Olanzapine and Fluoxetine: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 8 of 13)
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to psychiatric medications, including olanzapine and fluoxetine capsules, during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by contacting the National Pregnancy Registry for Psychiatric Medications at 1-866-961-2388 or https://womensmentalhealth.org/clinical-and-research-programs/pregnancyregistry/.
Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs, including the olanzapine component of olanzapine and fluoxetine capsules, during the third trimester are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery (see Clinical Considerations). Overall available data from published epidemiologic studies and postmarketing reports of pregnant women exposed to olanzapine or fluoxetine have not established a drug-associated increased risk of major birth defects or miscarriage (see Data). Some studies in pregnant women exposed to fluoxetine have reported an increased incidence of cardiovascular malformations; however, these studies results do not establish a causal relationship (see Data). There are risks associated with untreated depression in pregnancy and risks of persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) (see Data) and poor neonatal adaptation with exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including fluoxetine, during pregnancy (see Clinical Considerations). Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs, including the olanzapine component of olanzapine and fluoxetine capsules, during the third trimester are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery (see Clinical Considerations).
In animal studies, administration of the combination of olanzapine and fluoxetine during the period of organogenesis resulted in adverse effects on development (decreased fetal body weights in rats and rabbits and retarded skeletal ossification in rabbits) at maternally toxic doses greater than those used clinically. When administered to rats throughout pregnancy and lactation, an increase in early postnatal mortality was observed at doses similar to those used clinically (see Data).
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defects, miscarriage, or another adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk
Women who discontinue antidepressants during pregnancy are more likely to experience a relapse of major depression than women who continue antidepressants. This finding is from a prospective, longitudinal study that followed 201 pregnant women with a history of major depressive disorder who were euthymic and taking antidepressants at the beginning of pregnancy. Consider the risk of untreated depression when discontinuing or changing treatment with antidepressant medication during pregnancy and the postpartum.
Fetal/Neonatal adverse reactions
Extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms, including agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress and feeding disorder have been reported in neonates who were exposed to antipsychotic drugs, including olanzapine, during the third trimester of pregnancy. These symptoms have varied in severity. Monitor neonates for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms and manage symptoms appropriately. Some neonates recovered within hours or days without specific treatment; others required prolonged hospitalization.
Neonates exposed to fluoxetine, and other SSRIs or SNRIs late in the third trimester have developed complications requiring prolonged hospitalization, respiratory support, and tube feeding. Such complications can arise immediately upon delivery. Reported clinical findings have included respiratory distress, cyanosis, apnea, seizures, temperature instability, feeding difficulty, vomiting, hypoglycemia, hypotonia, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, tremor, jitteriness, irritability, and constant crying. These findings are consistent with either a direct toxic effect of SSRIs and SNRIs, or possibly, a drug discontinuation syndrome. It should be noted that, in some cases, the clinical picture is consistent with serotonin syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
Infants exposed to SSRIs, particularly later in pregnancy may have an increased risk for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). PPHN occurs in 1 to 2 per 1,000 live births in the general population and is associated with substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality. Several recent epidemiologic studies suggest a positive statistical association between SSRI (including fluoxetine) use in pregnancy and PPHN. Other studies do not show a significant statistical association.
It has been shown that olanzapine and fluoxetine can cross the placenta. Placental passage of olanzapine has been reported in published study reports; however, the placental passage ratio was highly variable ranging between 7% to 167% at birth following exposure during pregnancy. The clinical relevance of this finding is unknown.
Published data from observational studies, birth registries, and case reports on the use of atypical antipsychotics during pregnancy do not establish an increased risk of major birth defects. A retrospective cohort study from a Medicaid database of 9258 women exposed to antipsychotics during pregnancy did not indicate an overall increased risk for major birth defects.
Several publications reported an increased incidence of cardiovascular malformations in children with in utero exposure to fluoxetine. However, these studies results do not establish a causal relationship. Methodologic limitations of these observational studies include possible exposure and outcome misclassification, lack of adequate controls, adjustment for confounders and confirmatory studies. However, these studies cannot definitely establish or exclude any drug-associated risk during pregnancy.
Exposure to SSRIs, particularly later in pregnancy, may have an increased risk for persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN). PPHN occurs in 1 to 2 per 1000 live births in the general population and is associated with substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality.
Olanzapine and Fluoxetine — Embryo-fetal development studies were conducted in rats and rabbits with olanzapine and fluoxetine in low-dose and high-dose combinations. In rats, the doses were: 2 and 4 mg/kg/day (low-dose) [approximately 2 and 1 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) for olanzapine and fluoxetine: for olanzapine (12 mg) and fluoxetine (50 mg), respectively based on mg/m2 body surface area], and 4 and 8 mg/kg/day (high-dose) [approximately 3 and 2 times the MRHD based on mg/m2 body surface area, respectively]. In rabbits, the doses were 4 and 4 mg/kg/day (low-dose) [approximately 6 and 2 times the MRHD based on mg/m2 body surface area, respectively], and 8 and 8 mg/kg/day (high-dose) [approximately 13 and 3 times the MRHD based on mg/m2 body surface area, respectively]. In these studies, olanzapine and fluoxetine were also administered alone at the high doses (4 and 8 mg/kg/day, respectively, in the rat; 8 and 8 mg/kg/day, respectively, in the rabbit). In the rabbit, there was no evidence of teratogenicity; however, the high-dose combination produced decreases in fetal weight and retarded skeletal ossification in conjunction with maternal toxicity. Similarly, in the rat there was no evidence of teratogenicity; however, a decrease in fetal weight was observed with the high-dose combination.
In a pre- and postnatal study conducted in rats, olanzapine and fluoxetine were orally administered during pregnancy and throughout lactation in combination at dose levels up to 2 (olanzapine) plus 4 (fluoxetine) mg/kg/day (2 and 1 times the MRHD based on mg/m2 body surface area, respectively). An elevation of early postnatal mortality (survival through postnatal day 4 was 69% per litter) and reduced body weight (approximately 8% in female) occurred among offspring at the highest dose: the no-effect dose was 0.5 (olanzapine) plus 1 (fluoxetine) mg/kg/day (less than the MRHD based on mg/m2 body surface area). Among the surviving progeny, there were no adverse effects on physical or neurobehavioral development and reproductive performance at any dose.
Olanzapine — In oral reproduction studies in rats at doses up to 18 mg/kg/day and in rabbits at doses up to 30 mg/kg/day (15 and 49 times the daily oral MRHD of 12 mg based on mg/m2 body surface area, respectively) no evidence of teratogenicity was observed. In an oral rat teratology study, early resorptions and increased numbers of nonviable fetuses were observed at a dose of 18 mg/kg/day (15 times the daily oral MRHD based on mg/m2 body surface area). Gestation was prolonged at 10 mg/kg/day (8 times the daily oral MRHD based on mg/m2 body surface area). In an oral rabbit teratology study, fetal toxicity manifested as increased resorptions and decreased fetal weight, occurred at a maternally toxic dose of 30 mg/kg/day (49 times the daily oral MRHD based on mg/m2 body surface area).
Fluoxetine — In embryo-fetal development studies in rats and rabbits, there was no evidence of malformations or developmental variations following administration of fluoxetine at doses up to 12.5 and 15 mg/kg/day, respectively (2 and 6 times, respectively, the MRHD of 50 mg based on mg/m² body surface area) throughout organogenesis. However, in rat reproduction studies, an increase in stillborn pups, a decrease in pup weight, and an increase in pup deaths during the first 7 days postpartum occurred following maternal exposure to 12 mg/kg/day (approximately 2 times the MRHD based on mg/m² body surface area) during gestation or 7.5 mg/kg/day (approximately 1 times the MRHD based on mg/m² body surface area) during gestation and lactation. There was no evidence of developmental neurotoxicity in the surviving offspring of rats treated with 12 mg/kg/day during gestation. The no-effect dose for rat pup mortality was 5 mg/kg/day (approximately equal to the MRHD based on mg/m² body surface area).
Data from published literature report the presence of olanzapine, fluoxetine, and norfluoxetine in human milk (see Data). There are reports of excess sedation, irritability, poor feeding and extrapyramidal symptoms (tremors and abnormal muscle movements) in infants exposed to olanzapine through breast milk and reports of agitation, irritability, poor feeding and poor weight gain in infants exposed to fluoxetine through breast milk (see Clinical Considerations). There is no information on the effects of olanzapine or fluoxetine and their metabolites on milk production.
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for olanzapine and fluoxetine capsules and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from olanzapine and fluoxetine capsules or the underlying maternal condition.
Infants exposed to olanzapine and fluoxetine capsules should be monitored for agitation, irritability, poor feeding, poor weight gain, excess sedation, and extrapyramidal symptoms (tremors and abnormal muscle movements).
A study of nineteen nursing mothers on fluoxetine with daily doses of 10 to 60 mg showed that fluoxetine was detectable in 30% of nursing infant sera (range: 1 to 84 ng/mL), whereas norfluoxetine was found in 85% (range: <1 to 265 ng/mL).
8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential
Based on the pharmacologic action of olanzapine (dopamine D2 receptor blockade), treatment with SYMBYAX may result in an increase in serum prolactin levels, which may lead to a reversible reduction in fertility in females of reproductive potential [see Warnings and Precautions (5.22)].
8.4 Pediatric Use
Olanzapine and Fluoxetine -The safety and efficacy of olanzapine and fluoxetine in patients 10 to 17 years of age has been established for the acute treatment of Depressive Episodes Associated with Bipolar I Disorder in a single 8-week randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial (N = 255) [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Patients were initiated at a dose of 3/25 mg/day and force-titrated to the maximum dose of 12/50 mg/day over two weeks. After Week 2, there was flexible dosing of olanzapine and fluoxetine in the range of 6/25, 6/50, 12/25, or 12/50 mg/day. The average dose was olanzapine 7.7 mg and fluoxetine 37.6 mg. The recommended starting dose for children and adolescents is 3/25 mg per day (lower than that for adults). Flexible dosing is recommended, rather than the forced titration used in the study [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].
The types of adverse events observed with olanzapine and fluoxetine in children and adolescents were generally similar to those observed in adults. However, the magnitude and frequency of some changes were greater in children and adolescents than adults. These included increases in lipids, hepatic enzymes, and prolactin, as well as increases in the QT interval [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5, 5.20, 5.22), and Vital Signs and Laboratory Studies (6.1)]. The frequency of weight gain ≥7%, and the magnitude and frequency of increases in lipids, hepatic analytes, and prolactin in children and adolescents treated with olanzapine and fluoxetine were similar to those observed in adolescents treated with olanzapine monotherapy.
The safety and efficacy of olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination for the treatment of bipolar I depression in patients under the age of 10 years have not been established. The safety and effectiveness of olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination for treatment resistant depression in patients less than 18 years of age have not been established.
Anyone considering the use of olanzapine and fluoxetine in a child or adolescent must balance the potential risks with the clinical need [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Olanzapine — Safety and effectiveness of olanzapine in children <13 years of age have not been established.
Compared to patients from adult clinical trials, adolescents treated with oral olanzapine were likely to gain more weight, experience increased sedation, and have greater increases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, prolactin and hepatic aminotransferase levels.
Juvenile Animal Toxicity Data
Fluoxetine — Juvenile animal toxicity studies were performed for fluoxetine alone. Significant toxicity on muscle tissue, neurobehavior, reproductive organs, and bone development has been observed following exposure of juvenile rats to fluoxetine from weaning through maturity. Oral administration of fluoxetine to rats from weaning postnatal day 21 through adulthood day 90 at 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg/day was associated with testicular degeneration and necrosis, epididymal vacuolation and hypospermia (at 30 mg/kg/day corresponding to plasma exposures [AUC] approximately 5 to 10 times the average AUC in pediatric patients at the MRHD of 20 mg/day), increased serum levels of creatine kinase (at AUC as low as 1 to 2 times the average AUC in pediatric patients at the MRHD of 20 mg/day), skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis, decreased femur length/growth and body weight gain (at AUC 5 to 10 times the average AUC in pediatric patients at the MRHD of 20 mg/day). The high dose of 30 mg/kg/day exceeded a maximum tolerated dose. When animals were evaluated after a drug-free period (up to 11 weeks after cessation of dosing), fluoxetine was associated with neurobehavioral abnormalities (decreased reactivity at AUC as low as approximately 0.1 to 0.2 times the average AUC in pediatric patients at the MRHD and learning deficit at the high dose), and reproductive functional impairment (decreased mating at all doses and impaired fertility at the high dose). In addition, the testicular and epididymal microscopic lesions and decreased sperm concentrations found in high dose group were also observed, indicating that the drug effects on reproductive organs are irreversible. The reversibility of fluoxetine-induced muscle damage was not assessed.
These fluoxetine toxicities in juvenile rats have not been observed in adult animals. Plasma exposures (AUC) to fluoxetine in juvenile rats receiving 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg/day doses in this study are approximately 0.1 to 0.2, 1 to 2, and 5 to 10 times, respectively, the average exposure in pediatric patients receiving the MRHD of 20 mg/day. Rat exposures to the major metabolite, norfluoxetine, are approximately 0.3 to 0.8, 1 to 8, and 3 to 20 times, respectively, the pediatric exposure at the MRHD.
A specific effect on bone development was reported in juvenile mice administered fluoxetine by the intraperitoneal route to 4 week old mice for 4 weeks at doses 0.5 and 2 times the oral MRHD of 20 mg/day on mg/m2 basis. There was a decrease in bone mineralization and density at both doses, but the overall growth (body weight gain or femur length) was not affected.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Olanzapine and Fluoxetine — Clinical studies of olanzapine and fluoxetine did not include sufficient numbers of patients ≥65 years of age to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
Olanzapine — Of the 2500 patients in premarketing clinical studies with olanzapine, 11% (263 patients) were ≥65 years of age. In patients with Schizophrenia, there was no indication of any different tolerability of olanzapine in the elderly compared with younger patients. Studies in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis have suggested that there may be a different tolerability profile in this population compared with younger patients with Schizophrenia. In placebo-controlled studies of olanzapine in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis, there was a higher incidence of cerebrovascular adverse reactions (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack) in patients treated with olanzapine compared to patients treated with placebo. In 5 placebo-controlled studies of olanzapine in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis (n=1184), the following adverse reactions were reported in olanzapine-treated patients at an incidence of at least 2% and significantly greater than placebo-treated patients: falls, somnolence, peripheral edema, abnormal gait, urinary incontinence, lethargy, increased weight, asthenia, pyrexia, pneumonia, dry mouth, and visual hallucinations. The rate of discontinuation due to adverse reactions was significantly greater with olanzapine than placebo (13% vs 7%). Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with olanzapine are at an increased risk of death compared to placebo. Olanzapine is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Also, the presence of factors that might decrease pharmacokinetic clearance or increase the pharmacodynamic response to olanzapine should lead to consideration of a lower starting dose for any geriatric patient.
Fluoxetine — U.S. fluoxetine clinical studies included 687 patients ≥65 years of age and 93 patients ≥75 years of age. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. SNRIs and SSRIs, including olanzapine and fluoxetine, have been associated with cases of clinically significant hyponatremia in elderly patients, who may be at greater risk for this adverse reaction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.17)].
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