Nabumetone: Package Insert and Label Information

NABUMETONE- nabumetone tablet, film coated
PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events

  • •Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may occur early in treatment and may increase with duration of use [see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS].
  • •Nabumetone tablets are contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS].

Gastrointestinal Risk

  • •NSAIDs 1 cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinal events (see WARNINGS).

1 Throughout this package insert, the term NSAID refers to a non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

DESCRIPTION

Nabumetone, USP is a naphthylalkanone designated chemically as 4-(6-methoxy-2-naphthalenyl)-2-butanone. It has the following structure:

Chemical Structure

C 15 H 16 O 2 M.W. 228.3

Nabumetone, USP is a white to off-white crystalline substance. It is nonacidic and practically insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and most organic solvents. It has an n-octanol:phosphate buffer partition coefficient of 2,400 at pH 7.4.

Each tablet, for oral administration, contains either 500 mg or 750 mg of nabumetone, USP. In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, sodium lauryl sulphate, sodium starch glycolate, talc, and titanium dioxide. The 750 mg tablets also contain black iron oxide, red iron oxide, and yellow iron oxide.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Nabumetone is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties in pharmacologic studies. As with other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, its mode of action is not known; however, the ability to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis may be involved in the anti-inflammatory effect.

The parent compound is a prodrug, which undergoes hepatic biotransformation to the active component, 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6MNA), that is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis.

Parent compound chemical structure
(click image for full-size original)

6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6MNA)

It is acidic and has an n-octanol:phosphate buffer partition coefficient of 0.5 at pH 7.4.

Pharmacokinetics

After oral administration, approximately 80% of a radiolabeled dose of nabumetone is found in the urine, indicating that nabumetone is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Nabumetone itself is not detected in the plasma because, after absorption, it undergoes rapid biotransformation to the principal active metabolite, 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6MNA). Approximately 35% of a 1,000 mg oral dose of nabumetone is converted to 6MNA and 50% is converted into unidentified metabolites which are subsequently excreted in the urine. Following oral administration of nabumetone, 6MNA exhibits pharmacokinetic characteristics that generally follow a one-compartment model with first order input and first order elimination.

6MNA is more than 99% bound to plasma proteins. The free fraction is dependent on total concentration of 6MNA and is proportional to dose over the range of 1,000 mg to 2,000 mg. It is 0.2% to 0.3% at concentrations typically achieved following administration of 1,000 mg of nabumetone and is approximately 0.6% to 0.8% of the total concentrations at steady state following daily administration of 2,000 mg.

Steady-state plasma concentrations of 6MNA are slightly lower than predicted from single-dose data. This may result from the higher fraction of unbound 6MNA which undergoes greater hepatic clearance.

Coadministration of food increases the rate of absorption and subsequent appearance of 6MNA in the plasma but does not affect the extent of conversion of nabumetone into 6MNA. Peak plasma concentrations of 6MNA are increased by approximately one third.

Coadministration with an aluminum-containing antacid had no significant effect on the bioavailability of 6MNA.

Table 1: Mean Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Nabumetone Active Metabolite (6MNA) at Steady State Following Oral Administration of 1,000 mg or 2,000 mg Doses of Nabumetone

Abbreviation (Units)

Young Adults Mean ± SD 1,000 mg n = 31

Young Adults Mean ± SD 2,000 mg n = 12

Elderly Mean ± SD 1,000 mg n = 27

T max (hr)

3 (1 to 12)

2.5 (1 to 8)

4 (1 to 10)

t 1/2 (hr)

22.5 ± 3.7

26.2 ± 3.7

29.8 ± 8.1

CL ss /F (mL/min)

26.1 ± 17.3

21 ± 4

18.6 ± 13.4

Vd ss /F (L)

55.4 ± 26.4

53.4 ± 11.3

50.2 ± 25.3

The simulated curves in the graph below illustrate the range of active metabolite plasma concentrations that would be expected from 95% of patients following 1,000 mg to 2,000 mg doses to steady state. The cross-hatched area represents the expected overlap in plasma concentrations due to intersubject variation following oral administration of 1,000 mg to 2,000 mg of nabumetone.

Figure
(click image for full-size original)

Nabumetone Active Metabolite (6MNA) Plasma Concentrations at Steady State Following Once-Daily Dosing of Nabumetone 1,000 mg (n = 31) 2,000 mg (n = 12)

6MNA undergoes biotransformation in the liver, producing inactive metabolites that are eliminated as both free metabolites and conjugates. None of the known metabolites of 6MNA has been detected in plasma. Preliminary in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that unlike other NSAIDs, there is no evidence of enterohepatic recirculation of the active metabolite. Approximately 75% of a radiolabeled dose was recovered in urine in 48 hours. Approximately 80% was recovered in 168 hours. A further 9% appeared in the feces. In the first 48 hours, metabolites consisted of:

- nabumetone, unchanged

not detectable

- 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6MNA), unchanged

< 1%

- 6MNA, conjugated

11%

- 6-hydroxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6HNA), unchanged

5%

- 6HNA, conjugated

7%

- 4-(6-hydroxy-2-naphthyl)-butan-2-ol, conjugated

9%

- O -desmethyl-nabumetone, conjugated

7%

- unidentified minor metabolites

34%

Total % Dose:

73%

Following oral administration of dosages of 1,000 mg to 2,000 mg to steady state, the mean plasma clearance of 6MNA is 20 to 30 mL/min and the elimination half-life is approximately 24 hours.

Gastrointestinal

Nabumetone was compared to aspirin in inducing gastrointestinal blood loss. Food intake was not monitored. Studies utilizing 51 Cr-tagged red blood cells in healthy males showed no difference in fecal blood loss after 3 or 4 weeks’ administration of 1,000 mg or 2,000 mg of nabumetone daily when compared to either placebo-treated or non-treated subjects. In contrast, aspirin 3,600 mg daily produced an increase in fecal blood loss when compared to subjects who received nabumetone, placebo, or no treatment. The clinical relevance of the data is unknown.

The following endoscopy trials entered patients who had been previously treated with NSAIDs. These patients had varying baseline scores and different courses of treatment. The trials were not designed to correlate symptoms and endoscopy scores. The clinical relevance of these endoscopy trials, i.e., either G.I. symptoms or serious G.I. events, is not known.

Ten endoscopy studies were conducted in 488 patients who had baseline and post-treatment endoscopy. In 5 clinical trials that compared a total of 194 patients on 1,000 mg of nabumetone daily or naproxen 250 mg or 500 mg twice daily for 3 to 12 weeks, treatment with nabumetone resulted in fewer patients with endoscopically detected lesions (> 3 mm). In 2 trials a total of 101 patients administered 1,000 mg or 2,000 mg of nabumetone daily or piroxicam 10 mg to 20 mg for 7 to 10 days, there were fewer patients treated with nabumetone with endoscopically detected lesions. In 3 trials of a total of 47 patients on 1,000 mg of nabumetone daily or indomethacin 100 mg to 150 mg daily for 3 to 4 weeks, the endoscopy scores were higher with indomethacin. Another 12 week trial in a total of 171 patients compared the results of treatment with 1,000 mg of nabumetone daily to ibuprofen 2,400 mg/day and ibuprofen 2,400 mg/day plus misoprostol 800 mcg/day. The results showed that patients treated with nabumetone had a lower number of endoscopically detected lesions (> 5 mm) than patients treated with ibuprofen alone but comparable to the combination of ibuprofen plus misoprostol. The results did not correlate with abdominal pain.

Other

In 1 week, repeat-dose studies in healthy volunteers, 1,000 mg of nabumetone daily had little effect on collagen-induced platelet aggregation and no effect on bleeding time. In comparison, naproxen 500 mg daily suppressed collagen-induced platelet aggregation and significantly increased bleeding time.

Special Studies

CLINICAL TRIALS

Osteoarthritis

The use of nabumetone in relieving the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA) was assessed in double-blind, controlled trials in which 1,047 patients were treated for 6 weeks to 6 months. In these trials, nabumetone in a dose of 1,000 mg/day administered at night was comparable to naproxen 500 mg/day and to aspirin 3,600 mg/day.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

The use of nabumetone in relieving the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was assessed in double-blind, randomized, controlled trials in which 770 patients were treated for 3 weeks to 6 months. Nabumetone, in a dose of 1,000 mg/day administered at night, was comparable to naproxen 500 mg/day and to aspirin 3,600 mg/day.

In controlled clinical trials of rheumatoid arthritis patients, nabumetone has been used in combination with gold, d-penicillamine, and corticosteroids.

Patient Exposure in Clinical Trials of Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis

In clinical trials with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis patients, most patients responded to nabumetone in doses of 1,000 mg/day administered nightly; total daily dosages up to 2,000 mg were used. In open-labeled studies, 1,490 patients were permitted dosage increases and were followed for approximately 1 year (mode). Twenty percent of patients (n = 294) were withdrawn for lack of effectiveness during the first year of these open-labeled studies. The following table provides patient-exposure to doses used in the U.S. clinical trials:

Table 2: Clinical Double-Blinded and Open-Labeled Trials of Nabumetone in Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis

Mean/Mode Duration of Treatment (yr)

Dose of

Number of Patients

Nabumetone

OA

RA

OA

RA

500 mg

17

6

0.4/-

0.2/-

1,000 mg

917

701

1.2/1

1.4/1

1,500 mg

645

224

2.3/1

1.7/1

2,000 mg

15

100

0.6/1

1.3/1

As with other NSAIDs, the lowest dose should be sought for each patient. Patients weighing under 50 kg may be less likely to require dosages beyond 1,000 mg; therefore, after observing the response to initial therapy, the dose should be adjusted to meet individual patients’ requirements.

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