Limited published studies report that metformin is present in human milk [see Data ]. However, there is insufficient information to determine the effects of metformin on the breastfed infant and no available information on the effects of metformin on milk production. Therefore, the developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for metformin hydrochloride tablets and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from metformin hydrochloride tablets or from the underlying maternal condition.
Published clinical lactation studies report that metformin is present in human milk which resulted in infant doses approximately 0.11 % to 1% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage and a milk/plasma ratio ranging between 0.13 and 1. However, the studies were not designed to definitely establish the risk of use of metformin during lactation because of small sample size and limited adverse event data collected in infants.
Discuss the potential for unintended pregnancy with premenopausal women as therapy with metformin hydrochloride tablets may result in ovulation in some anovulatory women.
Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets
The safety and effectiveness of metformin hydrochloride tablets for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus have been established in pediatric patients 10 to 16 years old. Safety and effectiveness of metformin hydrochloride tablets have not been established in pediatric patients less than 10 years old.
Use of metformin hydrochloride tablets in pediatric patients 10 to 16 years old for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of metformin hydrochloride tablets in adults with additional data from a controlled clinical study in pediatric patients 10 to 16 years old with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which demonstrated a similar response in glycemic control to that seen in adults [see Clinical Studies (14.1) ]. In this study, adverse reactions were similar to those described in adults. A maximum daily dose of 2000 mg of metformin hydrochloride tablets is recommended. [see Dosage and Administration (2.2). ]
Controlled clinical studies of metformin hydrochloride tablets did not include sufficient numbers of elderly patients to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy and the higher risk of lactic acidosis. Assess renal function more frequently in elderly patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].
Metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of metformin accumulation and lactic acidosis increases with the degree of renal impairment. Metformin hydrochloride tablets are contraindicated in severe renal impairment, patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) below 30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 [see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.1), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Use of metformin in patients with hepatic impairment has been associated with some cases of lactic acidosis. Metformin hydrochloride tablets are not recommended in patients with hepatic impairment. [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].
Overdose of metformin hydrochloride has occurred, including ingestion of amounts greater than 50 grams. Hypoglycemia was reported in approximately 10% of cases, but no causal association with metformin has been established. Lactic acidosis has been reported in approximately 32% of metformin overdose cases [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. Metformin is dialyzable with a clearance of up to 170 mL/min under good hemodynamic conditions. Therefore, hemodialysis may be useful for removal of accumulated drug from patients in whom metformin overdosage is suspected.
Metformin hydrochloride tablets, USP contain the antihyperglycemic agent metformin, which is a biguanide, in the form of monohydrochloride. The chemical name of metformin hydrochloride is N,N dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide hydrochloride. The structural formula is as shown below:
Metformin hydrochloride, USP is a white to off-white crystalline compound with a molecular formula of C H N • HCl and a molecular weight of 165.63. Metformin hydrochloride is freely soluble in water, slightly 4 11 5 soluble in alcohol, practically insoluble in acetone and in methylene chloride. The pKa of metformin is 12.4. The pH of a 1% aqueous solution of metformin hydrochloride is 6.68.
Metformin hydrochloride tablets, USP contain 500 mg, 850 mg, or 1000 mg of metformin hydrochloride. Each tablet contains the inactive ingredients povidone (K-30), povidone (K-90), pregelatinized starch, and magnesium stearate. In addition, the coating for the tablets contains artificial blackberry flavor, hypromellose, macrogol and titanium dioxide.
Metformin is an antihyperglycemic agent which improves glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose. Metformin decreases hepatic glucose production, decreases intestinal absorption of glucose, and improves insulin sensitivity by increasing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization. With metformin therapy, insulin secretion remains unchanged while fasting insulin levels and day-long plasma insulin response may decrease.
The absolute bioavailability of a metformin hydrochloride tablets 500 mg given under fasting conditions is approximately 50% to 60%. Studies using single oral doses of metformin hydrochloride tablets 500 to 1500 mg and 850 to 2550 mg, indicate that there is a lack of dose proportionality with increasing doses, which is due to decreased absorption rather than an alteration in elimination. At usual clinical doses and dosing schedules of metformin hydrochloride tablets, steady state plasma concentrations of metformin are reached within 24 to 48 hours and are generally <1 μg/mL.
Following a single oral dose of metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets, C max is achieved with a median value of 7 hours and a range of 4 to 8 hours. Peak plasma levels are approximately 20% lower compared to the same dose of metformin hydrochloride tablets, however, the extent of absorption (as measured by AUC) is comparable to metformin hydrochloride tablets.
At steady state, the AUC and C max are less than dose proportional for metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets within the range of 500 to 2000 mg administered once daily. Peak plasma levels are approximately 0.6, 1.1, 1.4 and 1.8 mcg/mL for 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 mg once-daily doses, respectively. The extent of metformin absorption (as measured by AUC) from metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets at a 2000 mg once-daily dose is similar to the same total daily dose administered as metformin hydrochloride tablets 1000 mg twice daily. After repeated administration of metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets, metformin did not accumulate in plasma.
Effect of food: Food decreases the extent of absorption and slightly delays the absorption of metformin, as shown by approximately a 40% lower mean peak plasma concentration (C max ), a 25% lower area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC), and a 35-minute prolongation of time to peak plasma concentration (T max ) following administration of a single 850 mg tablet of metformin hydrochloride tablets with food, compared to the same tablet strength administered fasting.
The apparent volume of distribution (V/F) of metformin following single oral doses of metformin hydrochloride tablets 850 mg averaged 654 ± 358 L. Metformin is negligibly bound to plasma proteins. Metformin partitions into erythrocytes, most likely as a function of time.
Intravenous single-dose studies in normal subjects demonstrate that metformin is excreted unchanged in the urine and does not undergo hepatic metabolism (no metabolites have been identified in humans) nor biliary excretion.
Renal clearance (see Table 4) is approximately 3.5 times greater than creatinine clearance, which indicates that tubular secretion is the major route of metformin elimination. Following oral administration, approximately 90% of the absorbed drug is eliminated via the renal route within the first 24 hours, with a plasma elimination half-life of approximately 6.2 hours. In blood, the elimination half-life is approximately 17.6 hours, suggesting that the erythrocyte mass may be a compartment of distribution.
In patients with decreased renal function the plasma and blood half-life of metformin is prolonged and the renal clearance is decreased (see Table 3) [see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6) ].
No pharmacokinetic studies of metformin have been conducted in patients with hepatic impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Use in Specific Populations (8.7) ].
Limited data from controlled pharmacokinetic studies of metformin hydrochloride tablets in healthy elderly subjects suggest that total plasma clearance of metformin is decreased, the half-life is prolonged, and C max is increased, compared to healthy young subjects. It appears that the change in metformin pharmacokinetics with aging is primarily accounted for by a change in renal function (see Table 4). [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Use in Specific Populations (8.5) ].
Table 4: Select Mean (±S.D.) Metformin Pharmacokinetic Parameters Following Single or Multiple Oral Doses of Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets
After administration of a single oral metformin hydrochloride 500 mg tablet with food, geometric mean metformin C max and AUC differed less than 5% between pediatric type 2 diabetic patients (12 to 16 years of age) and gender- and weight-matched healthy adults (20 to 45 years of age), all with normal renal function.
Metformin pharmacokinetic parameters did not differ significantly between normal subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus when analyzed according to gender (males=19, females=16).
No studies of metformin pharmacokinetic parameters according to race have been performed.
In Vivo Assessment of Drug Interactions
Table 5: Effect of Coadministered Drug on Plasma Metformin Systemic Exposure
Table 6: Effect of Metformin on Coadministered Drug Systemic Exposure
Long-term carcinogenicity studies have been performed in rats (dosing duration of 104 weeks) and mice dosing duration of 91 weeks) at doses up to and including 900 mg/kg/day and 1500 mg/kg/day, espectively. These doses are both approximately 3 times the maximum recommended human daily dose f 2550 mg based on body surface area comparisons. No evidence of carcinogenicity with metformin was ound in either male or female mice. Similarly, there was no tumorigenic potential observed with metformin n male rats. There was, however, an increased incidence of benign stromal uterine polyps in female rats reated with 900 mg/kg/day.
There was no evidence of a mutagenic potential of metformin in the following in vitro tests: Ames test S. typhimurium), gene mutation test (mouse lymphoma cells), or chromosomal aberrations test (human lymphocytes). Results in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test were also negative. Fertility of male or female rats was unaffected by metformin when administered at doses as high as 600 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 2 times the maximum recommended human daily dose of 2550 mg based on body surface area comparisons.
Adult Clinical Studies
A double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter US clinical trial involving obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus whose hyperglycemia was not adequately controlled with dietary management alone (baseline fasting plasma glucose [FPG] of approximately 240 mg/dL) was conducted. Patients were treated with metformin hydrochloride tablets (up to 2550 mg/day) or placebo for 29 weeks. The results are presented in Table 7.
Table 7: Mean Change in Fasting Plasma Glucose and HbA1c at Week 29 Comparing Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets vs Placebo in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Mean baseline body weight was 201 lbs and 206 lbs in the metformin hydrochloride tablets and placebo arms, respectively. Mean change in body weight from baseline to week 29 was -1.4 lbs and -2.4 lbs in the metformin hydrochloride tablets and placebo arms, respectively. A 29-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of metformin hydrochloride tablets and glyburide, alone and in combination, was conducted in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who had failed to achieve adequate glycemic control while on maximum doses of glyburide (baseline FPG of approximately 250 mg/dL). Patients randomized to the combination arm started therapy with metformin hydrochloride tablets 500 mg and glyburide 20 mg. At the end of each week of the first 4 weeks of the trial, these patients had their dosages of metformin hydrochloride tablets increased by 500 mg if they had failed to reach target fasting plasma glucose. After week 4, such dosage adjustments were made monthly, although no patient was allowed to exceed metformin hydrochloride tablets 2500 mg. Patients in the metformin hydrochloride tablets only arm (metformin plus placebo) discontinued glyburide and followed the same titration schedule. Patients in the glyburide arm continued the same dose of glyburide. At the end of the trial, approximately 70% of the patients in the combination group were taking metformin hydrochloride tablets 2000 mg/glyburide 20 mg or metformin hydrochloride tablets 2500 mg/glyburide 20 mg. The results are displayed in Table 8.
Table 8: Mean Change in Fasting Plasma Glucose and HbA1c at Week 29 Comparing Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets /Glyburide (Comb) vs Glyburide (Glyb) vs Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets (MET): in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Inadequate Glycemic Control on Glyburide
Mean baseline body weight was 202 lbs, 203 lbs, and 204 lbs in the metformin hydrochloride tablets /glyburide, glyburide, and metformin hydrochloride tablets arms, respectively. Mean change in body weight from baseline to week 29 was 0.9 lbs, -0.7 lbs, and -8.4 lbs in the metformin hydrochloride tablets/glyburide, glyburide, and metformin hydrochloride tablets arms, respectively.
Pediatric Clinical Studies
A double-blind, placebo-controlled study in pediatric patients aged 10 to 16 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus (mean FPG 182.2 mg/dL), treatment with metformin hydrochloride tablets (up to 2000 mg/day) for up to 16 weeks (mean duration of treatment 11 weeks) was conducted. The results are displayed in Table 9.
Table 9: Mean Change in Fasting Plasma Glucose at Week 16 Comparing Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets vs Placebo in Pediatric Patients a with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Mean baseline body weight was 205 lbs and 189 lbs in the metformin hydrochloride tablets and placebo arms, respectively. Mean change in body weight from baseline to week 16 was -3.3 lbs and -2.0 lbs in the metformin hydrochloride tablets and placebo arms, respectively.
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