LYMEPAK- doxycycline hyclate tablet, film coated
LIFSA DRUGS LLC
LYMEPAK is indicated for the treatment of early Lyme disease (as evidenced by erythema migrans) due to Borrelia burgdorferi in adults and pediatric patients 8 years of age and older weighing 45 kg and above.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of LYMEPAK and other antibacterial drugs, LYMEPAK should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Adults and Pediatric Patients 8 years of age and older weighing 45 kg and above
Administer LYMEPAK (100 mg) tablet every 12 hours for 21 days.
- The usual dosage and frequency of administration of LYMEPAK differs from that of the other tetracyclines. Exceeding the recommended dosage may result in an increased incidence of adverse reactions.
- Administration of adequate amounts of fluid along with the tablets is recommended to wash down the tablet to reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration [see Adverse Reactions (6)].
- If gastric irritation occurs, LYMEPAK may be given with food or milk. The absorption of doxycycline is not markedly influenced by simultaneous ingestion of food or milk.
LYMEPAK tablets are green, round, film-coated tablets engraved with LP-1 on one side. Each tablet contains 100 mg of doxycycline (equivalent to 115 mg doxycycline hyclate).
LYMEPAK is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to any of the tetracyclines.
The use of LYMEPAK during tooth development (last half of pregnancy, infancy and childhood up to the age of 8 years) may cause permanent discoloration of the teeth (yellow-gray-brown). This adverse reaction is more common during long-term use of the drugs of the tetracycline class, but it has been observed following repeated short-term courses. Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported with drugs of the tetracycline class. Advise the patient of the potential risk to the fetus if LYMEPAK is used during the second or third trimester of pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.4)].
The use of LYMEPAK during the second and third trimester of pregnancy, infancy and childhood up to the age of 8 years may cause reversible inhibition of bone growth. All tetracyclines form a stable calcium complex in any bone-forming tissue. A decrease in fibula growth rate has been observed in premature infants given oral tetracycline in doses of 25 mg/kg every 6 hours. This reaction was shown to be reversible when the drug was discontinued. Advise the patient of the potential risk to the fetus if LYMEPAK is used during the second or third trimester of pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.4)] .
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including LYMEPAK, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following the use of antibacterial drugs. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing use of antibacterial drugs not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C. difficile , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines. Patients apt to be exposed to direct sunlight or ultraviolet light should be advised that this reaction can occur with LYMEPAK, and treatment should be discontinued at the first evidence of skin erythema.
Severe skin reactions, such as exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) have been reported in patients receiving doxycycline [see Adverse Reactions (6)] . If severe skin reactions occur, discontinue LYMEPAK immediately and initiate appropriate therapy.
The Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction is a self-limiting systemic reaction that has been reported after the initiation of doxycycline therapy in up to 30% of patients with early Lyme disease. The reaction begins one to two hours after initiation of therapy and disappears within 12 to 24 hours. It is characterized by fever, chills, myalgias, headache, exacerbation of cutaneous lesions, tachycardia, hyperventilation, vasodilation with flushing, and mild hypotension. The pathogenesis of the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction is unknown, but thought to be due to the release of spirochetal heat-stable pyrogen. Advise the patient of this reaction before starting LYMEPAK. Administer fluids and antipyretics to alleviate symptoms and duration of the reaction if severe.
Intracranial hypertension (IH, pseudotumor cerebri) has been associated with the use of tetracyclines including doxycycline. Clinical manifestations of IH include headache, blurred vision, diplopia, and vision loss; papilledema can be found on fundoscopy. Women of childbearing age who are overweight or have a history of IH are at greater risk for developing tetracycline associated IH. Concomitant use of isotretinoin and LYMEPAK should be avoided because isotretinoin is also known to cause pseudotumor cerebri.
Although IH may improve after discontinuation of treatment, the possibility for permanent visual loss exists. If visual disturbance occurs during treatment, prompt ophthalmologic evaluation is warranted. Since intracranial pressure can remain elevated for weeks after drug cessation patients should be monitored until they stabilize.
The antianabolic action of the tetracyclines, including LYMEPAK may cause an increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Studies to date indicate that this does not occur with the use of doxycycline in patients with renal impairment.
Prescribing LYMEPAK in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria
As with other antibacterial drugs, use of LYMEPAK may result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms, including fungi. If such infections occur, discontinue doxycycline and institute appropriate therapy.
The following clinically significant adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling:
- Tooth Discoloration and Enamel Hypoplasia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- Inhibition of Bone Growth [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- Clostridium Difficile Associated Diarrhea [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- Photosensitivity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Severe Skin Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
- Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
- Intracranial Hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
The following adverse reactions have been observed during clinical trials or post-approval use of tetracycline-class drugs, including LYMEPAK. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Gastrointestinal: Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, glossitis, dysphagia, enterocolitis, and inflammatory lesions (with monilial overgrowth) in the anogenital region, and pancreatitis. Hepatotoxicity has been reported. These reactions have been caused by both the oral and parenteral administration of tetracyclines. Superficial discoloration of the adult permanent dentition, reversible upon drug discontinuation and professional dental cleaning has been reported. Permanent tooth discoloration and enamel hypoplasia may occur with drugs of the tetracycline class when used during tooth development [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] . Esophagitis and esophageal ulcerations have been reported in patients receiving capsule and tablet forms of drugs in the tetracycline-class. Most of these patients took medications immediately before going to bed [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)] .
Skin: Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erytherma multiforme, maculopapular and erythematous rashes. Exfoliative dermatitis has been reported but is uncommon. Photosensitivity is discussed above [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] .
Renal: Rise in BUN has been reported and is apparently dose-related [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)] .
Immune: Hypersensitivity reactions including urticaria, angioneurotic edema, anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid purpura, serum sickness, pericarditis, exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction has been reported in patients treated with doxycycline for early Lyme disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)] .
Blood: Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and eosinophilia have been reported.
Intracranial Hypertension: Intracranial hypertension (IH, pseudotumor cerebri) in adults and bulging fontanels in infants has been associated with the use of tetracycline [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)] .
Thyroid Gland Changes: When given over prolonged periods, tetracyclines have been reported to produce brown-black microscopic discoloration of thyroid glands. No abnormalities of thyroid function are known to occur.
Because tetracyclines have been shown to depress plasma prothrombin activity, patients who are on anticoagulant therapy may require downward adjustment of their anticoagulant dosage.
Since bacteriostatic drugs may interfere with the bactericidal action of penicillin, it is advisable to avoid giving tetracyclines, including LYMEPAK in conjunction with penicillin.
Absorption of tetracyclines is impaired by antacids containing aluminum, calcium, or magnesium, bismuth subsalicylate, and iron-containing preparations. Absorption of tetracyclines is impaired by bismuth subsalicylate.
Concurrent use of tetracycline, including LYMEPAK, may render oral contraceptives less effective.
There have been reports of intracranial hypertension associated with the concomitant use of isotretinoin and doxycycline. Avoid the concomitant use of isotretinoin and LYMEPAK because isotretinoin is also known to cause pseudotumor cerebri (benign intracranial hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
Barbiturates, carbamazepine, and phenytoin decrease the half-life of doxycycline.
False elevations of urinary catecholamines may occur due to interference with the fluorescence test.
LYMEPAK, like other tetracycline-class antibacterial drugs, may cause discoloration of deciduous teeth and reversible inhibition of bone growth when administered during the second and third trimester of pregnancy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2), Data, Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]. Available data from published studies over decades have not shown a difference in major birth defect risk compared to unexposed pregnancies with doxycycline exposure in the first trimester of pregnancy (see Data). There are no available data on the risk of miscarriage following exposure to doxycycline in pregnancy.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
A retrospective cohort study of 1,690 pregnant patients who received doxycycline prescriptions in the first trimester of pregnancy compared to an unexposed pregnant cohort showed no difference in the major malformation rate. There is no information on the dose or duration of treatment, or if the patients actually ingested the doxycycline that was prescribed.
Other published studies on exposure to doxycycline in the first trimester of pregnancy have small sample sizes; however, these studies have not shown an increased risk of major malformations.
The use of tetracyclines during tooth development (second and third trimester of pregnancy) may cause permanent discoloration of the teeth (yellow-gray-brown). This adverse reaction is more common during long-term use of the drug but has been observed following repeated short-term courses.
Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues, and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeletal development). Evidence of embryotoxicity also has been noted in animals treated early in pregnancy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2)].
Based on available published data, doxycycline is present in human milk. There are no data that inform the levels of doxycycline in breastmilk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Because there are other antibacterial drug options available to treat Lyme disease in lactating women and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions, including tooth discoloration and inhibition of bone growth, advise patients that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with LYMEPAK and for 5 days after the last dose.
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