Montelukast Sodium: Package Insert and Label Information

MONTELUKAST SODIUM- montelukast sodium tablet, film coated
Accord Healthcare Inc.

WARNING: SERIOUS NEUROPSYCHIATRIC EVENTS

Serious neuropsychiatric (NP) events have been reported with the use of montelukast sodium. The types of events reported were highly variable, and included, but were not limited to, agitation, aggression, depression, sleep disturbances, suicidal thoughts and behavior (including suicide). The mechanisms underlying NP events associated with montelukast sodium use are currently not well understood [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] .

Because of the risk of NP events, the benefits of montelukast sodium may not outweigh the risks in some patients, particularly when the symptoms of disease may be mild and adequately treated with alternative therapies. Reserve use of montelukast sodium for patients with allergic rhinitis who have an inadequate response or intolerance to alternative therapies [see Indications and Usage (1.3)] . In patients with asthma or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, consider the benefits and risks before prescribing montelukast sodium.

Discuss the benefits and risks of montelukast sodium with patients and caregivers when prescribing montelukast sodium. Advise patients and/or caregivers to be alert for changes in behavior or new NP symptoms when taking montelukast sodium. If changes in behavior are observed, or if new NP symptoms or suicidal thoughts and/or behavior occur, advise patients to discontinue montelukast sodium and contact a healthcare provider immediately [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] .

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

1.1 Asthma

Montelukast sodium tablet is indicated for the prophylaxis and chronic treatment of asthma in adults and pediatric patients 15 years of age and older.

1.2 Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB)

Montelukast sodium tablet is indicated for prevention of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in patients 15 years of age and older.

1.3 Allergic Rhinitis

Montelukast sodium tablet is indicated for the relief of symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis in patients 15 years of age and older and perennial allergic rhinitis in patients 15 years of age and older. Because the benefits of montelukast sodium tablets may not outweigh the risk of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] , reserve use for patients who have an inadequate response or intolerance to alternative therapies.

1.4 Limitations of Use

Montelukast sodium tablets are not indicated for the treatment of an acute asthma attack.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Asthma

For asthma, administer montelukast sodium tablets orally once daily in the evening, with or without food. There have been no clinical trials in patients with asthma to evaluate the relative efficacy of morning versus evening dosing.

The following doses are recommended:

Table 1: Recommended Dosage in Asthma
Age Dose

Adult and adolescent patients 15 years of age and older

one 10 mg tablet

Patients who miss a dose should take the next dose at their regular time and should not take 2 doses at the same time.

2.2 Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB)

For prevention of EIB, administer a single dose of montelukast sodium tablets orally at least 2 hours, before exercise. The following doses are recommended:

Table 2: Recommended Dosage in Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB)
Age Dose

Adult and adolescent patients 15 years of age and older

one 10 mg tablet

An additional dose of montelukast sodium tablets should not be taken within 24 hours of a previous dose. Patients already taking montelukast sodium tablets daily for another indication (including chronic asthma) should not take an additional dose to prevent EIB. All patients should have available for rescue a short-acting β-agonist.

Daily administration of montelukast sodium tablets for the chronic treatment of asthma has not been established to prevent acute episodes of EIB.

2.3 Allergic Rhinitis

For allergic rhinitis, administer montelukast sodium tablets orally once daily without regard to time of food ingestion. Time of administration in patients with allergic rhinitis can be individualized to suit patient needs.

The following doses for the treatment of symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis are recommended:

Table 3: Recommended Dosage in Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis
Age Dose

Adult and adolescent patients 15 years of age and older

one 10 mg tablet

The following doses for the treatment of symptoms of perennial allergic rhinitis are recommended:

Table 4: Recommended Dosage in Perennial Allergic Rhinitis
Age Dose

Adult and adolescent patients 15 years of age and older

one 10 mg tablet

Patients who miss a dose should take the next dose at their regular time and should not take 2 doses at the same time.

2.4 Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis

For patients with both asthma and allergic rhinitis, administer only one montelukast sodium tablets dose orally once daily in the evening.

Patients who miss a dose should take the next dose at their regular time and should not take 2 doses at the same time.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

  • Montelukast sodium tablets, USP 10 mg are beige coloured, rounded square, biconvex, film coated tablet debossed “M10” on one side and plain on the other side.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Montelukast sodium tablets are contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to any of its components.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Neuropsychiatric Events

Serious neuropsychiatric (NP) events have been reported with use of montelukast sodium. These postmarketing reports have been highly variable and included, but were not limited to, agitation, aggressive behavior or hostility, anxiousness, depression, disorientation, disturbance in attention, dream abnormalities, dysphemia (stuttering), hallucinations, insomnia, irritability, memory impairment, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, restlessness, somnambulism, suicidal thoughts and behavior (including suicide), tic, and tremor. NP events have been reported in adult, adolescent, and pediatric patients with and without a previous history of psychiatric disorder. NP events have been reported mostly during montelukast sodium treatment, but some were reported after montelukast sodium discontinuation. Animal studies showed that montelukast distributes into the brain in rats [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] ; however, the mechanisms underlying montelukast sodium -associated NP events are currently not well understood. Based upon the available data, it is difficult to identify risk factors for or quantify the risk of NP events with montelukast sodium use.

Because of the risk of NP events, the benefits of montelukast sodium may not outweigh the risks in some patients, particularly when the symptoms of disease may be mild and adequately treated with alternative therapies. Reserve use of montelukast sodium for patients with allergic rhinitis who have an inadequate response or intolerance to alternative therapies [see Indications and Usage (1.3)] . In patients with asthma or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, consider the benefits and risks before prescribing montelukast sodium.

Discuss the benefits and risks of montelukast sodium use with patients and caregivers when prescribing montelukast sodium. Advise patients and/or caregivers to be alert for changes in behavior or for new NP symptoms when taking montelukast sodium. If changes in behavior are observed, or if new NP symptoms or suicidal thoughts and/or behavior occur, advise patients to discontinue montelukast sodium and contact a healthcare provider immediately. In many cases, symptoms resolved after stopping montelukast sodium therapy; however, in some cases symptoms persisted after discontinuation of montelukast sodium. Therefore, continue to monitor and provide supportive care until symptoms resolve. Re-evaluate the benefits and risks of restarting treatment with montelukast sodium if such events occur.

5.2 Acute Asthma

Montelukast sodium is not indicated for use in the reversal of bronchospasm in acute asthma attacks, including status asthmaticus. Patients should be advised to have appropriate rescue medication available. Therapy with montelukast sodium can be continued during acute exacerbations of asthma. Patients who have exacerbations of asthma after exercise should have available for rescue a short-acting inhaled β-agonist.

5.3 Concomitant Corticosteroid Use

While the dose of inhaled corticosteroid may be reduced gradually under medical supervision, montelukast sodium should not be abruptly substituted for inhaled or oral corticosteroids.

5.4 Aspirin Sensitivity

Patients with known aspirin sensitivity should continue avoidance of aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents while taking montelukast sodium. Although montelukast sodium is effective in improving airway function in asthmatics with documented aspirin sensitivity, it has not been shown to truncate bronchoconstrictor response to aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in aspirin-sensitive asthmatic patients [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] .

5.5 Eosinophilic Conditions

Patients with asthma on therapy with montelukast sodium may present with systemic eosinophilia, sometimes presenting with clinical features of vasculitis consistent with Churg-Strauss syndrome, a condition which is often treated with systemic corticosteroid therapy. These events have been sometimes associated with the reduction of oral corticosteroid therapy. Physicians should be alert to eosinophilia, vasculitic rash, worsening pulmonary symptoms, cardiac complications, and/or neuropathy presenting in their patients. A causal association between montelukast sodium and these underlying conditions has not been established [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following clinically significant adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling:

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. In the following description of clinical trials experience, adverse reactions are listed regardless of causality assessment.

The most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥5% and greater than placebo; listed in descending order of frequency) in controlled clinical trials were: upper respiratory infection, fever, headache, pharyngitis, cough, abdominal pain, diarrhea, otitis media, influenza, rhinorrhea, sinusitis, otitis.

Adults and Adolescents 15 Years of Age and Older with Asthma

Montelukast sodium has been evaluated for safety in approximately 2950 adult and adolescent patients 15 years of age and older in clinical trials. In placebo-controlled clinical trials, the following adverse reactions reported with montelukast sodium occurred in greater than or equal to 1% of patients and at an incidence greater than that in patients treated with placebo:

Table 5: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥ 1% of Patients with an Incidence Greater than that in Patients Treated with Placebo
Montelukast 10 mg/day (%) (n=1955) Placebo (%) (n=1180)
*
Number of patients tested (montelukast sodium and placebo, respectively): ALT and AST, 1935, 1170; pyuria, 1924, 1159.
Body As A Whole Pain, abdominal Asthenia/fatigue Fever Trauma 2.9 1.8 1.5 1.0 2.5 1.2 0.9 0.8
Digestive System Disorders Dyspepsia Pain, dental Gastroenteritis, infectious 2.1 1.7 1.5 1.1 1.0 0.5
Nervous System/Psychiatric Headache Dizziness 18.4 1.9 18.1 1.4
Respiratory System Disorders Influenza Cough Congestion, nasal 4.2 2.7 1.6 3.9 2.4 1.3
Skin/Skin Appendages Disorder Rash 1.6 1.2
Laboratory Adverse Reactions * ALT increased AST increased Pyuria 2.1 1.6 1.0 2.0 1.2 0.9

The frequency of less common adverse reactions was comparable between montelukast sodium and placebo.

The safety profile of montelukast sodium, when administered as a single dose for prevention of EIB in adult and adolescent patients 15 years of age and older, was consistent with the safety profile previously described for montelukast sodium.

Cumulatively, 569 patients were treated with montelukast sodium for at least 6 months, 480 for one year, and 49 for two years in clinical trials. With prolonged treatment, the adverse reaction profile did not significantly change.

Adults and Adolescents 15 Years of Age and Older with Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis

Montelukast sodium has been evaluated for safety in 2199 adult and adolescent patients 15 years of age and older in clinical trials. Montelukast sodium administered once daily in the morning or in the evening had a safety profile similar to that of placebo. In placebo-controlled clinical trials, the following reaction was reported with montelukast sodium with a frequency ≥1% and at an incidence greater than placebo: upper respiratory infection, 1.9% of patients receiving montelukast sodium vs. 1.5% of patients receiving placebo. In a 4-week, placebo-controlled clinical study, the safety profile was consistent with that observed in 2-week studies. The incidence of somnolence was similar to that of placebo in all studies.

Adults and Adolescents 15 Years of Age and Older with Perennial Allergic Rhinitis

Montelukast sodium has been evaluated for safety in 3357 adult and adolescent patients 15 years of age and older with perennial allergic rhinitis of whom 1632 received montelukast sodium in two, 6-week, clinical studies. Montelukast sodium administered once daily had a safety profile consistent with that observed in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and similar to that of placebo. In these two studies, the following reactions were reported with montelukast sodium with a frequency ≥1% and at an incidence greater than placebo: sinusitis, upper respiratory infection, sinus headache, cough, epistaxis, and increased ALT. The incidence of somnolence was similar to that of placebo.

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