Olanzapine: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 5 of 8)
6.2 Vital Signs and Laboratory Studies
Vital Sign Changes
Oral olanzapine was associated with orthostatic hypotension and tachycardia in clinical trials [see Warnings and Precautions (5) ].
Olanzapine Monotherapy in Adults
An assessment of the premarketing experience for olanzapine revealed an association with asymptomatic increases in ALT, AST, and GGT. Within the original premarketing database of about 2400 adult patients with baseline ALT ≤ 90 IU/L, the incidence of ALT elevations to >200 IU/L was 2% (50/2381). None of these patients experienced jaundice or other symptoms attributable to liver impairment and most had transient changes that tended to normalize while olanzapine treatment was continued.
In placebo-controlled olanzapine monotherapy studies in adults, clinically significant ALT elevations (change from < 3 times the upper limit of normal [ULN] at baseline to ≥ 3 times ULN) were observed in 5% (77/1426) of patients exposed to olanzapine compared to 1% (10/1187) of patients exposed to placebo. ALT elevations ≥ 5 times ULN were observed in 2% (29/1438) of olanzapine-treated patients, compared to 0.3% (4/1196) of placebo-treated patients. ALT values returned to normal, or were decreasing, at last follow-up in the majority of patients who either continued treatment with olanzapine or discontinued olanzapine. No patient with elevated ALT values experienced jaundice, liver failure, or met the criteria for Hy’s Rule.
Rare postmarketing reports of hepatitis have been received. Very rare cases of cholestatic or mixed liver injury have also been reported in the postmarketing period.
Caution should be exercised in patients with signs and symptoms of hepatic impairment, in patients with pre-existing conditions associated with limited hepatic functional reserve, and in patients who are being treated with potentially hepatotoxic drugs.
Olanzapine administration was also associated with increases in serum prolactin [see Warnings and Precautions (5.15) ], with an asymptomatic elevation of the eosinophil count in 0.3% of patients, and with an increase in CPK.
Olanzapine Monotherapy in Adolescents
In placebo-controlled clinical trials of adolescent patients with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed episodes), greater frequencies for the following treatment-emergent findings, at anytime, were observed in laboratory analytes compared to placebo: elevated ALT (≥ 3X ULN in patients with ALT at baseline < 3X ULN), (12% vs 2%); elevated AST (28% vs 4%); low total bilirubin (22% vs 7%); elevated GGT (10% vs 1%); and elevated prolactin (47% vs 7%).
In placebo-controlled olanzapine monotherapy studies in adolescents, clinically significant ALT elevations (change from < 3 times ULN at baseline to ≥ 3 times ULN) were observed in 12% (22/192) of patients exposed to olanzapine compared to 2% (2/109) of patients exposed to placebo. ALT elevations ≥ 5 times ULN were observed in 4% (8/192) of olanzapine-treated patients, compared to 1% (1/109) of placebo-treated patients. ALT values returned to normal, or were decreasing, at last follow-up in the majority of patients who either continued treatment with olanzapine or discontinued olanzapine. No adolescent patient with elevated ALT values experienced jaundice, liver failure, or met the criteria for Hy’s Rule.
In pooled studies of adults as well as pooled studies of adolescents, there were no significant differences between olanzapine and placebo in the proportions of patients experiencing potentially important changes in ECG parameters, including QT, QTc (Fridericia corrected), and PR intervals. Olanzapine use was associated with a mean increase in heart rate compared to placebo (adults: +2.4 beats per minute vs no change with placebo; adolescents: +6.3 beats per minute vs -5.1 beats per minute with placebo). This increase in heart rate may be related to olanzapine’s potential for inducing orthostatic changes [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].
6.3 Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of olanzapine. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is difficult to reliably estimate their frequency or evaluate a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Adverse reactions reported since market introduction that were temporally (but not necessarily causally) related to olanzapine therapy include the following: allergic reaction (e.g., anaphylactoid reaction, angioedema, pruritus or urticaria), diabetic coma, diabetic ketoacidosis, discontinuation reaction (diaphoresis, nausea or vomiting), jaundice, neutropenia, pancreatitis, priapism, rash, rhabdomyolysis, and venous thromboembolic events (including pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis). Random cholesterol levels of ≥ 240 mg/dL and random triglyceride levels of ≥ 1000 mg/dL have been reported.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
The risks of using olanzapine in combination with other drugs have not been extensively evaluated in systematic studies.
7.1 Potential for Other Drugs to Affect Olanzapine
The coadministration of diazepam with olanzapine potentiated the orthostatic hypotension observed with olanzapine [see Drug Interactions (7.2) ].
Cimetidine and Antacids
Single doses of cimetidine (800 mg) or aluminum- and magnesium-containing antacids did not affect the oral bioavailability of olanzapine.
Inducers of CYP1A2
Carbamazepine therapy (200 mg bid) causes an approximately 50% increase in the clearance of olanzapine. This increase is likely due to the fact that carbamazepine is a potent inducer of CYP1A2 activity. Higher daily doses of carbamazepine may cause an even greater increase in olanzapine clearance.
Ethanol (45 mg/70 kg single dose) did not have an effect on olanzapine pharmacokinetics. The coadministration of alcohol (i.e., ethanol) with olanzapine potentiated the orthostatic hypotension observed with olanzapine [see Drug Interactions (7.2) ].
Inhibitors of CYP1A2
Fluvoxamine: Fluvoxamine, a CYP1A2 inhibitor, decreases the clearance of olanzapine. This results in a mean increase in olanzapine Cmax following fluvoxamine of 54% in female nonsmokers and 77% in male smokers. The mean increase in olanzapine AUC is 52% and 108%, respectively. Lower doses of olanzapine should be considered in patients receiving concomitant treatment with fluvoxamine.
Inhibitors of CYP2D6
Fluoxetine: Fluoxetine (60 mg single dose or 60 mg daily dose for 8 days) causes a small (mean 16%) increase in the maximum concentration of olanzapine and a small (mean 16%) decrease in olanzapine clearance. The magnitude of the impact of this factor is small in comparison to the overall variability between individuals, and therefore dose modification is not routinely recommended. When using olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination, also refer to the Drug Interactions section of the package insert for olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination.
Warfarin (20 mg single dose) did not affect olanzapine pharmacokinetics [see Drug Interactions (7.2) ].
Inducers of CYP1A2 or Glucuronyl Transferase
Omeprazole and rifampin may cause an increase in olanzapine clearance.
The administration of activated charcoal (1 g) reduced the Cmax and AUC of oral olanzapine by about 60%. As peak olanzapine levels are not typically obtained until about 6 hours after dosing, charcoal may be a useful treatment for olanzapine overdose.
7.2 Potential for Olanzapine to Affect Other Drugs
CNS Acting Drugs
Given the primary CNS effects of olanzapine, caution should be used when olanzapine is taken in combination with other centrally acting drugs and alcohol.
Olanzapine, because of its potential for inducing hypotension, may enhance the effects of certain antihypertensive agents.
Levodopa and Dopamine Agonists
Olanzapine may antagonize the effects of levodopa and dopamine agonists.
Multiple doses of olanzapine (10 mg for 8 days) did not influence the kinetics of lithium. Therefore, concomitant olanzapine administration does not require dosage adjustment of lithium [see Warnings and Precautions (5.16) ].
Olanzapine (10 mg daily for 2 weeks) did not affect the steady state plasma concentrations of valproate. Therefore, concomitant olanzapine administration does not require dosage adjustment of valproate [see Warnings and Precautions (5.16) ].
Effect of Olanzapine on Drug Metabolizing Enzymes
In vitro studies utilizing human liver microsomes suggest that olanzapine has little potential to inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A. Thus, olanzapine is unlikely to cause clinically important drug interactions mediated by these enzymes.
Single doses of olanzapine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of imipramine or its active metabolite desipramine.
Single doses of olanzapine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of warfarin [see Drug Interactions (7.1) ].
Olanzapine did not influence the pharmacokinetics of diazepam or its active metabolite N-desmethyldiazepam. However, diazepam co-administered with olanzapine increased the orthostatic hypotension observed with either drug given alone [see Drug Interactions (7.1) ].
Multiple doses of olanzapine did not influence the kinetics of ethanol [see Drug Interactions (7.1) ].
Multiple doses of olanzapine did not influence the kinetics of biperiden.
Multiple doses of olanzapine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of theophylline or its metabolites.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
When using olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination, also refer to the Use in Specific Populations section of the package insert for olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination.
Pregnancy Category C
In oral reproduction studies in rats at doses up to 18 mg/kg/day and in rabbits at doses up to 30 mg/kg/day (9 and 30 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on a mg/m2 basis, respectively) no evidence of teratogenicity was observed. In an oral rat teratology study, early resorptions and increased numbers of nonviable fetuses were observed at a dose of 18 mg/kg/day (9 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on a mg/m2 basis). Gestation was prolonged at 10 mg/kg/day (5 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on a mg/m2 basis). In an oral rabbit teratology study, fetal toxicity (manifested as increased resorptions and decreased fetal weight) occurred at a maternally toxic dose of 30 mg/kg/day (30 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on a mg/m2 basis). Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Placental transfer of olanzapine occurs in rat pups.
There are no adequate and well-controlled trials with olanzapine in pregnant females. Seven pregnancies were observed during clinical trials with olanzapine, including 2 resulting in normal births, 1 resulting in neonatal death due to a cardiovascular defect, 3 therapeutic abortions, and 1 spontaneous abortion.
Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs (including olanzapine), during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery. There have been reports of agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress and feeding disorder in these neonates. These complications have varied in severity; while in some cases symptoms have been self-limited, in other cases neonates have required intensive care unit support and prolonged hospitalization. Olanzapine should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
8.2 Labor and Delivery
The effect of olanzapine on labor and delivery in humans is unknown. Parturition in rats was not affected by olanzapine.
8.3 Nursing Mothers
In a study in lactating, healthy women, olanzapine was excreted in breast milk. Mean infant dose at steady state was estimated to be 1.8% of the maternal olanzapine dose. It is recommended that women receiving olanzapine should not breast-feed.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Compared to patients from adult clinical trials, adolescents were likely to gain more weight, experience increased sedation, and have greater increases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, prolactin and hepatic transaminase levels [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5, 5.6, 5.15, 5.17) and Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. When deciding among the alternative treatments available for adolescents, clinicians should consider the increased potential (in adolescents as compared with adults) for weight gain and hyperlipidemia.
Safety and effectiveness of olanzapine in children < 13 years of age have not been established [see Patient Counseling Information (17.13) ].
Safety and effectiveness of olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination in children and adolescents < 18 years of age have not been established.
Pediatric use information in pediatric patients with schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder is approved for Eli Lilly and Company’s olanzapine drug product labeling. However, due to Eli Lilly and Company’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that pediatric information.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Of the 2500 patients in premarketing clinical studies with oral olanzapine, 11% (263) were 65 years of age or over. In patients with Schizophrenia, there was no indication of any different tolerability of olanzapine in the elderly compared to younger patients. Studies in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis have suggested that there may be a different tolerability profile in this population compared to younger patients with Schizophrenia. Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with olanzapine are at an increased risk of death compared to placebo. In placebo-controlled studies of olanzapine in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis, there was a higher incidence of cerebrovascular adverse events (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack) in patients treated with olanzapine compared to patients treated with placebo. Olanzapine is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis. Also, the presence of factors that might decrease pharmacokinetic clearance or increase the pharmacodynamic response to olanzapine should lead to consideration of a lower starting dose for any geriatric patient [see Boxed Warning, Dosage and Administration (2.1), and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Clinical studies of olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination did not include sufficient numbers in patients ≥ 65 years of age to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients.
9 DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE
In studies prospectively designed to assess abuse and dependence potential, olanzapine was shown to have acute depressive CNS effects but little or no potential of abuse or physical dependence in rats administered oral doses up to 15 times the maximum recommended human daily dose (20 mg) and rhesus monkeys administered oral doses up to 8 times the maximum recommended human daily dose on a mg/m2 basis.
Olanzapine has not been systematically studied in humans for its potential for abuse, tolerance, or physical dependence. While the clinical trials did not reveal any tendency for any drug-seeking behavior, these observations were not systematic, and it is not possible to predict on the basis of this limited experience the extent to which a CNS-active drug will be misused, diverted, and/or abused once marketed. Consequently, patients should be evaluated carefully for a history of drug abuse, and such patients should be observed closely for signs of misuse or abuse of olanzapine (e.g., development of tolerance, increases in dose, drug-seeking behavior).
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