly administered with piperacillin/tazobactam and vancomycin.
No pharmacokinetic interactions have been noted between piperacillin/tazobactam and vancomycin.
Coagulation parameters should be tested more frequently and monitored regularly during simultaneous administration of high doses of heparin, oral anticoagulants, or other drugs that may affect the blood coagulation system or the thrombocyte function [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4)].
Piperacillin when used concomitantly with vecuronium has been implicated in the prolongation of the neuromuscular blockade of vecuronium. Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection could produce the same phenomenon if given along with vecuronium. Due to their similar mechanism of action, it is expected that the neuromuscular blockade produced by any of the non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockers could be prolonged in the presence of piperacillin. Monitor for adverse reactions related to neuromuscular blockade (see package insert for vecuronium bromide).
Limited data suggests that co-administration of methotrexate and piperacillin may reduce the clearance of methotrexate due to competition for renal secretion. The impact of tazobactam on the elimination of methotrexate has not been evaluated. If concurrent therapy is necessary, serum concentrations of methotrexate as well as the signs and symptoms of methotrexate toxicity should be frequently monitored.
There have been reports of positive test results using the Bio-Rad Laboratories Platelia Aspergillus EIA test in patients receiving piperacillin/tazobactam injection who were subsequently found to be free of Aspergillus infection. Cross-reactions with non-Aspergillus polysaccharides and polyfuranoses with the Bio-Rad Laboratories Platelia Aspergillus EIA test have been reported. Therefore, positive test results in patients receiving piperacillin/tazobactam should be interpreted cautiously and confirmed by other diagnostic methods.
As with other penicillins, the administration of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection may result in a false-positive reaction for glucose in the urine using a copper-reduction method (CLINITEST®). It is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions be used.
Piperacillin and tazobactam cross the placenta in humans. However, there are insufficient data with piperacillin and/or tazobactam in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. No fetal structural abnormalities were observed in rats or mice when piperacillin/tazobactam was administered intravenously during organogenesis at doses 1 to 2 times and 2 to 3 times the human dose of piperacillin and tazobactam, respectively, based on body-surface area (mg/m2). However, fetotoxicity in the presence of maternal toxicity was observed in developmental toxicity and peri/postnatal studies conducted in rats (intraperitoneal administration prior to mating and throughout gestation or from gestation day 17 through lactation day 21) at doses less than the maximum recommended human daily dose based on body-surface area (mg/m2) [see Data ].
The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
In embryo-fetal development studies in mice and rats, pregnant animals received intravenous doses of piperacillin/tazobactam up to 3000/750 mg/kg/day during the period of organogenesis. There was no evidence of teratogenicity up to the highest dose evaluated, which is 1 to 2 times and 2 to 3 times the human dose of piperacillin and tazobactam, in mice and rats respectively, based on body-surface area (mg/m2). Fetal body weights were reduced in rats at maternally toxic doses at or above 500/62.5 mg/kg/day, minimally representing 0.4 times the human dose of both piperacillin and tazobactam based on body-surface area (mg/m2).
A fertility and general reproduction study in rats using intraperitoneal administration of tazobactam or the combination piperacillin/tazobactam prior to mating and through the end of gestation, reported a decrease in litter size in the presence of maternal toxicity at 640 mg/kg/day tazobactam (4 times the human dose of tazobactam based on body-surface area), and decreased litter size and an increase in fetuses with ossification delays and variations of ribs, concurrent with maternal toxicity at ≥640/160 mg/kg/day piperacillin/tazobactam (0.5 times and 1 times the human dose of piperacillin and tazobactam, respectively, based on body-surface area).
Peri/postnatal development in rats was impaired with reduced pup weights, increased stillbirths, and increased pup mortality concurrent with maternal toxicity after intraperitoneal administration of tazobactam alone at doses ≥320 mg/kg/day (2 times the human dose based on body surface area) or of the combination piperacillin/tazobactam at doses ≥640/160 mg/kg/day (0.5 times and 1 times the human dose of piperacillin and tazobactam, respectively, based on body-surface area) from gestation day 17 through lactation day 21.
Piperacillin is excreted in human milk; tazobactam concentrations in human milk have not been studied. No information is available on the effects of piperacillin and tazobactam on the breast-fed child or on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for piperacillin and tazobactam for injection and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from piperacillin and tazobactam for injection or from the underlying maternal condition.
The safety and effectiveness of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection for intra-abdominal infections, and nosocomial pneumonia have been established in pediatric patients 2 months of age and older.
Use of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection in pediatric patients 2 months of age and older with intra-abdominal infections including appendicitis and/or peritonitis is supported by evidence from well-controlled studies and pharmacokinetic studies in adults and in pediatric patients. This includes a prospective, randomized, comparative, open-label clinical trial with 542 pediatric patients 2 to 12 years of age with intra-abdominal infections (including appendicitis and/or peritonitis), in which 273 pediatric patients received piperacillin/tazobactam [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Use of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection in pediatric patients 2 months of age and older with nosocomial pneumonia is supported by evidence from well-controlled studies in adults with nosocomial pneumonia, a simulation study performed with a population pharmacokinetic model, and a retrospective, cohort study of pediatric patients with nosocomial pneumonia in which 140 pediatric patients were treated with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection and 267 patients treated with comparators (which included ticarcillin-clavulanate, carbapenems, ceftazidime, cefepime, or ciprofloxacin) [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
The safety and effectiveness of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection have not been established in pediatric patients less than 2 months of age [see Clinical Pharmacology (12) and Dosage and Administration (2)].
Dosage of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection in pediatric patients with renal impairment has not been determined.
Patients over 65 years are not at an increased risk of developing adverse effects solely because of age. However, dosage should be adjusted in the presence of renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2)].
In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection contains 54 mg (2.35 mEq) of sodium per gram of piperacillin in the combination product. At the usual recommended doses, patients would receive between 648 and 864 mg/day (28.2 and 37.6 mEq) of sodium. The geriatric population may respond with a blunted natriuresis to salt loading. This may be clinically important with regard to such diseases as congestive heart failure.
This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
In patients with creatinine clearance ≤ 40 mL/min and dialysis patients (hemodialysis and CAPD), the intravenous dose of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection should be reduced to the degree of renal function impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2)].
Dosage adjustment of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection is not warranted in patients with hepatic cirrhosis [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
As with other semisynthetic penicillins, piperacillin therapy has been associated with an increased incidence of fever and rash in cystic fibrosis patients.
There have been postmarketing reports of overdose with piperacillin/tazobactam. The majority of those events experienced, including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, have also been reported with the usual recommended dosages. Patients may experience neuromuscular excitability or seizures if higher than recommended doses are given intravenously (particularly in the presence of renal failure) [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5)].
Treatment should be supportive and symptomatic according the patient’s clinical presentation. Excessive serum concentrations of either piperacillin or tazobactam may be reduced by hemodialysis. Following a single 3.375 g dose of piperacillin/tazobactam, the percentage of the piperacillin and tazobactam dose removed by hemodialysis was approximately 31% and 39%, respectively [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12)].
Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, USP is an injectable antibacterial combination products consisting of the semisynthetic antibacterial piperacillin sodium and the beta-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam sodium for intravenous administration.
Piperacillin sodium is derived from D(-)-α-aminobenzyl-penicillin. The chemical name of piperacillin sodium is sodium (2S ,5R ,6R)-6-[(R)-2-(4-ethyl-2,3-dioxo-1-piperazine‑carboxamido)-2-phenylacetamido]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2‑carboxylate. The chemical formula is C23 H26 N5 NaO7 S and the molecular weight is 539.5. The chemical structure of piperacillin sodium is:
Tazobactam sodium, a derivative of the penicillin nucleus, is a penicillanic acid sulfone. Its chemical name is sodium (2S, 3S, 5R)-3-methyl-7-oxo-3-(1H -1,2,3-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-4-thia-1‑azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylate-4,4-dioxide. The chemical formula is C10 H11 N4 NaO5 S and the molecular weight is 322.3. The chemical structure of tazobactam sodium is:
Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, USP, is a white to yellowish sterile, lyophilized powder consisting of piperacillin and tazobactam as their sodium salts packaged in a glass bottle. The product does not contain excipients or preservatives. Dilute solutions are colorless to yellowish.
Each piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, USP 13.5 g pharmacy bulk bottle contains piperacillin sodium equivalent to 12 grams of piperacillin and tazobactam sodium equivalent to 1.5 grams of tazobactam sufficient for delivery of multiple doses.
Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, USP pharmacy bulk contains a total of 2.35 mEq (54 mg) of sodium (Na+) per gram of piperacillin in the combination product.
Meets USP Organic Impurities Procedure 3.
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