Omeprazole: Package Insert and Label Information

OMEPRAZOLE- omeprazole capsule, delayed release pellets
McKesson Packaging Services Business Unit of McKesson Corporation

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

1.1 DUODENAL ULCER (ADULTS)

Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules are indicated for short-term treatment of active duodenal ulcer in adults. Most patients heal within four weeks. Some patients may require an additional four weeks of therapy.

Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules in combination with clarithromycin and amoxicillin, are indicated for treatment of patients with H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease (active or up to 1-year history) to eradicate H. pylori in adults.

Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules, in combination with clarithromycin are indicated for treatment of patients with H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease to eradicate H. pylori in adults.

Eradication of H. pylori has been shown to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence [see Clinical Studies (14.1) and Dosage and Administration (2) ].

Among patients who fail therapy, omeprazole with clarithromycin is more likely to be associated with the development of clarithromycin resistance as compared with triple therapy. In patients who fail therapy, susceptibility testing should be done. If resistance to clarithromycin is demonstrated or susceptibility testing is not possible, alternative antimicrobial therapy should be instituted. [See Microbiology section (12.4) ], and the clarithromycin package insert, Microbiology section.)

1.2 Gastric Ulcer (adults)

Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules are indicated for short-term treatment (4-8 weeks) of active benign gastric ulcer in adults. [See Clinical Studies (14.2) ]

1.3 Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) (adults and pediatric patients)

Symptomatic GERD

Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules are indicated for the treatment of heartburn and other symptoms associated with GERD in pediatric patients and adults.

Erosive Esophagitis

Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules are indicated for the short-term treatment (4-8 weeks) of erosive esophagitis that has been diagnosed by endoscopy in pediatric patients and adults. [See Clinical Studies (14.4) ]

The efficacy of omeprazole used for longer than 8 weeks in these patients has not been established. If a patient does not respond to 8 weeks of treatment, an additional 4 weeks of treatment may be given. If there is recurrence of erosive esophagitis or GERD symptoms (e.g., heartburn), additional 4-8 week courses of omeprazole may be considered.

1.4 Maintenance of Healing of Erosive Esophagitis (adults and pediatric patients)

Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules are indicated to maintain healing of erosive esophagitis in pediatric patients and adults. Controlled studies do not extend beyond 12 months. [See Clinical Studies (14.4) ]

1.5 Pathological Hypersecretory Conditions (adults)

Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules are indicated for the long-term treatment of pathological hypersecretory conditions (e.g., Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, multiple endocrine adenomas and systemic mastocytosis) in adults.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules should be taken before eating. In the clinical trials, antacids were used concomitantly with omeprazole.

Patients should be informed that the Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsule should be swallowed whole.

For patients unable to swallow an intact capsule, alternative administration options are available. [See Dosage and Administration (2.8) ]

2.1 Short-Term Treatment of Active Duodenal Ulcer

The recommended adult oral dose of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules is 20 mg once daily. Most patients heal within four weeks. Some patients may require an additional four weeks of therapy.

2.2 H. pylori Eradication for the Reduction of the Risk of Duodenal Ulcer Recurrence

Triple Therapy (omeprazole/clarithromycin/amoxicillin) — The recommended adult oral regimen is omeprazole 20 mg plus clarithromycin 500 mg plus amoxicillin 1000 mg each given twice daily for 10 days. In patients with an ulcer present at the time of initiation of therapy, an additional 18 days of omeprazole 20 mg once daily is recommended for ulcer healing and symptom relief.

Dual Therapy (omeprazole/clarithromycin) — The recommended adult oral regimen is omeprazole 40 mg once daily plus clarithromycin 500 mg three times daily for 14 days. In patients with an ulcer present at the time of initiation of therapy, an additional 14 days of omeprazole 20 mg once daily is recommended for ulcer healing and symptom relief.

2.3 Gastric Ulcer

The recommended adult oral dose is 40 mg once daily for 4-8 weeks.

2.4 Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

The recommended adult oral dose for the treatment of patients with symptomatic GERD and no esophageal lesions is 20 mg daily for up to 4 weeks. The recommended adult oral dose for the treatment of patients with erosive esophagitis and accompanying symptoms due to GERD is 20 mg daily for 4 to 8 weeks.

2.5 Maintenance of Healing of Erosive Esophagitis

The recommended adult oral dose is 20 mg daily. [See Clinical Studies (14.4) ]

2.6 Pathological Hypersecretory Conditions

The dosage of omeprazole in patients with pathological hypersecretory conditions varies with the individual patient. The recommended adult oral starting dose is 60 mg once daily. Doses should be adjusted to individual patient needs and should continue for as long as clinically indicated. Doses up to 120 mg three times daily have been administered. Daily dosages of greater than 80 mg should be administered in divided doses. Some patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome have been treated continuously with omeprazole for more than 5 years.

2.7 Pediatric Patients

For the treatment of GERD and maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis, the recommended daily dose for pediatric patients 2 to 16 years of age is as follows:

Patient Weight Omeprazole Daily Dose
10 < 20 kg 10 mg
≥ 20 kg 20 mg

On a per kg basis, the doses of omeprazole required to heal erosive esophagitis in pediatric patients are greater than those for adults.

Alternative administrative options can be used for pediatric patients unable to swallow an intact capsule [See Dosage and Administration (2.8) ].

2.8 Alternative Administration Options

Omeprazole is available as a delayed-release capsule.

For patients who have difficulty swallowing capsules, the contents of an Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsule can be added to applesauce. One tablespoon of applesauce should be added to an empty bowl and the capsule should be opened. All of the microtablets inside the capsule should be carefully emptied on the applesauce. The microtablets should be mixed with the applesauce and then swallowed immediately with a glass of cool water to ensure complete swallowing of the microtablets. The applesauce used should not be hot and should be soft enough to be swallowed without chewing. The microtablets should not be chewed or crushed. The microtablets/applesauce mixture should not be stored for future use.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules, 10 mg, are opaque white cap and opaque white body capsules imprinted with “KU” and “114” in black ink.

Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules, 20 mg, are opaque white cap and opaque gold body capsules imprinted with “KU” and “118” in black ink.

Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules, 40 mg, are opaque gold cap and opaque gold body capsules imprinted with “KU” and “136” in black ink.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to any component of the formulation. Hypersensitivity reactions may include anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock, angioedema, bronchospasm, interstitial nephritis, and urticaria [see Adverse Reactions (6) ].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Concomitant Gastric Malignancy

Symptomatic response to therapy with omeprazole does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy.

5.2 Atrophic Gastritis

Atrophic gastritis has been noted occasionally in gastric corpus biopsies from patients treated long-term with omeprazole.

5.3 Combination Use of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules with Amoxicillin

Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients on penicillin therapy. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. Before initiating therapy with amoxicillin, careful inquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins or other allergens. If an allergic reaction occurs, amoxicillin should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted. Serious anaphylactic reactions require immediate emergency treatment with epinephrine. Oxygen, intravenous steroids and airway management, including intubation, should also be administered as indicated.

Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhea subsequent to the administration of antibacterial agents.

Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon and may permit overgrowth of clostridia. Studies indicate that a toxin produced by Clostridium difficile is a primary cause of “antibiotic-associated colitis.”

After the diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis has been established, therapeutic measures should be initiated. Mild cases of pseudomembranous colitis usually respond to discontinuation of the drug alone. In moderate to severe cases, consideration should be given to management with fluids and electrolytes, protein supplementation, and treatment with an antibacterial drug clinically effective against Clostridium difficile colitis.

5.4 Combination Use of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules with Clarithromycin

Clarithromycin should not be used in pregnant women except in clinical circumstances where no alternative therapy is appropriate. If pregnancy occurs while taking clarithromycin, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. (See Warnings in prescribing information for clarithromycin.)

Co-administration of omeprazole and clarithromycin has resulted in increases in plasma levels of omeprazole, clarithromycin, and 14-hydroxy-clarithromycin. [See Clinical Pharmacology (12) ]

Concomitant administration of clarithromycin with cisapride or pimozide, is contraindicated.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules Monotherapy

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

The safety data described below reflects exposure to omeprazole in 3096 patients from worldwide clinical trials (465 patients from US studies and 2,631 patients from international studies). Indications clinically studied in US trials included duodenal ulcer, resistant ulcer, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The international clinical trials were double blind and open-label in design. The most common adverse reactions reported (i.e., with an incidence rate ≥ 2%) from omeprazole-treated patients enrolled in these studies included headache (6.9%), abdominal pain (5.2%), nausea (4.0%), diarrhea (3.7%), vomiting (3.2%), and flatulence (2.7%).

Additional adverse reactions that were reported with an incidence ≥1% included acid regurgitation (1.9%), upper respiratory infection (1.9%), constipation (1.5%), dizziness (1.5%), rash (1.5%), asthenia (1.3%), back pain (1.1%), and cough (1.1%).

The clinical trial safety profile in patients greater than 65 years of age was similar to that in patients 65 years of age or less.

The clinical trial safety profile in pediatric patients who received omeprazole was similar to that in adult patients. Unique to the pediatric population, however, adverse reactions of the respiratory system were most frequently reported in the 2 to 16 year age groups (18.5%). Similarly, accidental injuries were reported frequently in the 2 to 16 year age group (3.8%).[See Use in Specific Populations (8.4) ]

6.2 Clinical Trials Experience with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules in Combination Therapy for H. pylori

Eradication

In clinical trials using either dual therapy with omeprazole and clarithromycin, or triple therapy with omeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, no adverse reactions unique to these drug combinations were observed. Adverse reactions observed were limited to those previously reported with omeprazole, clarithromycin, or amoxicillin alone.

Dual Therapy (omeprazole/clarithromycin)
Adverse reactions observed in controlled clinical trials using combination therapy with omeprazole and clarithromycin (n = 346) that differed from those previously described for omeprazole alone were taste perversion (15%), tongue discoloration (2%), rhinitis (2%), pharyngitis (1%) and flu-syndrome (1%). (For more information on clarithromycin, refer to the clarithromycin prescribing information, Adverse Reactions section).

Triple Therapy (omeprazole/clarithromycin/amoxicillin)
The most frequent adverse reactions observed in clinical trials using combination therapy with omeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin (n = 274) were diarrhea (14%), taste perversion (10%), and headache (7%). None of these occurred at a higher frequency than that reported by patients taking antimicrobial agents alone. (For more information on clarithromycin or amoxicillin, refer to the respective prescribing information, Adverse Reactions sections).

6.3 Post-marketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules. Because these reactions are voluntarily reported from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their actual frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Body As a Whole: Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock, angioedema, bronchospasm, interstitial nephritis, urticaria, (see also Skin below); fever; pain; fatigue; malaise;

Cardiovascular: Chest pain or angina, tachycardia, bradycardia, palpitations, elevated blood pressure, peripheral edema

Endocrine: Gynecomastia

Gastrointestinal: Pancreatitis (some fatal), anorexia, irritable colon, fecal discoloration, esophageal candidiasis, mucosal atrophy of the tongue, stomatitis, abdominal swelling, dry mouth. During treatment with omeprazole, gastric fundic gland polyps have been noted rarely. These polyps are benign and appear to be reversible when treatment is discontinued. Gastroduodenal carcinoids have been reported in patients with ZE syndrome on long-term treatment with omeprazole. This finding is believed to be a manifestation of the underlying condition, which is known to be associated with such tumors.

Hepatic: Liver disease including hepatic failure (some fatal), liver necrosis (some fatal), hepatic encephalopathy hepatocellular disease, cholestatic disease, mixed hepatitis, jaundice, and elevations of liver function tests [ALT, AST, GGT, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin]

Metabolic/Nutritional: Hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, weight gain

Musculoskeletal: Muscle weakness, myalgia, muscle cramps, joint pain, leg pain

Nervous System/Psychiatric: Psychiatric and sleep disturbances including depression, agitation, aggression, hallucinations, confusion, insomnia, nervousness, apathy, somnolence, anxiety, and dream abnormalities; tremors, paresthesia; vertigo

Respiratory: Epistaxis, pharyngeal pain

Skin: Severe generalized skin reactions including toxic epidermal necrolysis (some fatal), Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and erythema multiforme; photosensitivity; urticaria; rash; skin inflammation; pruritus; petechiae; purpura; alopecia; dry skin; hyperhidrosis

Special Senses: Tinnitus, taste perversion

Ocular: Optic atrophy, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, optic neuritis, dry eye syndrome, ocular irritation, blurred vision, double vision

Urogenital: Interstitial nephritis, hematuria, proteinuria, elevated serum creatinine, microscopic pyuria, urinary tract infection, glycosuria, urinary frequency, testicular pain

Hematologic: Agranulocytosis (some fatal), hemolytic anemia, pancytopenia, neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, leucocytosis

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