PANTOPRAZOLE SODIUM: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 4 of 6)
Pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets are prepared as enteric-coated tablets so that absorption of pantoprazole begins only after the tablet leaves the stomach. Peak serum concentration (Cmax ) and area under the serum concentration time curve (AUC) increase in a manner proportional to oral and intravenous doses from 10 mg to 80 mg. Pantoprazole does not accumulate, and its pharmacokinetics are unaltered with multiple daily dosing. Following oral or intravenous administration, the serum concentration of pantoprazole declines biexponentially, with a terminal elimination half-life of approximately one hour.
In extensive metabolizers with normal liver function receiving an oral dose of the enteric-coated 40 mg pantoprazole tablet, the peak concentration (Cmax ) is 2.5 mcg/mL; the time to reach the peak concentration (tmax ) is 2.5 h, and the mean total area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) is 4.8 mcg•h/mL (range 1.4 to 13.3 mcg•h/mL). Following intravenous administration of pantoprazole to extensive metabolizers, its total clearance is 7.6 to 14.0 L/h, and its apparent volume of distribution is 11.0 to 23.6 L.
A single oral dose of pantoprazole sodium for delayed-release oral suspension, 40 mg, was shown to be bioequivalent when administered to healthy subjects (N = 22) as granules sprinkled over a teaspoonful of applesauce, as granules mixed with apple juice, or mixed with apple juice followed by administration through a nasogastric tube. The plasma pharmacokinetic parameters from a crossover study in healthy subjects are summarized in Table 6.
Table 6: Pharmacokinetics Parameters (mean ± SD) of Pantoprazole Sodium for Delayed-Release Oral Suspension at 40 mg
|Pharmacokinetic Parameters||Granules in Applesauce||Granules in Apple Juice||Granules in Nasogastric Tube|
|AUC (mcg•hr/mL)||4.0 ± 1.5||4.0 ± 1.5||4.1 ± 1.7|
|Cmax (mcg/mL)||2.0 ± 0.7||1.9 ± 0.5||2.2 ± 0.7|
a Median values are reported for Tmax .
After administration of a single or multiple oral 40 mg doses of pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets, the peak plasma concentration of pantoprazole was achieved in approximately 2.5 hours, and Cmax was 2.5 mcg/mL. Pantoprazole undergoes little first-pass metabolism, resulting in an absolute bioavailability of approximately 77%. Pantoprazole absorption is not affected by concomitant administration of antacids.
Administration of pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets with food may delay its absorption up to 2 hours or longer; however, the Cmax and the extent of pantoprazole absorption (AUC) are not altered. Thus, pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets may be taken without regard to timing of meals.
Administration of pantoprazole granules, 40 mg, with a high-fat meal delayed median time to peak plasma concentration by 2 hours. With a concomitant high-fat meal, the Cmax and AUC of pantoprazole granules, 40 mg, sprinkled on applesauce decreased by 51% and 29%, respectively. Thus, pantoprazole sodium for delayed-release oral suspension should be taken approximately 30 minutes before a meal.
The apparent volume of distribution of pantoprazole is approximately 11 to 23.6 L, distributing mainly in extracellular fluid. The serum protein binding of pantoprazole is about 98%, primarily to albumin.
Pantoprazole is extensively metabolized in the liver through the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system. Pantoprazole metabolism is independent of the route of administration (intravenous or oral). The main metabolic pathway is demethylation, by CYP2C19, with subsequent sulfation; other metabolic pathways include oxidation by CYP3A4. There is no evidence that any of the pantoprazole metabolites have significant pharmacologic activity.
After a single oral or intravenous dose of 14 C-labeled pantoprazole to healthy, normal metabolizer subjects, approximately 71% of the dose was excreted in the urine, with 18% excreted in the feces through biliary excretion. There was no renal excretion of unchanged pantoprazole.
Only slight to moderate increases in the AUC (43%) and Cmax (26%) of pantoprazole were found in elderly subjects (64 to 76 years of age) after repeated oral administration, compared with younger subjects [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
The pharmacokinetics of pantoprazole were studied in children less than 16 years of age in four randomized, open-label clinical trials in pediatric patients with presumed/proven GERD. A pediatric granule formulation was studied in children through 5 years of age, and pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets were studied in children older than 5 years.
In a population PK analysis, total clearance increased with increasing bodyweight in a non-linear fashion. The total clearance also increased with increasing age only in children under 3 years of age.
Neonate through 5 Years of Age [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]
Children and Adolescents 6 through 16 Years of Age
The pharmacokinetics of pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets were evaluated in children ages 6 through 16 years with a clinical diagnosis of GERD. The PK parameters following a single oral dose of 20 mg or 40 mg of pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets in children ages 6 through 16 years were highly variable (%CV ranges 40 to 80%). The geometric mean AUC estimated from population PK analysis after a 40 mg pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets in pediatric patients was about 39% and 10% higher respectively in 6 to 11 and 12 to 16 year-old children, compared to that of adults (Table 7).Table 7: PK Parameters in Children and Adolescents 6 through 16 years with GERD receiving 40 mg Pantoprazole Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets
|6 to 11 years (n=12)||12 to 16 years (n=11)|
a Geometric mean values
b Median values
Male and Female Patients
There is a modest increase in pantoprazole AUC and Cmax in women compared to men. However, weight-normalized clearance values are similar in women and men.
In pediatric patients ages 1 through 16 years there were no clinically relevant effects of gender on clearance of pantoprazole, as shown by population pharmacokinetic analysis.
Patients with Renal Impairment
In patients with severe renal impairment, pharmacokinetic parameters for pantoprazole were similar to those of healthy subjects.
Patients with Hepatic Impairment
In patients with mild to severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A to C cirrhosis), maximum pantoprazole concentrations increased only slightly (1.5-fold) relative to healthy subjects. Although serum half-life values increased to 7 to 9 hours and AUC values increased by 5- to 7-fold in hepatic-impaired patients, these increases were no greater than those observed in CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, where no dosage adjustment is warranted. These pharmacokinetic changes in hepatic-impaired patients result in minimal drug accumulation following once-daily, multiple-dose administration. Doses higher than 40 mg/day have not been studied in hepatically impaired patients.
Drug Interaction Studies
Effect of Other Drugs on Pantoprazole
Pantoprazole is metabolized mainly by CYP2C19 and to minor extents by CYPs 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9. In in vivo drug-drug interaction studies with CYP2C19 substrates (diazepam [also a CYP3A4 substrate] and phenytoin [also a CYP3A4 inducer] and clopidogrel), nifedipine, midazolam, and clarithromycin (CYP3A4 substrates), metoprolol (a CYP2D6 substrate), diclofenac, naproxen and piroxicam (CYP2C9 substrates), and theophylline (a CYP1A2 substrate) in healthy subjects, the pharmacokinetics of pantoprazole were not significantly altered.
Effect of Pantoprazole on Other Drugs
Clopidogrel is metabolized to its active metabolite in part by CYP2C19. In a crossover clinical study, 66 healthy subjects were administered clopidogrel (300 mg loading dose followed by 75 mg per day) alone and with pantoprazole (80 mg at the same time as clopidogrel) for 5 days. On Day 5, the mean AUC of the active metabolite of clopidogrel was reduced by approximately 14% (geometric mean ratio was 86%, with 90% CI of 79 to 93%) when pantoprazole was coadministered with clopidogrel as compared to clopidogrel administered alone. Pharmacodynamic parameters were also measured and demonstrated that the change in inhibition of platelet aggregation (induced by 5 µM ADP) was correlated with the change in the exposure to clopidogrel active metabolite. The clinical significance of this finding is not clear.
Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF)
Administration of pantoprazole 40 mg twice daily for 4 days and a single 1,000 mg dose of MMF approximately one hour after the last dose of pantoprazole to 12 healthy subjects in a cross-over study resulted in a 57% reduction in the Cmax and 27% reduction in the AUC of MPA. Transplant patients receiving approximately 2,000 mg per day of MMF (n=12) were compared to transplant patients receiving approximately the same dose of MMF and pantoprazole 40 mg per day (n=21). There was a 78% reduction in the Cmax and a 45% reduction in the AUC of MPA in patients receiving both pantoprazole and MMF [see Drug Interactions (7)].
In vivo studies also suggest that pantoprazole does not significantly affect the kinetics of the following drugs (cisapride, theophylline, diazepam [and its active metabolite, desmethyldiazepam], phenytoin, metoprolol, nifedipine, carbamazepine, midazolam, clarithromycin, diclofenac, naproxen, piroxicam, and oral contraceptives [levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol]). In other in vivo studies, digoxin, ethanol, glyburide, antipyrine, caffeine, metronidazole, and amoxicillin had no clinically relevant interactions with pantoprazole.
Although no significant drug-drug interactions have been observed in clinical studies, the potential for significant drug-drug interactions with more than once-daily dosing with high doses of pantoprazole has not been studied in poor metabolizers or individuals who are hepatically impaired.
There was also no interaction with concomitantly administered antacids.
CYP2C19 displays a known genetic polymorphism due to its deficiency in some subpopulations (e.g., approximately 3% of Caucasians and African-Americans and 17% to 23% of Asians are poor metabolizers). Although these subpopulations of pantoprazole poor metabolizers have elimination half-life values of 3.5 to 10 hours in adults, they still have minimal accumulation (23% or less) with once-daily dosing. For adult patients who are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, no dosage adjustment is needed.
Similar to adults, pediatric patients who have the poor metabolizer genotype of CYP2C19 (CYP2C19 *2/*2) exhibited greater than a 6-fold increase in AUC compared to pediatric extensive (CYP2C19 *1/*1) and intermediate (CYP2C19 *1/*x) metabolizers. Poor metabolizers exhibited approximately 10-fold lower apparent oral clearance compared to extensive metabolizers.
For known pediatric poor metabolizers, a dose reduction should be considered.
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
In a 24-month carcinogenicity study, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally with pantoprazole doses of 0.5 to 200 mg/kg/day, about 0.1 to 40 times the exposure on a body surface area basis of a 50 kg person dosed with 40 mg/day. In the gastric fundus, treatment with 0.5 to 200 mg/kg/day produced enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell hyperplasia and benign and malignant neuroendocrine cell tumors in a dose-related manner. In the forestomach, treatment with 50 and 200 mg/kg/day (about 10 and 40 times the recommended human dose on a body surface area basis) produced benign squamous cell papillomas and malignant squamous cell carcinomas. Rare gastrointestinal tumors associated with pantoprazole treatment included an adenocarcinoma of the duodenum with 50 mg/kg/day and benign polyps and adenocarcinomas of the gastric fundus with 200 mg/kg/day. In the liver, treatment with 0.5 to 200 mg/kg/day produced dose-related increases in the incidences of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas. In the thyroid gland, treatment with 200 mg/kg/day produced increased incidences of follicular cell adenomas and carcinomas for both male and female rats.
In a 24-month carcinogenicity study, Fischer 344 rats were treated orally with doses of 5 to 50 mg/kg/day of pantoprazole, approximately 1 to 10 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area. In the gastric fundus, treatment with 5 to 50 mg/kg/day produced enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell hyperplasia and benign and malignant neuroendocrine cell tumors. Dose selection for this study may not have been adequate to comprehensively evaluate the carcinogenic potential of pantoprazole.
In a 24-month carcinogenicity study, B6C3F1 mice were treated orally with doses of 5 to 150 mg/kg/day of pantoprazole, 0.5 to 15 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area. In the liver, treatment with 150 mg/kg/day produced increased incidences of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in female mice. Treatment with 5 to 150 mg/kg/day also produced gastric-fundic ECL cell hyperplasia.
A 26-week p53 +/- transgenic mouse carcinogenicity study was not positive.
Pantoprazole was positive in the in vitro human lymphocyte chromosomal aberration assays, in one of two mouse micronucleus tests for clastogenic effects, and in the in vitro Chinese hamster ovarian cell/HGPRT forward mutation assay for mutagenic effects. Equivocal results were observed in the in vivo rat liver DNA covalent binding assay. Pantoprazole was negative in the in vitro Ames mutation assay, the in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay with rat hepatocytes, the in vitro AS52/GPT mammalian cell-forward gene mutation assay, the in vitro thymidine kinase mutation test with mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells, and the in vivo rat bone marrow cell chromosomal aberration assay.
There were no effects on fertility or reproductive performance when pantoprazole was given at oral doses up to 500 mg/kg/day in male rats (98 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) and 450 mg/kg/day in female rats (88 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area).
14 CLINICAL STUDIES
Pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets were used in the following clinical trials.
14.1 Erosive Esophagitis (EE) Associated with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
A US multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets 10 mg, 20 mg, or 40 mg once daily was conducted in 603 patients with reflux symptoms and endoscopically diagnosed EE of grade 2 or above (Hetzel-Dent scale). In this study, approximately 25% of enrolled patients had severe EE of grade 3, and 10% had grade 4. The percentages of patients healed (per protocol, n = 541) in this study are shown in Table 8.Table 8: Erosive Esophagitis Healing Rates (Per Protocol)
|Week||–––– Pantoprazole Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets ––––||Placebo (n = 68)|
|10 mg daily (n = 153)||20 mg daily(n = 158)||40 mg daily(n = 162)|
+ (p < 0.001) pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets versus placebo
* (p < 0.05) versus 10 mg or 20 mg pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets
# (p < 0.05) versus 10 mg pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets
In this study, all pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets treatment groups had significantly greater healing rates than the placebo group. This was true regardless of H. pylori status for the 40 mg and 20 mg pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets treatment groups. The 40 mg dose of pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets resulted in healing rates significantly greater than those found with either the 20 mg or 10 mg dose.
A significantly greater proportion of patients taking pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets 40 mg experienced complete relief of daytime and nighttime heartburn and the absence of regurgitation, starting from the first day of treatment, compared with placebo. Patients taking pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets consumed significantly fewer antacid tablets per day than those taking placebo.
Pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets 40 mg and 20 mg once daily were also compared with nizatidine 150 mg twice daily in a US multicenter, double-blind study of 243 patients with reflux symptoms and endoscopically diagnosed EE of grade 2 or above. The percentages of patients healed (per protocol, n = 212) are shown in Table 9.
Table 9: Erosive Esophagitis Healing Rates (Per Protocol)
|Week||–– Pantoprazole Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets –||Nizatidine|
|20 mg daily(n = 72)||40 mg daily(n = 70)||150 mg twice daily(n = 70)|
+ (p < 0.001) pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets versus nizatidine
Once-daily treatment with pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets 40 mg or 20 mg resulted in significantly superior rates of healing at both 4 and 8 weeks compared with twice-daily treatment with 150 mg of nizatidine. For the 40 mg treatment group, significantly greater healing rates compared to nizatidine were achieved regardless of the H. pylori status.
A significantly greater proportion of the patients in the pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets treatment groups experienced complete relief of nighttime heartburn and regurgitation, starting on the first day and of daytime heartburn on the second day, compared with those taking nizatidine 150 mg twice daily. Patients taking pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets consumed significantly fewer antacid tablets per day than those taking nizatidine.
Pediatric Patients Ages 5 Years through 16 Years
The efficacy of pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets in the treatment of EE associated with GERD in pediatric patients ages 5 years through 16 years is extrapolated from adequate and well-conducted trials in adults, as the pathophysiology is thought to be the same. Four pediatric patients with endoscopically diagnosed EE were studied in multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-treatment trials. Children with endoscopically diagnosed EE (defined as an endoscopic Hetzel-Dent score ≥ 2) were treated once daily for 8 weeks with one of two dose levels of pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablets (20 mg or 40 mg). All 4 patients with EE were healed (Hetzel-Dent score of 0 or 1) at 8 weeks.
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