Nifedipine: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 2 of 2)
Pregnancy Category C
Nifedipine has been shown to produce teratogenic findings in rats and rabbits, including digital anomaliessimilar to those reported for phenytoin. Digital anomalies have been reported to occur with other members of the dihydropyridine class and are possibly a result of compromised uterine blood flow. Nifedipine administration was associated with a variety of embryotoxic, placentotoxic, and fetotoxic effects, including stunted fetuses (rats, mice, rabbits), rib deformities (mice), cleft palate (mice), small placentas and underdeveloped chorionic villi (monkeys), embryonic and fetal deaths (rats, mice, rabbits), and prolonged pregnancy/decreased neonatal survival (rats; not evaluated in other species). On a mg/kg basis, all of the doses associated with the teratogenic embryotoxic or fetotoxic effects in animals were higher (3.5 to 42 times) than the maximum recommended human dose of 120 mg/day. On a mg/m 2 basis, some doses were higher and some were lower than the maximum recommended human dose but all are within an order of magnitude of it. The doses associated with placentotoxic effects in monkeys were equivalent to or lower than the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m 2 basis.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Nifedipine should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Use in pediatric population is not recommended.
Although small pharmacokinetic studies have identified an increased half-life and increased Cmax and AUC (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism), clinical studies of nifedipine did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Adverse Reactions to Nifedipine
In multiple-dose U.S. and foreign controlled studies in which adverse reactions were reported spontaneously, adverse effects were frequent but generally not serious and rarely required discontinuation of therapy or dosage adjustment. Most were expected consequences of the vasodilator effects of nifedipine.
|Nifedipine (%)||Placebo (%)|
|Dizziness, lightheadedness, giddiness||27||15|
|Flushing, heat sensation||25||8|
|Muscle cramps, tremor||8||3|
|Nervousness, mood changes||7||4|
|Dyspnea, cough, wheezing||6||3|
|Nasal congestion, sore throat||6||8|
There is also a large uncontrolled experience in over 2100 patients in the United States. Most of the patients had vasospastic or resistant angina pectoris, and about half had concomitant treatment with beta-adrenergic blocking agents. The most common adverse events were:
Incidence Approximately 10%
Cardiovascular: peripheral edema
Central Nervous System: dizziness or lightheadedness
Systemic: headache and flushing, weakness
Incidence Approximately 5%
Cardiovascular: transient hypotension
Incidence 2% or Less
Respiratory: nasal and chest congestion, shortness of breath
Gastrointestinal: diarrhea, constipation, cramps, flatulence
Musculoskeletal: inflammation, joint stiffness, muscle cramps
Central Nervous System: shakiness, nervousness, jitteriness, sleep disturbances, blurred vision, difficulties in balance
Other: dermatitis, pruritus, urticaria, fever, sweating, chills, sexual difficulties
Incidence Approximately 0.5%
Cardiovascular: syncope (mostly with initial dosing and/or an increase in dose), erythromelalgia
Hematologic: thrombocytopenia, anemia, leukopenia, purpura
Gastrointestinal: allergic hepatitis
Face and Throat: angioedema (mostly oropharyngeal edema with breathing difficulty in a few patients), gingival hyperplasia
CNS: depression, paranoid syndrome
Special Senses: transient blindness at the peak of plasma level, tinnitus
Urogenital: nocturia, polyuria
Other: arthritis with ANA (+), exfoliative dermatitis, gynecomastia
Several of these side effects appear to be dose related. Peripheral edema occurred in about one in 25 patients at doses less than 60 mg per day and in about one patient in eight at 120 mg per day or more. Transient hypotension, generally of mild to moderate severity and seldom requiring discontinuation of therapy, occurred in one of 50 patients at less than 60 mg per day and in one of 20 patients at 120 mg per day or more.
Very rarely, introduction of nifedipine therapy was associated with an increase in anginal pain, possibly due to associated hypotension. Transient unilateral loss of vision has also occurred.
In addition, more serious adverse events were observed, not readily distinguishable from the natural history of the disease in these patients. It remains possible, however, that some or many of these events were drug related. Myocardial infarction occurred in about 4% of patients and congestive heart failure or pulmonary edema in about 2%. Ventricular arrhythmias or conduction disturbances each occurred in fewer than 0.5% of patients.
In a subgroup of over 1000 patients receiving nifedipine with concomitant beta blocker therapy, the pattern and incidence of adverse experiences was not different from that of the entire group of nifedipine treated patients. (See PRECAUTIONS).
In a subgroup of approximately 250 patients with a diagnosis of congestive heart failure as well as angina pectoris (about 10% of the total patient population), dizziness or lightheadedness, peripheral edema, headache or flushing each occurred in one in eight patients. Hypotension occurred in about one in 20 patients. Syncope occurred in approximately one patient in 250. Myocardial infarction or symptoms of congestive heart failure each occurred in about one patient in 15. Atrial or ventricular dysrhythmias each occurred in about one patient in 150.
In post-marketing experience, there have been rare reports of exfoliative dermatitis caused by nifedipine. There have been rare reports of exfoliative or bullous skin adverse events (such as erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis) and photosensitivity reactions.
Experience with nifedipine overdosage is limited. Generally, overdosage with nifedipine leading to pronounced hypotension calls for active cardiovascular support including monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory function, elevation of extremities, and judicious use of calcium infusion, pressor agents and fluids. Clearance of nifedipine would be expected to be prolonged in patients with impaired liver function. Since nifedipine is highly protein bound, dialysis is not likely to be of any benefit; however, plasmapheresis may be beneficial.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The dosage of nifedipine needed to suppress angina and that can be tolerated by the patient must be established by titration. Excessive doses can result in hypotension.
Therapy should be initiated with the 10mg capsule. The starting dose is one 10mg capsule, swallowed whole, 3 times/day. The usual effective dose range is 10–20 mg three times daily. Some patients, especially those with evidence of coronary artery spasm, respond only to higher doses, more frequent administration, or both. In such patients, doses of 20–30 mg three or four times daily may be effective. Doses above 120 mg daily are rarely necessary. More than 180 mg per day is not recommended.
In most cases, nifedipine titration should proceed over a 7–14 day period so that the physician can assess the response to each dose level andmonitor the blood pressure before proceeding to higher doses.
If symptoms so warrant, titration may proceed more rapidly provided that the patient is assessed frequently. Based on the patient’s physical activity level, attack frequency, and sublingual nitroglycerin consumption, the dose of nifedipine may be increased from 10 mg t.i.d. to 20 mg t.i.d. and then to 30 mg t.i.d. over a three-day period.
In hospitalized patients under close observation, the dose may be increased in 10 mg increments over four- to six-hour periods as required to control pain and arrhythmias due to ischemia. A single dose should rarely exceed 30 mg.
Co-administration of nifedipine with grapefruit juice is to be avoided (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and PRECAUTIONS:Other Interactions).
No “rebound effect” has been observed upon discontinuation of nifedipine. However, if discontinuation of nifedipine is necessary, sound clinical practice suggests that the dosage should be decreased gradually with close physician supervision.
Co-Administration with Other Antianginal Drugs
Sublingual nitroglycerin may be taken as required for the control of acute manifestations of angina, particularly during nifedipine titration. See PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions, for information on coadministration of nifedipine with beta blockers or long-acting nitrates.
Nifedipine soft gelatin capsules are reddish-brown soft gelatin capsules, imprinted IMI 10 with white ink and are supplied in:
Bottles of 100: 10mg (NDC 42192-615-01)
The capsules should be protected from light and moisture and stored at controlled room temperature 20º to 25ºC (68º to 77ºF) in the manufacturer’s original container.
[See USP Controlled Room Temperature]
Acella Pharmaceuticals, LLC
Alpharetta, GA 30005
L-0253 Rev 0620-01
PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL
NIFEDIPINE CAPSULES, USP
10 mg Rx Only 100 Capsules
| NIFEDIPINE |
nifedipine capsule, liquid filled
|Labeler — Acella Pharmaceuticals, LLC (825380939)|
|Intergel Pharmaceuticals Inc||964464114||manufacture (42192-615)|
Revised: 09/2020 Acella Pharmaceuticals, LLC
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