METOPROLOL SUCCINATE- metoprolol succinate tablet, extended release
Following abrupt cessation of therapy with certain beta-blocking agents, exacerbations of angina pectoris and, in some cases, myocardial infarction have occurred. When discontinuing chronically administered metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets, particularly in patients with ischemic heart disease, the dosage should be gradually reduced over a period of 1 — 2 weeks and the patient should be carefully monitored. If angina markedly worsens or acute coronary insufficiency develops, metoprolol succinate extended-release tablet administration should be reinstated promptly, at least temporarily, and other measures appropriate for the management of unstable angina should be taken. Warn patients against interruption or discontinuation of therapy without the physician’s advice. Because coronary artery disease is common and may be unrecognized, it may be prudent not to discontinue metoprolol succinate extended-release tablet therapy abruptly even in patients treated only for hypertension ( 5.1).
Metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets are indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure lowers the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including metoprolol.
Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than 1 drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC).
Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly.
Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal.
Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy.
Metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets may be administered with other antihypertensive agents.
Metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets are indicated for the treatment of stable, symptomatic (NYHA Class II or III) heart failure of ischemic, hypertensive, or cardiomyopathic origin. It was studied in patients already receiving ACE inhibitors, diuretics, and, in the majority of cases, digitalis. In this population, metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets decreased the rate of mortality plus hospitalization, largely through a reduction in cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for heart failure.
Metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets are an extended-release tablet intended for once daily administration. For treatment of hypertension and angina, when switching from immediate-release metoprolol to metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets, use the same total daily dose of metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets. Individualize the dosage of metoprolol succinate extended- release tablets. Titration may be needed in some patients.
Metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets are scored on both sides and can be divided; however, do not crush or chew the whole or half tablet.
Adults: The usual initial dosage is 25 to 100 mg daily in a single dose. The dosage may be increased at weekly (or longer) intervals until optimum blood pressure reduction is achieved. In general, the maximum effect of any given dosage level will be apparent after 1 week of therapy. Dosages above 400 mg per day have not been studied.
Pediatric Hypertensive Patients 6 Years of age: A pediatric clinical hypertension study in patients 6 to 16 years of age did not meet its primary endpoint (dose response for reduction in SBP); however, some other endpoints demonstrated effectiveness [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)] . If selected for treatment, the recommended starting dose of metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets is 1.0 mg/kg once daily, but the maximum initial dose should not exceed 50 mg once daily. Dosage should be adjusted according to blood pressure response. Doses above 2.0 mg/kg (or in excess of 200 mg) once daily have not been studied in pediatric patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets are not recommended in pediatric patients < 6 years of age [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)] .
Individualize the dosage of metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets. The usual initial dosage is 100 mg daily, given in a single dose. Gradually increase the dosage at weekly intervals until optimum clinical response has been obtained or there is a pronounced slowing of the heart rate. Dosages above 400 mg per day have not been studied. If treatment is to be discontinued, reduce the dosage gradually over a period of 1 — 2 weeks [see Warnings and Precautions (5)].
Dosage must be individualized and closely monitored during up-titration. Prior to initiation of metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets, stabilize the dose of other heart failure drug therapy. The recommended starting dose of metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets is 25 mg once daily for two weeks in patients with NYHA Class II heart failure and 12.5 mg once daily in patients with more severe heart failure. Double the dose every two weeks to the highest dosage level tolerated by the patient or up to 200 mg of metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets. Initial difficulty with titration should not preclude later attempts to introduce metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets. If patients experience symptomatic bradycardia, reduce the dose of metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets. If transient worsening of heart failure occurs, consider treating with increased doses of diuretics, lowering the dose of metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets or temporarily discontinuing it. The dose of metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets should not be increased until symptoms of worsening heart failure have been stabilized.
50 mg tablets white, round, biconvex, scored on both sides, film-coated tablet engraved with “N / 50”.
100 mg tablets white, round, biconvex, scored on both sides, film-coated tablet engraved with “N / 100”.
200 mg tablets white, oval, biconvex, scored on both sides, film-coated tablet engraved with “N / 200”.
Metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets are contraindicated in severe bradycardia, second or third degree heart block, cardiogenic shock, decompensated cardiac failure, sick sinus syndrome (unless a permanent pacemaker is in place), and in patients who are hypersensitive to any component of this product.
Following abrupt cessation of therapy with certain beta-blocking agents, exacerbations of angina pectoris and, in some cases, myocardial infarction have occurred. When discontinuing chronically administered metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets, particularly in patients with ischemic heart disease, gradually reduce the dosage over a period of 1 — 2 weeks and monitor the patient. If angina markedly worsens or acute coronary ischemia develops, promptly reinstate metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets, and take measures appropriate for the management of unstable angina. Warn patients not to interrupt therapy without their physician’s advice. Because coronary artery disease is common and may be unrecognized, avoid abruptly discontinuing metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets in patients treated only for hypertension.
Worsening cardiac failure may occur during up-titration of metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets. If such symptoms occur, increase diuretics and restore clinical stability before advancing the dose of metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets [see Dosage and Administration (2)]. It may be necessary to lower the dose of metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets or temporarily discontinue it. Such episodes do not preclude subsequent successful titration of metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets.
PATIENTS WITH BRONCHOSPASTIC DISEASES SHOULD, IN GENERAL, NOT RECEIVE BETA-BLOCKERS. Because of its relative beta 1 cardio-selectivity, however, metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets may be used in patients with bronchospastic disease who do not respond to, or cannot tolerate, other antihypertensive treatment. Because beta 1 -selectivity is not absolute, use the lowest possible dose of metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets. Bronchodilators, including beta 2 -agonists, should be readily available or administered concomitantly [see Dosage and Administration (2)].
If metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets are used in the setting of pheochromocytoma, it should be given in combination with an alpha blocker, and only after the alpha blocker has been initiated. Administration of beta-blockers alone in the setting of pheochromocytoma has been associated with a paradoxical increase in blood pressure due to the attenuation of beta-mediated vasodilatation in skeletal muscle.
Avoid initiation of a high-dose regimen of extended-release metoprolol in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery, since such use in patients with cardiovascular risk factors has been associated with bradycardia, hypotension, stroke and death.
Chronically administered beta-blocking therapy should not be routinely withdrawn prior to major surgery, however, the impaired ability of the heart to respond to reflex adrenergic stimuli may augment the risks of general anesthesia and surgical procedures.
Consider initiating metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets therapy at doses lower than those recommended for a given indication; gradually increase dosage to optimize therapy, while monitoring closely for adverse events.
While taking beta-blockers, patients with a history of severe anaphylactic reactions to a variety of allergens may be more reactive to repeated challenge and may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat an allergic reaction.
Because of significant inotropic and chronotropic effects in patients treated with beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers of the verapamil and diltiazem type, caution should be exercised in patients treated with these agents concomitantly.
- Worsening angina or myocardial infarction [see Warnings and Precautions (5)].
- Worsening heart failure [see Warnings and Precautions (5)].
- Worsening AV block [see Contraindications (4)].
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The adverse reaction information from clinical trials does, however, provide a basis for identifying the adverse events that appear to be related to drug use and for approximating rates.
Hypertension and Angina: Most adverse reactions have been mild and transient. The most common (>2%) adverse reactions are tiredness, dizziness, depression, diarrhea, shortness of breath, bradycardia, and rash.
Heart Failure: In the MERIT-HF study comparing metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets in daily doses up to 200 mg (mean dose 159 mg once-daily; n=1990) to placebo (n=2001), 10.3% of metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets patients discontinued for adverse reactions vs. 12.2% of placebo patients.
The table below lists adverse reactions in the MERIT-HF study that occurred at an incidence of 1% in the metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets group and greater than placebo by more than 0.5%, regardless of the assessment of causality.
|Metoprolol succinate extended-release tablet group; n=1990 % of patients||Placebo; n=2001 % of patients|
|Accident and/or injury||1.4||0.8|
Post-operative Adverse Events: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 8351 patients with or at risk for atherosclerotic disease undergoing non-vascular surgery and who were not taking beta–blocker therapy, metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets 100 mg was started 2 to 4 hours prior to surgery then continued for 30 days at 200 mg per day. Metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets use was associated with a higher incidence of bradycardia (6.6% vs. 2.4%; HR, 2.74; 95% CI 2.19, 3.43), hypotension (15% vs. 9.7%; HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.37, 1.74), stroke (1.0% vs. 0.5%; HR 2.17; 95% CI 1.26, 3.74) and death (3.1% vs. 2.3%; HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.03, 1.74) compared to placebo.
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