Olmesartan Medoxomil: Package Insert and Label Information
OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL- olmesartan medoxomil tablet, film coated
ScieGen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Olmesartan Medoxomil Tablets
WARNING: FETAL TOXICITY
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Olmesartan medoxomil tablets are indicated for the treatment of hypertension in adults and children six years of age and older, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including the class to which this drug principally belongs. There are no controlled trials demonstrating risk reduction with olmesartan medoxomil.
Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC).
Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly.
Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal.
Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy.
It may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2.1 Adult Hypertension
Dosage must be individualized. The usual recommended starting dose of olmesartan medoxomil tablets is 20 mg once daily when used as monotherapy in patients who are not volume-contracted. For patients requiring further reduction in blood pressure after 2 weeks of therapy, the dose of olmesartan medoxomil tablets may be increased to 40 mg. Doses above 40 mg do not appear to have greater effect. Twice-daily dosing offers no advantage over the same total dose given once daily.
For patients with possible depletion of intravascular volume (e.g., patients treated with diuretics, particularly those with impaired renal function), initiate olmesartan medoximil under close medical supervision and give consideration to use of a lower starting dose [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
2.2 Pediatric Hypertension (6 Years of Age and Older)
Dosage must be individualized. For children who can swallow tablets, the usual recommended starting dose of olmesartan medoxomil tablets is 10 mg once daily for patients who weigh 20 to <35 kg (44 to 77 lb), or 20 mg once daily for patients who weigh ≥35 kg. For patients requiring further reduction in blood pressure after 2 weeks of therapy, the dose of olmesartan medoxomil tablets may be increased to a maximum of 20 mg once daily for patients who weigh <35 kg or 40 mg once daily for patients who weigh ≥35 kg.
Use of olmesartan medoxomil tablets in children <1 year of age is not recommended [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Use in Specific Populations (8.4)] .
For children who cannot swallow tablets, the same dose can be given using an extemporaneous suspension as described below [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . Follow the suspension preparation instructions below to administer Olmesartan medoxomil tablets as a suspension.
Preparation of Suspension (for 200 mL of a 2 mg/mL suspension)
Add 50 mL of Purified Water to an amber polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle containing twenty Olmesartan medoxomil 20 mg tablets and allow to stand for a minimum of 5 minutes. Shake the container for at least 1 minute and allow the suspension to stand for at least 1 minute. Repeat 1-minute shaking and 1-minute standing for four additional times. Add 100 mL of ORA-Sweet
® and 50 mL of ORA-Plus
®* to the suspension and shake well for at least 1 minute. The suspension should be refrigerated at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F) and can be stored for up to 4 weeks. Shake the suspension well before each use and return promptly to the refrigerator.
*ORA-Sweet ® and ORA-Plus ® are registered trademarks of Paddock Laboratories, Inc.
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
- 5 mg yellow, round, film coated tablets, debossed with “SG” on one side and “339” on other side.
- 20 mg white, round, film coated tablets, debossed with “SG” on one side and “340” on other side.
- 40 mg white, oval, film coated tablets, debossed with “SG” on one side and “341” on other side.
Do not co-administer aliskiren with olmesartan medoxomil in patients with diabetes [See Drug Interactions (7.3)].
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Fetal Toxicity
Olmesartan medoxomil can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue olmesartan medoxomil as soon as possible [ see Use in specific Populations ( 8.1)] .
5.2 Morbidity in Infants
Use of olmesartan medoxomil tablets in children <1 year of age is not recommended. Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) can have effects on the development of immature kidneys [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)] .
5.3 Hypotension in Volume- or Salt-Depleted Patients
In patients with an activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, such as volume- and/or salt-depleted patients (e.g., those being treated with high doses of diuretics), symptomatic hypotension may be anticipated after initiation of treatment with olmesartan medoxomil. Initiate treatment under close medical supervision and consider starting at a lower dose. If hypotension does occur, place the patient in the supine position and, if necessary, give an intravenous infusion of normal saline [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)] . A transient hypotensive response is not a contraindication to further treatment, which usually can be continued without difficulty once the blood pressure has stabilized.
5.4 Impaired Renal Function
As a consequence of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, changes in renal function may be anticipated in susceptible individuals treated with olmesartan medoxomil. In patients whose renal function may depend upon the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (e.g., patients with severe congestive heart failure), treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists has been associated with oliguria and/or progressive azotemia and rarely with acute renal failure and/or death. Similar results may be anticipated in patients treated with olmesartan medoxomil [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Drug Interactions (7.3), Use in Specific Populations (8.7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .
In studies of ACE inhibitors in patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, increases in serum creatinine or blood urea nitrogen (BUN) have been reported. There has been no long-term use of olmesartan medoxomil in patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, but similar results may be expected.
5.5 Sprue-like Enteropathy
Severe, chronic diarrhea with substantial weight loss has been reported in patients taking olmesartan months to years after drug initiation. Intestinal biopsies of patients often demonstrated villous atrophy. If a patient develops these symptoms during treatment with olmesartan, exclude other etiologies. Consider alternative antihypertensive therapy in cases where no other etiology is identified.
. Serum potassium should be monitored in patients receiving olmesartan medoxomil tablets. Drugs that inhibit the renin angiotensin system can cause hyperkalemia. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalemia include renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, and the concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements and/or potassium-containing salt substitutes [see Drug Interactions (7.3)] .
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Olmesartan medoxomil has been evaluated for safety in more than 3825 patients/subjects, including more than 3275 patients treated for hypertension in controlled trials. This experience included about 900 patients treated for at least 6 months and more than 525 for at least 1 year. Events generally were mild, transient and had no relationship to the dose of olmesartan medoxomil.
Analysis of gender, age and race groups demonstrated no differences between olmesartan medoxomil and placebo-treated patients. The rate of withdrawals due to adverse reactions in all trials of hypertensive patients was 2.4% (i.e., 79/3278) of patients treated with olmesartan medoxomil and 2.7% (i.e., 32/1179) of control patients. In placebo-controlled trials, the only adverse reaction that occurred in more than 1% of patients treated with olmesartan medoxomil and at a higher incidence versus placebo was dizziness (3% vs. 1%).
Facial edema was reported in five patients receiving olmesartan medoxomil. Angioedema has been reported with angiotensin II antagonists.
No relevant differences were identified between the adverse experience profile for pediatric patients aged 1 to 16 years and that previously reported for adult patients.
6.2 Post-Marketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been reported in post-marketing experience. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Body as a Whole: Asthenia, angioedema, anaphylactic reactions
Gastrointestinal: Vomiting, sprue-like enteropathy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Hyperkalemia
Urogenital System: Acute renal failure, increased blood creatinine levels
Skin and Appendages: Alopecia, pruritus, urticaria
Data from one controlled trial and an epidemiologic study have suggested that high-dose olmesartan may increase cardiovascular (CV) risk in diabetic patients, but the overall data are not conclusive. The randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind ROADMAP trial (Randomized Olmesartan And Diabetes MicroAlbuminuria Prevention trial, n=4447) examined the use of olmesartan, 40 mg daily, vs. placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, normoalbuminuria, and at least one additional risk factor for CV disease. The trial met its primary endpoint, delayed onset of microalbuminuria, but olmesartan had no beneficial effect on decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). There was a finding of increased CV mortality (adjudicated sudden cardiac death, fatal myocardial infarction, fatal stroke, revascularization death) in the olmesartan group compared to the placebo group (15 olmesartan vs. 3 placebo, HR 4.9, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4, 17), but the risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction was lower with olmesartan (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.35, 1.18).
The epidemiologic study included patients 65 years and older with overall exposure of > 300,000 patient-years. In the sub-group of diabetic patients receiving high-dose olmesartan (40 mg/d) for > 6 months, there appeared to be an increased risk of death (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1, 3.8) compared to similar patients taking other angiotensin receptor blockers. In contrast, high-dose olmesartan use in non-diabetic patients appeared to be associated with a decreased risk of death (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.24, 0.86) compared to similar patients taking other angiotensin receptor blockers. No differences were observed between the groups receiving lower doses of olmesartan compared to other angiotensin blockers or those receiving therapy for < 6 months.
Overall, these data raise a concern of a possible increased CV risk associated with the use of high-dose olmesartan in diabetic patients. There are, however, concerns with the credibility of the finding of increased CV risk, notably the observation in the large epidemiologic study for a survival benefit in non-diabetics of a magnitude similar to the adverse finding in diabetics.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
7.1 Agents Increasing Serum Potassium
Concomitant use of olmesartan with other agents that block the renin-angiotensin system, potassium-sparing diuretics (e.g., spironolactone, triamterene, amiloride), potassium supplements, salt substitutes containing potassium or other drugs that may increase potassium levels (e.g., heparin) may lead to increases in serum potassium. If co-medication is considered necessary, monitoring of serum potassium is advisable.
7.2 Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents Including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors)
In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, co-administration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including olmesartan medoxomil, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving olmesartan medoxomil and NSAID therapy.
The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including olmesartan medoxomil, may be attenuated by NSAIDs including selective COX-2 inhibitors.
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