Onpattro: Package Insert and Label Information
ONPATTRO- patisiran sodium injection, lipid complex
Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
ONPATTRO is indicated for the treatment of the polyneuropathy of hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis in adults.
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2.1 Dosing Information
ONPATTRO should be administered by a healthcare professional.
ONPATTRO is administered via intravenous (IV) infusion. Dosing is based on actual body weight.
For patients weighing less than 100 kg, the recommended dosage is 0.3 mg/kg once every 3 weeks.
For patients weighing 100 kg or more, the recommended dosage is 30 mg once every 3 weeks.
If a dose is missed, administer ONPATTRO as soon as possible.
- If ONPATTRO is administered within 3 days of the missed dose, continue dosing according to the patient’s original schedule.
- If ONPATTRO is administered more than 3 days after the missed dose, continue dosing every 3 weeks thereafter.
2.2 Required Premedication
All patients should receive premedication prior to ONPATTRO administration to reduce the risk of infusion-related reactions (IRRs) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Each of the following premedications should be given on the day of ONPATTRO infusion at least 60 minutes prior to the start of infusion:
- Intravenous corticosteroid (e.g., dexamethasone 10 mg, or equivalent)
- Oral acetaminophen (500 mg)
- Intravenous H1 blocker (e.g., diphenhydramine 50 mg, or equivalent)
- Intravenous H2 blocker (e.g., ranitidine 50 mg, or equivalent)
For premedications not available or not tolerated intravenously, equivalents may be administered orally.
For patients who are tolerating their ONPATTRO infusions but experiencing adverse reactions related to the corticosteroid premedication, the corticosteroid may be reduced by 2.5 mg increments to a minimum dose of 5 mg of dexamethasone (intravenous), or equivalent.
Some patients may require additional or higher doses of one or more of the premedications to reduce the risk of IRRs [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
2.3 Preparation Instructions
ONPATTRO must be filtered and diluted prior to intravenous infusion. The diluted solution for infusion should be prepared by a healthcare professional using aseptic technique as follows:
- Remove ONPATTRO from the refrigerator and allow to warm to room temperature. Do not shake or vortex.
- Inspect visually for particulate matter and discoloration. Do not use if discoloration or foreign particles are present. ONPATTRO is a white to off-white, opalescent, homogeneous solution. A white to off-white coating may be observed on the inner surface of the vial, typically at the liquid-headspace interface. Product quality is not impacted by presence of the white to off-white coating.
- Calculate the required dose of ONPATTRO based on the recommended weight-based dosage [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].
- Withdraw the entire contents of one or more vials into a single sterile syringe.
- Filter ONPATTRO through a sterile 0.45 micron polyethersulfone (PES) syringe filter into a sterile container.
- Withdraw the required volume of filtered ONPATTRO from the sterile container using a sterile syringe.
- Dilute the required volume of filtered ONPATTRO into an infusion bag containing 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP for a total volume of 200 mL. Use infusion bags that are di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate-free (DEHP-free).
- Gently invert the bag to mix the solution. Do not shake. Do not mix or dilute with other drugs.
- Discard any unused portion of ONPATTRO.
- ONPATTRO does not contain preservatives. The diluted solution should be administered immediately after preparation. If not used immediately, store in the infusion bag at room temperature (up to 30°C [86°F]) for up to 16 hours (including infusion time). Do not freeze.
2.4 Infusion Instructions
- Use a dedicated line with an infusion set containing a 1.2 micron polyethersulfone (PES) in-line infusion filter. Use infusion sets and lines that are DEHP-free.
- Infuse the diluted solution of ONPATTRO intravenously, via an ambulatory infusion pump, over approximately 80 minutes, at an initial infusion rate of approximately 1 mL/min for the first 15 minutes, then increase to approximately 3 mL/min for the remainder of the infusion. The duration of infusion may be extended in the event of an IRR [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
- Administer only through a free-flowing venous access line. Monitor the infusion site for possible infiltration during drug administration. Suspected extravasation should be managed according to local standard practice for non-vesicants.
- Observe the patient during the infusion and, if clinically indicated, following the infusion [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
- After completion of the infusion, flush the intravenous administration set with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP to ensure that all ONPATTRO has been administered.
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Lipid Complex Injection: 10 mg/5 mL (2 mg/mL) white to off-white, opalescent, homogeneous solution in a single-dose vial.
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Infusion-Related Reactions
Infusion-related reactions (IRRs) have been observed in patients treated with ONPATTRO. In clinical studies, all patients received premedication with a corticosteroid, acetaminophen, and antihistamines (H1 and H2 blockers) to reduce the risk of IRRs. In a controlled clinical study, 19% of ONPATTRO-treated patients experienced IRRs, compared to 9% of placebo-treated patients. Among ONPATTRO-treated patients who experienced an IRR, 79% experienced the first IRR within the first 2 infusions. The frequency of IRRs decreased over time. IRRs led to infusion interruption in 5% of patients. IRRs resulted in permanent discontinuation of ONPATTRO in less than 1% of patients in clinical studies. Across clinical studies, the most common symptoms (reported in greater than 2% of patients) of IRRs with ONPATTRO were flushing, back pain, nausea, abdominal pain, dyspnea, and headache [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Severe hypotension and syncope have been reported as symptoms of IRRs in the expanded access program and postmarketing setting.
Patients should receive premedications on the day of ONPATTRO infusion, at least 60 minutes prior to the start of infusion [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)]. Monitor patients during the infusion for signs and symptoms of IRRs. If an IRR occurs, consider slowing or interrupting the ONPATTRO infusion and instituting medical management (e.g., corticosteroids or other symptomatic treatment), as clinically indicated. If the infusion is interrupted, consider resuming at a slower infusion rate only if symptoms have resolved. In the case of a serious or life-threatening IRR, the infusion should be discontinued and not resumed.
Some patients who experience IRRs may benefit from a slower infusion rate or additional or higher doses of one or more of the premedications with subsequent infusions to reduce the risk of IRRs [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
5.2 Reduced Serum Vitamin A Levels and Recommended Supplementation
ONPATTRO treatment leads to a decrease in serum vitamin A levels. Supplementation at the recommended daily allowance of vitamin A is advised for patients taking ONPATTRO. Higher doses than the recommended daily allowance of vitamin A should not be given to try to achieve normal serum vitamin A levels during treatment with ONPATTRO, as serum vitamin A levels do not reflect the total vitamin A in the body.
Patients should be referred to an ophthalmologist if they develop ocular symptoms suggestive of vitamin A deficiency (e.g., night blindness).
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
The following clinically significant adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling:
- Infusion-Related Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of ONPATTRO cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
A total of 224 patients with polyneuropathy caused by hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis (hATTR amyloidosis) received ONPATTRO in the placebo-controlled and open-label clinical studies, including 186 patients exposed for at least 1 year, 137 patients exposed for at least 2 years, and 52 patients exposed for at least 3 years. In the placebo-controlled study, 148 patients received ONPATTRO for up to 18 months (mean exposure 17.7 months). Baseline demographic and disease characteristics were generally similar between treatment groups. The median age of study patients was 62 years and 74% were male. Seventy-two percent of study patients were Caucasian, 23% were Asian, 2% were Black, and 2% were reported as other. At baseline, 46% of patients were in Stage 1 of the disease and 53% were in Stage 2. Forty-three percent of patients had Val30Met mutations in the transthyretin gene; the remaining patients had 38 other point mutations. Sixty-two percent of ONPATTRO-treated patients had non-Val30Met mutations, compared to 48% of the placebo-treated patients.
Upper respiratory tract infections and infusion-related reactions were the most common adverse reactions. One patient (0.7%) discontinued ONPATTRO because of an infusion-related reaction.
Patients were instructed to take the recommended daily allowance of vitamin A [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Sixty-four percent of patients treated with ONPATTRO had normal vitamin A levels at baseline, and 99% of those with a normal baseline developed low vitamin A levels. In one case, the decreased vitamin A level was reported as an adverse reaction.
Table 1 lists the adverse reactions that occurred in at least 5% of patients in the ONPATTRO-treated group and that occurred at least 3% more frequently than in the placebo-treated group in the randomized controlled clinical trial.
|Upper respiratory tract infections *||29||21|
|Infusion-related reaction †||19||9|
|Dyspnea ‡, §||8||0|
|Muscle spasms ‡||8||1|
Four serious adverse reactions of atrioventricular (AV) heart block (2.7%) occurred in ONPATTRO-treated patients, including 3 cases of complete AV block. No serious adverse reactions of AV block were reported in placebo-treated patients.
Ocular adverse reactions that occurred in 5% or less of ONPATTRO-treated patients in the controlled clinical trial, but in at least 2% of ONPATTRO-treated patients, and more frequently than on placebo, include dry eye (5% vs. 3%), blurred vision (3% vs. 1%), and vitreous floaters (2% vs. 1%).
Extravasation was observed in less than 0.5% of infusions in clinical studies, including cases that were reported as serious. Signs and symptoms included phlebitis or thrombophlebitis, infusion or injection site swelling, dermatitis (subcutaneous inflammation), cellulitis, erythema or injection site redness, burning sensation, or injection site pain.
The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. In addition, the observed incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors, including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies to ONPATTRO in the studies described below with the incidence of antibodies in other studies or to other products may be misleading.
Anti-drug antibodies to ONPATTRO were evaluated by measuring antibodies specific to PEG2000 -C-DMG, a lipid component exposed on the surface of ONPATTRO. In the placebo-controlled and open-label clinical studies, 7 of 194 (3.6%) patients with hATTR amyloidosis developed anti-drug antibodies during treatment with ONPATTRO. One additional patient had pre-existing anti-drug antibodies. There was no evidence of an effect of anti-drug antibodies on clinical efficacy, safety, or the pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic profiles of ONPATTRO. Although these data do not demonstrate an impact of anti-drug antibody development on the efficacy or safety of ONPATTRO in these patients, the available data are too limited to make definitive conclusions.
6.3 Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of ONPATTRO. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Symptoms of infusion-related reactions have included syncope [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] and pruritus.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to ONPATTRO during pregnancy. Physicians are encouraged to enroll pregnant patients, or pregnant women may register themselves in the program by calling 1-877-256-9526 or by contacting email@example.com.
There are no available data on ONPATTRO use in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk of adverse developmental outcomes. ONPATTRO treatment leads to a decrease in serum vitamin A levels, and vitamin A supplementation is advised for patients taking ONPATTRO. Vitamin A is essential for normal embryofetal development; however, excessive levels of vitamin A are associated with adverse developmental effects. The effects on the fetus of a reduction in maternal serum TTR caused by ONPATTRO and of vitamin A supplementation are unknown [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
In animal studies, intravenous administration of patisiran lipid complex (patisiran-LC) to pregnant rabbits resulted in developmental toxicity (embryofetal mortality and reduced fetal body weight) at doses that were also associated with maternal toxicity. No adverse developmental effects were observed when patisiran-LC or a rodent-specific (pharmacologically active) surrogate were administered to pregnant rats (see Data).
In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown.
Intravenous administration of patisiran-LC (0, 0.15, 0.50, or 1.5 mg/kg) or a rodent-specific (pharmacologically active) surrogate (1.5 mg/kg) to female rats every week for two weeks prior to mating and continuing throughout organogenesis resulted in no adverse effects on fertility or embryofetal development.
Intravenous administration of patisiran-LC (0, 0.1, 0.3, or 0.6 mg/kg) to pregnant rabbits every week during the period of organogenesis produced no adverse effects on embryofetal development. In a separate study, patisiran-LC (0, 0.3, 1, or 2 mg/kg), administered to pregnant rabbits every week during the period of organogenesis, resulted in embryofetal mortality and reduced fetal body weight at the mid and high doses, which were associated with maternal toxicity.
Intravenous administration of patisiran-LC (0, 0.15, 0.50, or 1.5 mg/kg) or a rodent-specific surrogate (1.5 mg/kg) to pregnant rats every week throughout pregnancy and lactation resulted in no adverse developmental effects on the offspring.
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