PAROXETINE — paroxetine hydrochloride hemihydrate tablet, film coated, extended release
Cadila Pharmaceuticals Limited
WARNING: SUICIDAL THOUGHTS AND BEHAVIORS
Antidepressants increased the risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in pediatric and young adult patients in short-term studies. Closely monitor all antidepressant-treated patients for clinical worsening, and for emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Paroxetine extended-release tablets are not approved for use in pediatric patients [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].
Paroxetine extended-release tablets are indicated in adults for the treatment of:
• Major depressive disorder (MDD)
• Panic disorder (PD)
• Social anxiety disorder (SAD)
• Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)
Administer paroxetine extended-release tablets as a single daily dose in the morning, with or without food. Swallow tablets whole and do not chew or crush.
The recommended initial dosage and maximum dosage of paroxetine extended-release tablets in patients with MDD, PD, and SAD are presented in Table 1.
In patients with an inadequate response, dosage may be increased in increments of 12.5 mg per day at intervals of at least 1 week, depending on tolerability.
Table 1: Recommended Daily Dosage of Paroxetine Extended-Release Tablets in Patients with MDD, PD, and SAD
|Indication||Starting Dose||M aximum Dose|
|MDD||25 mg||62.5 mg|
|PD||12.5 mg||75 mg|
|SAD||12.5 mg||37.5 mg|
2.3 Dosage in Patients with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
The recommended starting dosage in women with PMDD is 12.5 mg per day. Paroxetine extended-release tablets may be administered either continuously (every day throughout the menstrual cycle) or intermittently (only during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, i.e., starting the daily dosage 14 days prior to the anticipated onset of menstruation and continuing through the onset of menses). Intermittent dosing is repeated with each new cycle.
Prior to initiating treatment with paroxetine extended-release tablets or another antidepressant, screen patients for a personal or family history of bipolar disorder, mania, or hypomania [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
2.5 Dosage Modifications for Elderly Patients, Patients with Severe Renal Impairment and Patients with Severe Hepatic Impairment
The recommended initial dose of paroxetine extended-release tablets is 12.5 mg per day for elderly patients, patients with severe renal impairment, and patients with severe hepatic impairment. Reduce initial dose and increase up-titration intervals if necessary. Dosage should not exceed 50 mg per day for MDD or PD and should not exceed 37.5 mg per day for SAD [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5, 8.6)].
At least 14 days must elapse between discontinuation of a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) antidepressant and initiation of paroxetine extended-release tablets. In addition, at least 14 days must elapse after stopping paroxetine extended-release tablets before starting an MAOI antidepressant [see Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Adverse reactions may occur upon discontinuation of paroxetine extended-release tablets [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]. Gradually reduce the dosage rather than stopping paroxetine extended-release tablets abruptly whenever possible.
Paroxetine extended-release tablets are available as:
• 12.5 mg yellow, biconvex, enteric film-coated, extended release, round tablets, debossed with “X1” on one side and plain on the other side. The tablets should be free from all physical defects.
• 25 mg pink, biconvex, enteric film-coated, extended release, round tablets debossed with “X2” on one side and plain on the other side. The tablets should be free from all physical defects.
• 37.5 mg blue, biconvex, enteric film-coated, extended release, round tablets debossed with “X3” on one side and plain on the other side. The tablets should be free from all physical defects.
Paroxetine extended-release tablets are contraindicated in patients:
• Taking, or within 14 days of stopping, MAOIs (including the MAOIs linezolid and intravenous methylene blue) because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome
[See Warnings and Precautions (5.2), Drug Interactions (7)].
• Taking thioridazine because of risk of QT prolongation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Drug Interactions (7)].
• Taking pimozide because of risk of QT prolongation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Drug Interactions (7)]. • With known hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylaxis, angioedema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome) to paroxetine or to any of the inactive ingredients in paroxetine extended-release tablets [see Adverse Reactions (6.1, 6.2)].
In pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant drugs (SSRIs and other antidepressant classes) that included approximately 77,000 adult patients and 4,500 pediatric patients, the incidence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in antidepressant-treated patients age 24 years and younger was greater than in placebo-treated patients. There was considerable variation in risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among drugs, but there was an increased risk identified in young patients for most drugs studied. There were differences in absolute risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors across the different indications, with the highest incidence in patients with MDD. The drug-placebo differences in the number of cases of suicidal thoughts and behaviors per 1,000 patients treated are provided in Table 2.
Table 2: Risk Differences of the Number of Patients of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in the Pooled Placebo-Controlled Trials of Antidepressants in Pediatric and Adult Patients
|Age Range||Drug-Placebo Difference in Number of Patients of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors per 1,000 Patients Treated|
|Increases Compared to Placebo|
|<18 years old||14 additional patients|
|18 to 24 years old||5 additional patients|
|Decreases Compared to Placebo|
|25 to 64 years old||1 fewer patient|
|≥65 years old||6 fewer patients|
It is unknown whether the risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in children, adolescents, and young adults extends to longer-term use, i.e., beyond four months. However, there is substantial evidence from placebo-controlled maintenance trials in adults with MDD that antidepressants delay the recurrence of depression and that depression itself is a risk factor for suicidal thoughts and behaviors.
Monitor all antidepressant-treated patients for any indication for clinical worsening and emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors, especially during the initial few months of drug therapy, and at times of dosage changes. Counsel family members or caregivers of patients to monitor for changes in behavior and to alert the healthcare provider. Consider changing the therapeutic regimen, including possibly discontinuing paroxetine extended-release tablets, in patients whose depression is persistently worse, or who are experiencing emergent suicidal thoughts or behaviors.
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and SSRIs, including paroxetine extended-release tablets, can precipitate serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition. The risk is increased with concomitant use of other serotonergic drugs (including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, amphetamines, and St. John’s Wort) and with drugs that impair metabolism of serotonin, i.e., MAOIs [see Contraindications (4), Drug Interactions (7.1)]. Serotonin syndrome can also occur when these drugs are used alone.
Serotonin syndrome signs and symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, and gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea).
The concomitant use of paroxetine extended-release tablets with MAOIs is contraindicated. In addition, do not initiate paroxetine extended-release tablets in a patient being treated with MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue. No reports involved the administration of methylene blue by other routes (such as oral tablets or local tissue injection). If it is necessary to initiate treatment with an MAOI such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue in a patient taking paroxetine extended-release tablets, discontinue paroxetine extended-release tablets before initiating treatment with the MAOI [see Contraindications (4), Drug Interactions (7.1)]. Monitor all patients taking paroxetine extended-release tablets for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue treatment with paroxetine extended-release tablets and any concomitant serotonergic agents immediately if the above symptoms occur, and initiate supportive symptomatic treatment. If concomitant use of paroxetine extended-release tablets with other serotonergic drugs is clinically warranted, inform patients of the increased risk for serotonin syndrome and monitor for symptoms.
The CYP2D6 inhibitory properties of paroxetine can elevate plasma levels of thioridazine and pimozide. Since thioridazine and pimozide given alone produce prolongation of the QTc interval and increase the risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias, the use of paroxetine extended-release tablets are contraindicated in combination with thioridazine and pimozide [see Contraindications (4), Drug Interactions (7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Paroxetine extended-release tablets can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Epidemiological studies have shown that infants exposed to paroxetine in the first trimester of pregnancy have an increased risk of cardiovascular malformations. Exposure to paroxetine in late pregnancy may lead to an increased risk for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPNH) and/or neonatal complications requiring prolonged hospitalization, respiratory support, and tube feeding.If paroxetine extended-release tablets are used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking paroxetine extended-release tablets, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake inhibition, including paroxetine extended-release tablets, increase the risk of bleeding events. Concomitant use of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), other antiplatelet drugs, warfarin, and other anticoagulants may add to this risk. Case reports and epidemiological studies (case-control and cohort design) have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding events related to drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake have ranged from ecchymoses, hematomas, epistaxis, and petechiae to life-threatening hemorrhages. Inform patients about the increased risk of bleeding associated with the concomitant use of paroxetine extended-release tablets and antiplatelet agents or anticoagulants. For patients taking warfarin, carefully monitor the international normalized ratio.
In patients with bipolar disorder, treating a depressive episode with paroxetine extended-release tablets or another antidepressant may precipitate a mixed/manic episode. During controlled clinical trials of immediate-release paroxetine hydrochloride, hypomania or mania occurred in approximately 1% of paroxetine-treated unipolar patients compared to 1.1% of active-control and 0.3% of placebo-treated unipolar patients. Prior to initiating treatment with paroxetine extended-release tablets, screen patients for any personal or family history of bipolar disorder, mania, or hypomania.
Adverse reactions after discontinuation of serotonergic antidepressants, particularly after abrupt discontinuation, include: nausea, sweating, dysphoric mood, irritability, agitation, dizziness, sensory disturbances (e.g., paresthesia, such as electric shock sensations), tremor, anxiety, confusion, headache, lethargy, emotional lability, insomnia, hypomania, tinnitus, and seizures. A gradual reduction in dosage rather than abrupt cessation is recommended whenever possible [See Dosage and Administration (2.7)]. Adverse reactions have been reported upon discontinuation of treatment with paroxetine in pediatric patients. The safety and effectiveness of paroxetine extended-release tablets in pediatric patients have not been established [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].
Paroxetine extended-release tablets has not been systematically evaluated in patients with seizure disorders. Patients with history of seizures were excluded from clinical studies. Paroxetine extended-release tablets should be prescribed with caution in patients with a seizure disorder and should be discontinued in any patient who develops seizures.
The pupillary dilation that occurs following use of many antidepressant drugs including paroxetine extended-release tablets may trigger an angle closure attack in a patient with anatomically narrow angles who does not have a patent iridectomy. Cases of angle-closure glaucoma associated with use of paroxetine hydrochloride tablets have been reported. Avoid use of antidepressants, including paroxetine extended-release tablets, in patients with untreated anatomically narrow angles.
Hyponatremia may occur as a result of treatment with SNRIs and SSRIs, including paroxetine extended-release tablets. Cases with serum sodium lower than 110 mmol/L have been reported. Signs and symptoms of hyponatremia include headache, difficulty concentrating, memory impairment, confusion, weakness, and unsteadiness, which may lead to falls. Signs and symptoms associated with more severe and/or acute cases have included hallucination, syncope, seizure, coma, respiratory arrest, and death. In many cases, this hyponatremia appears to be the result of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). In patients with symptomatic hyponatremia, discontinue paroxetine extended-release tablets and institute appropriate medical intervention. Elderly patients, patients taking diuretics, and those who are volume- depleted may be at greater risk of developing hyponatremia with SNRIs and SSRIs. [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
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