The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of the individual components of olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide tablets. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Olmesartan medoxomil. The following adverse reactions have been reported in postmarketing experience:
Body as a Whole: asthenia, angioedema, anaphylactic reactions, peripheral edema
Gastrointestinal: vomiting, diarrhea, sprue-like enteropathy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)]
Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: hyperkalemia
Urogenital System: acute renal failure, increased blood creatinine
Skin and Appendages: alopecia, pruritus, urticaria
Data from one controlled trial and an epidemiologic study have suggested that high-dose olmesartan may increase cardiovascular (CV) risk in diabetic patients, but the overall data are not conclusive. The randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind ROADMAP trial (Randomized Olmesartan And Diabetes MicroAlbuminuria Prevention trial, n = 4447) examined the use of olmesartan, 40 mg daily, vs. placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, normoalbuminuria, and at least one additional risk factor for CV disease. The trial met its primary endpoint, delayed onset of microalbuminuria, but olmesartan had no beneficial effect on decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). There was a finding of increased CV mortality (adjudicated sudden cardiac death, fatal myocardial infarction, fatal stroke, revascularization death) in the olmesartan group compared to the placebo group (15 olmesartan vs. 3 placebo, HR 4.9, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4, 17), but the risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction was lower with olmesartan (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.35, 1.18).
The epidemiologic study included patients 65 years and older with overall exposure of > 300,000 patient-years. In the sub-group of diabetic patients receiving high-dose olmesartan (40 mg/d) for > 6 months, there appeared to be an increased risk of death (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1, 3.8) compared to similar patients taking other angiotensin receptor blockers. In contrast, high-dose olmesartan use in non-diabetic patients appeared to be associated with a decreased risk of death (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.24, 0.86) compared to similar patients taking other angiotensin receptor blockers. No differences were observed between the groups receiving lower doses of olmesartan compared to other angiotensin blockers or those receiving therapy for < 6 months.
Overall, these data raise a concern of a possible increased CV risk associated with the use of high-dose olmesartan in diabetic patients. There are, however, concerns with the credibility of the finding of increased CV risk, notably the observation in the large epidemiologic study for a survival benefit in non-diabetics of a magnitude similar to the adverse finding in diabetics.
Amlodipine. The following postmarketing event has been reported infrequently where a causal relationship is uncertain: gynecomastia. In postmarketing experience, jaundice and hepatic enzyme elevations (mostly consistent with cholestasis or hepatitis), in some cases severe enough to require hospitalization, have been reported in association with use of amlodipine. Postmarketing reporting has also revealed a possible association between extrapyramidal disorder and amlodipine.
Non-melanoma Skin Cancer
Hydrochlorothiazide is associated with an increased risk of non-melanoma skin cancer. In a study conducted in the Sentinel System, increased risk was predominantly for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and in white patients taking large cumulative doses. The increased risk for SCC in the overall population was approximately 1 additional case per 16,000 patients per year, and for white patients taking a cumulative dose of ≥50,000mg the risk increase was approximately 1 additional SCC case for every 6,700 patients per year.
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors): In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, coadministration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including olmesartan medoxomil, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving olmesartan medoxomil and NSAID therapy.
The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including olmesartan medoxomil may be attenuated by NSAIDs including selective COX-2 inhibitors.
Dual Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS): Dual blockade of the RAS with angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with increased risks of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. Most patients receiving the combination of two RAS inhibitors do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. In general, avoid combined use of RAS inhibitors. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function and electrolytes in patients on olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide tablets and other agents that affect the RAS.
Do not coadminister aliskiren with olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide tablets in patients with diabetes [see Contraindications (4)]. Avoid use of aliskiren with olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide tablets in patients with renal impairment (GFR <60 ml/min).
Use with Colesevelam Hydrochloride: Concurrent administration of bile acid sequestering agent colesevelam hydrochloride reduces the systemic exposure and peak plasma concentration of olmesartan. Administration of olmesartan at least 4 hours prior to colesevelam hydrochloride decreased the drug interaction effect. Consider administering olmesartan at least 4 hours before the colesevelam hydrochloride dose [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Lithium: Increases in serum lithium concentrations and lithium toxicity have been reported with concomitant use of olmesartan or thiazide diuretics. Monitor lithium levels in patients receiving olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide and lithium.
Simvastatin: Coadministration of simvastatin with amlodipine increases the systemic exposure of simvastatin. Limit the dose of simvastatin in patients on amlodipine to 20 mg daily [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Immunosuppressants: Amlodipine may increase the systemic exposure of cyclosporine or tacrolimus when coadministered. Frequent monitoring of trough blood levels of cyclosporine and tacrolimus is recommended and adjust the dose when appropriate [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
CYP3A Inhibitors: Coadministration of amlodipine with CYP3A inhibitors (moderate and strong) results in increased systemic exposure to amlodipine and may require dose reduction. Monitor for symptoms of hypotension and edema when amlodipine is coadministered with CYP3A inhibitors to determine the need for dose adjustment.
CYP3A Inducers: No information is available on the quantitative effects of CYP3A inducers on amlodipine. Blood pressure should be closely monitored when amlodipine is coadministered with CYP3A inducers.
When administered concurrently the following drugs may interact with thiazide diuretics:
Antidiabetic Drugs (oral agents and insulin): Dosage adjustment of the antidiabetic drug may be required.
Cholestyramine and Colestipol Resins: Absorption of hydrochlorothiazide is impaired in the presence of anionic exchange resins. Single dose of either cholestyramine or colestipol resins bind the hydrochlorothiazide and reduce its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract by up to 85% and 43%, respectively.
Corticosteroids, ACTH: Intensified electrolyte depletion, particularly hypokalemia.Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs: In some patients the administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent can reduce the diuretic, natriuretic, and antihypertensive effects of loop, potassium-sparing and thiazide diuretics. Therefore, when hydrochlorothiazide tablets and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents are used concomitantly, the patients should be observed closely to determine if the desired effect of the diuretic is obtained.
Olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide tablets can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death [see Clinical Considerations]. Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents.
When pregnancy is detected, discontinue olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide tablets as soon as possible. Consider alternative antihypertensive therapy during pregnancy.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk
Hypertension in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, premature delivery, and delivery complications (e.g., need for cesarean section and post-partum hemorrhage). Hypertension increases the fetal risk for intrauterine growth restriction and intrauterine death. Pregnant women with hypertension should be carefully monitored and managed accordingly.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Oligohydramnios in pregnant women who use drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy can result in the following: reduced fetal renal function leading to anuria and renal failure, fetal lung hypoplasia, skeletal deformations, including skull hypoplasia, hypotension, and death.
Perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of gestation. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury.
Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to olmesartan for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia. In neonates with a history of in utero exposure to olmesartan, if oliguria or hypotension occur, utilize measures to maintain adequate blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and supporting renal function [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].
Thiazides can cross the placenta, and concentrations reached in the umbilical vein approach those in the maternal plasma. Hydrochlorothiazide, like other diuretics, can cause placental hypoperfusion. It accumulates in the amniotic fluid, with reported concentrations up to 19 times that in umbilical vein plasma. Use of thiazides during pregnancy is associated with a risk of fetal or neonatal jaundice or thrombocytopenia. Since they do not prevent or alter the course of preeclampsia, these drugs should not be used to treat hypertension in pregnant women. The use of HCTZ for other indications (e.g., heart disease) in pregnancy should be avoided.
No reproductive studies have been conducted with the combination of olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide. However, these studies have been conducted for olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide alone, and olmesartan medoxomil and hydrochlorothiazide together.
No teratogenic effects were observed when olmesartan medoxomil was administered to pregnant rats at oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day (240 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] on a mg/m2 basis) or pregnant rabbits at oral doses up to 1 mg/kg/day (half the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis; higher doses could not be evaluated for effects on fetal development as they were lethal to the does). In rats, significant decreases in pup birth weight and weight gain were observed at doses ≥1.6 mg/kg/day, and delays in developmental milestones (delayed separation of ear auricular, eruption of lower incisors, appearance of abdominal hair, descent of testes, and separation of eyelids) and dose-dependent increases in the incidence of dilation of the renal pelvis were observed at doses ≥8 mg/kg/day. The no observed effect dose for developmental toxicity in rats is 0.3 mg/kg/day, about one-tenth the MRHD of 40 mg/day.
Olmesartan medoxomil and Hydrochlorothiazide.
No teratogenic effects were observed when 1.6:1 combinations of olmesartan medoxomil and hydrochlorothiazide were administered to pregnant mice at oral doses up to 1625 mg/kg/day (122 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) or pregnant rats up to 1625 mg/kg/day (243 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) or pregnant rabbits at oral doses up to 1 mg/kg/day (0.3 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). In rats, however, fetal body weights at 1625 mg/kg/day (a toxic, sometimes lethal dose in the dams) were significantly lower than control. The no observed effect dose for developmental toxicity in rats is 162.5 mg/kg/day, about 24 times, on a mg/m2 basis, the MRHD of 40 mg olmesartan medoxomil/25 mg hydrochlorothiazide/day. (Calculations based on a 60 kg patient.)
No evidence of teratogenicity or other embryo/fetal toxicity was found when pregnant rats and rabbits were treated orally with amlodipine maleate at doses of up to 10 mg amlodipine/kg/day (respectively about 10 and 20 times the maximum recommended human dose of 10 mg amlodipine on a mg/m2 basis) during their respective periods of major organogenesis (calculations based on a patient weight of 60 kg). However, litter size was significantly decreased (by about 50%), and the number of intrauterine deaths was significantly increased (about 5-fold) in rats receiving amlodipine maleate at a dose equivalent to 10 mg amlodipine/kg/day for 14 days before mating and throughout mating and gestation. Amlodipine maleate has been shown to prolong both the gestational period and the duration of labor in rats at this dose.
No teratogenic effects were observed when hydrochlorothiazide was administered to mice and rats via gavage at doses up to 3000 and 1000 mg/kg/day, respectively (about 600 and 400 times the MRHD), on gestation days 6 through 15.
There is limited information regarding the presence olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide are present in human milk. Olmesartan is present in rat milk [see Data]. Because of the potential for adverse effects on the nursing infant, advise a nursing woman that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide tablets.
Presence of olmesartan in milk was observed after a single oral administration of 5 mg/kg [14 C] olmesartan medoxomil to lactating rats.
The safety and effectiveness of olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide tablets in pediatric patients have not been established.
Olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide tablets. In a controlled clinical trial, 123 hypertensive patients treated with olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide tablets were ≥65 years of age and 18 patients were ≥75 years of age. No overall differences in the efficacy or safety of olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide tablets were observed in these patient populations; however, greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. The recommended initial dose of amlodipine in patients ≥75 years of age is 2.5 mg, a dose not available with olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide tablets.
There are no studies of olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide tablets in patients with hepatic insufficiency, but both amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil show moderate increases in exposure in patients with severe hepatic impairment. The recommended initial dose of amlodipine in patients with severe hepatic impairment is 2.5 mg, a dose not available with olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide tablets [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5)].
Amlodipine. Amlodipine is extensively metabolized by the liver and the plasma elimination half-life (t½ ) is 56 hours in patients with severely impaired hepatic function.
Olmesartan medoxomil. Increases in AUC0-∞ and peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) for olmesartan were observed with moderate hepatic impairment compared to those in matched controls with an increase in AUC of about 60%.
Hydrochlorothiazide. In patients with impaired hepatic function or progressive liver disease, minor alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance may precipitate hepatic coma.
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