Olanzapine: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 3 of 8)
5.6 Weight Gain
Potential consequences of weight gain should be considered prior to starting olanzapine. Patients receiving olanzapine should receive regular monitoring of weight [see Patient Counseling Information (17.6) ].
Olanzapine Monotherapy in Adults
In an analysis of 13 placebo-controlled olanzapine monotherapy studies, olanzapine-treated patients gained an average of 2.6 kg (5.7 lb), compared to an average 0.3 kg (0.6 lb) weight loss in placebo-treated patients with a median exposure to event of 6 weeks; 22.2% of olanzapine-treated patients gained at least 7% of their baseline weight, compared to 3% of placebo-treated patients, with a median exposure to event of 8 weeks; 4.2% of olanzapine-treated patients gained at least 15% of their baseline weight, compared to 0.3% of placebo-treated patients, with a median exposure to event of 12 weeks. Clinically significant weight gain was observed across all baseline Body Mass Index (BMI) categories. Discontinuation due to weight gain occurred in 0.2% of olanzapine-treated patients and in 0% of placebo-treated patients.
In long-term studies (at least 48 weeks), the mean weight gain was 5.6 kg (12.3 lb) (median exposure of 573 days, N = 2021). The percentages of patients who gained at least 7%, 15%, or 25% of their baseline body weight with long-term exposure were 64%, 32%, and 12%, respectively. Discontinuation due to weight gain occurred in 0.4% of olanzapine-treated patients following at least 48 weeks of exposure.
Table 6 includes data on adult weight gain with olanzapine pooled from 86 clinical trials. The data in each column represent data for those patients who completed treatment periods of the durations specified.
|Amount Gained kg (lb)|| |
(N = 7465)(%)
(N = 4162)(%)
(N = 1345)(%)
(N = 474)(%)
(N = 147)(%)
|0 to ≤ 5 (0 to 11 lb)||57||36||26||23.4||25.2|
|> 5 to ≤ 10 (11 to 22 lb)||14.9||24.6||24.2||24.1||18.4|
|> 10 to ≤ 15 (22 to 33 lb)||1.8||10.9||14.9||11.4||17|
|> 15 to ≤ 20 (33 to 44 lb)||0.1||3.1||8.6||9.3||11.6|
|> 20 to ≤ 25 (44 to 55 lb)||0||0.9||3.3||5.1||4.1|
|> 25 to ≤ 30 (55 to 66 lb)||0||0.2||1.4||2.3||4.8|
|> 30 (> 66 lb)||0||0.1||0.8||1.2||2|
Olanzapine Monotherapy in Adolescents
The safety and efficacy of olanzapine have not been established in patients under the age of 13 years. Mean increase in weight in adolescents was greater than in adults. In 4 placebo-controlled trials, discontinuation due to weight gain occurred in 1% of olanzapine-treated patients, compared to 0% of placebo-treated patients.
Table 7: Weight Gain with Olanzapine Use in Adolescents from 4 Placebo-Controlled Trials
|Olanzapine-treated patients||Placebo-treated patients|
|Mean change in body weight from baseline (median exposure = 3 weeks)||4.6 kg (10.1 lb)||0.3 kg (0.7 lb)|
|Percentage of patients who gained at least 7% of baseline body weight||40.6% (median exposure to 7% = 4 weeks)||9.8% (median exposure to 7% = 8 weeks)|
|Percentage of patients who gained at least 15% of baseline body weight||7.1% (median exposure to 15% = 19 weeks)||2.7% (median exposure to 15% = 8 weeks)|
In long-term studies (at least 24 weeks), the mean weight gain was 11.2 kg (24.6 lb); (median exposure of 201 days, N = 179). The percentages of adolescents who gained at least 7%, 15%, or 25% of their baseline body weight with long-term exposure were 89%, 55%, and 29%, respectively. Among adolescent patients, mean weight gain by baseline BMI category was 11.5 kg (25.3 lb),
12.1 kg (26.6 lb), and 12.7 kg (27.9 lb), respectively, for normal (N = 106), overweight (N = 26) and obese (N = 17). Discontinuation due to weight gain occurred in 2.2% of olanzapine-treated patients following at least 24 weeks of exposure.
Table 8 shows data on adolescent weight gain with olanzapine pooled from 6 clinical trials. The data in each column represent data for those patients who completed treatment periods of the durations specified. Little clinical trial data is available on weight gain in adolescents with olanzapine beyond 6 months of treatment.
Table 8: Weight Gain with Olanzapine Use in Adolescents
|Amount Gained kg (lb)||6 Weeks (N = 243) (%)||6 Months (N = 191) (%)|
|0 to ≤ 5 (0-11 lb)||47.3||24.6|
|> 5 to ≤ 10 (11-22 lb)||42.4||26.7|
|> 10 to ≤ 15 (22-33 lb)||5.8||22|
|> 15 to ≤ 20 (33-44 lb)||0.8||12.6|
|> 20 to ≤ 25 (44-55 lb)||0.8||9.4|
|> 25 to ≤ 30 (55-66 lb)||0||2.1|
|> 30 to ≤ 35 (66-77 lb)||0||0|
|> 35 to ≤ 40 (77-88 lb)||0||0|
|> 40 (> 88 lb)||0||0.5|
5.7 Tardive Dyskinesia
A syndrome of potentially irreversible, involuntary, dyskinetic movements may develop in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs. Although the prevalence of the syndrome appears to be highest among the elderly, especially elderly women, it is impossible to rely upon prevalence estimates to predict, at the inception of antipsychotic treatment, which patients are likely to develop the syndrome. Whether antipsychotic drug products differ in their potential to cause tardive dyskinesia is unknown.
The risk of developing tardive dyskinesia and the likelihood that it will become irreversible are believed to increase as the duration of treatment and the total cumulative dose of antipsychotic drugs administered to the patient increase. However, the syndrome can develop, although much less commonly, after relatively brief treatment periods at low doses or may even arise after discontinuation of treatment.
There is no known treatment for established cases of tardive dyskinesia, although the syndrome may remit, partially or completely, if antipsychotic treatment is withdrawn. Antipsychotic treatment, itself, however, may suppress (or partially suppress) the signs and symptoms of the syndrome and thereby may possibly mask the underlying process. The effect that symptomatic suppression has upon the long-term course of the syndrome is unknown.
Given these considerations, olanzapine should be prescribed in a manner that is most likely to minimize the occurrence of tardive dyskinesia. Chronic antipsychotic treatment should generally be reserved for patients (1) who suffer from a chronic illness that is known to respond to antipsychotic drugs, and (2) for whom alternative, equally effective, but potentially less harmful treatments are not available or appropriate. In patients who do require chronic treatment, the smallest dose and the shortest duration of treatment producing a satisfactory clinical response should be sought. The need for continued treatment should be reassessed periodically.
If signs and symptoms of tardive dyskinesia appear in a patient on olanzapine, drug discontinuation should be considered. However, some patients may require treatment with olanzapine despite the presence of the syndrome.
For specific information about the warnings of lithium or valproate, refer to the Warnings section of the package inserts for these other products.
5.8 Orthostatic Hypotension
Olanzapine may induce orthostatic hypotension associated with dizziness, tachycardia, bradycardia and, in some patients, syncope, especially during the initial dose-titration period, probably reflecting its α1 -adrenergic antagonistic properties [see Patient Counseling Information (17.7) ].
For oral olanzapine therapy, the risk of orthostatic hypotension and syncope may be minimized by initiating therapy with 5 mg QD [see Dosage and Administration (2) ]. A more gradual titration to the target dose should be considered if hypotension occurs.
Syncope was reported in 0.6% (15/2500) of olanzapine-treated patients in phase 2 to 3 oral olanzapine studies. The risk for this sequence of hypotension, bradycardia, and sinus pause may be greater in nonpsychiatric patients compared to psychiatric patients who are possibly more adapted to certain effects of psychotropic drugs.
Olanzapine should be used with particular caution in patients with known cardiovascular disease (history of myocardial infarction or ischemia, heart failure, or conduction abnormalities), cerebrovascular disease, and conditions which would predispose patients to hypotension (dehydration, hypovolemia, and treatment with antihypertensive medications) where the occurrence of syncope, or hypotension and/or bradycardia might put the patient at increased medical risk.
Caution is necessary in patients who receive treatment with other drugs having effects that can induce hypotension, bradycardia, respiratory or central nervous system depression [see Drug Interactions (7) ].
5.9 Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis
In clinical trial and/or postmarketing experience, events of leukopenia/neutropenia have been reported temporally related to antipsychotic agents, including olanzapine. Agranulocytosis has also been reported.
Possible risk factors for leukopenia/neutropenia include preexisting low white blood cell count (WBC) and history of drug induced leukopenia/neutropenia. Patients with a history of a clinically significant low WBC or drug induced leukopenia/neutropenia should have their complete blood count (CBC) monitored frequently during the first few months of therapy and discontinuation of olanzapine should be considered at the first sign of a clinically significant decline in WBC in the absence of other causative factors.
Patients with clinically significant neutropenia should be carefully monitored for fever or other symptoms or signs of infection and treated promptly if such symptoms or signs occur. Patients with severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count < 1000/mm3) should discontinue olanzapine and have their WBC followed until recovery.
Esophageal dysmotility and aspiration have been associated with antipsychotic drug use. Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with advanced Alzheimer’s disease. Olanzapine is not approved for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
During premarketing testing, seizures occurred in 0.9% (22/2500) of olanzapine-treated patients. There were confounding factors that may have contributed to the occurrence of seizures in many of these cases. Olanzapine should be used cautiously in patients with a history of seizures or with conditions that potentially lower the seizure threshold, e.g., Alzheimer’s dementia. Olanzapine is not approved for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Conditions that lower the seizure threshold may be more prevalent in a population of 65 years or older.
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