Lovastatin: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 5 of 6)

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether lovastatin is excreted in human milk. Because a small amount of another drug in this class is excreted in human breast milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, women taking lovastatin should not nurse their infants (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in patients 10 to 17 years of age with heFH have been evaluated in controlled clinical trials of 48 weeks duration in adolescent boys and controlled clinical trials of 24 weeks duration in girls who were at least 1 year post-menarche. Patients treated with lovastatin had an adverse experience profile generally similar to that of patients treated with placebo. Doses greater than 40 mg have not been studied in this population. In these limited controlled studies, there was no detectable effect on growth or sexual maturation in the adolescent boys or on menstrual cycle length in girls. See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY , Clinical Studies in Adolescent Patients ; ADVERSE REACTIONS , Adolescent Patients (Ages 10 to 17 Years) ; and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION , Adolescent Patients (10 to 17 Years of Age) with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia. Adolescent females should be counseled on appropriate contraceptive methods while on lovastatin therapy (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS , Pregnancy). Lovastatin has not been studied in pre-pubertal patients or patients younger than 10 years of age.

Geriatric Use

A pharmacokinetic study with lovastatin showed the mean plasma level of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity to be approximately 45% higher in elderly patients between 70 to 78 years of age compared with patients between 18 to 30 years of age; however, clinical study experience in the elderly indicates that dosage adjustment based on this age-related pharmacokinetic difference is not needed. In the two large clinical studies conducted with lovastatin (EXCEL and AFCAPS/TexCAPS), 21% (3094/14850) of patients were ≥ 65 years of age. Lipid-lowering efficacy with lovastatin was at least as great in elderly patients compared with younger patients, and there were no overall differences in safety over the 20 to 80 mg/day dosage range (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Because advanced age (≥65 years) is a predisposing factor for myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, lovastatin should be prescribed with caution in the elderly.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Phase III Clinical Studies

In Phase III controlled clinical studies involving 613 patients treated with lovastatin, the adverse experience profile was similar to that shown below for the 8,245 patient EXCEL study (see Expanded Clinical Evaluation of Lovastatin [EXCEL] Study).

Persistent increases of serum transaminases have been noted (see WARNINGS, Liver Dysfunction). About 11% of patients had elevations of CK levels of at least twice the normal value on one or more occasions. The corresponding values for the control agent cholestyramine were 9 percent. This was attributable to the noncardiac fraction of CK. Large increases in CK have sometimes been reported (see WARNINGS , Myopathy/Rhabdomyolysis).

Expanded Clinical Evaluation of Lovastatin (EXCEL) Study

Lovastatin was compared to placebo in 8,245 patients with hypercholesterolemia (total-C 240 to 300 mg/dL [6.2 to 7.8 mmol/L]) in the randomized, double-blind, parallel, 48 week EXCEL study. Clinical adverse experiences reported as possibly, probably or definitely drug-related in ≥ 1% in any treatment group are shown in the table below. For no event was the incidence on drug and placebo statistically different.

Placebo (N = 1663) %

Lovastatin 20 mg q.p.m.
(N = 1642) %

Lovastatin 40 mg q.p.m.
(N = 1645) %

Lovastatin 20 mg b.i.d. (N = 1646) %

Lovastatin
40 mg b.i.d.
(N = 1649)
%

Body As a Whole

Asthenia

1.4

1.7

1.4

1.5

1.2

Gastrointestinal

Abdominal pain

1.6

2.0

2.0

2.2

2.5

Constipation

1.9

2.0

3.2

3.2

3.5

Diarrhea

2.3

2.6

2.4

2.2

2.6

Dyspepsia

1.9

1.3

1.3

1.0

1.6

Flatulence

4.2

3.7

4.3

3.9

4.5

Nausea

2.5

1.9

2.5

2.2

2.2

Musculoskeletal

Muscle cramps

0.5

0.6

0.8

1.1

1.0

Myalgia

1.7

2.6

1.8

2.2

3.0

Nervous System/Psychiatric

Dizziness

0.7

0.7

1.2

0.5

0.5

Headache

2.7

2.6

2.8

2.1

3.2

Skin

Rash

0.7

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.3

Special Senses

Blurred vision

0.8

1.1

0.9

0.9

1.2

Other clinical adverse experiences reported as possibly, probably or definitely drug-related in 0.5 to 1.0 percent of patients in any drug-treated group are listed below. In all these cases the incidence on drug and placebo was not statistically different. Body as a Whole: chest pain; Gastrointestinal: acid regurgitation, dry mouth, vomiting; Musculoskeletal: leg pain, shoulder pain, arthralgia; Nervous System/Psychiatric: insomnia, paresthesia; Skin: alopecia, pruritus; Special Senses: eye irritation.

In the EXCEL study (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY , Clinical Studies in Adults), 4.6% of the patients treated up to 48 weeks were discontinued due to clinical or laboratory adverse experiences which were rated by the investigator as possibly, probably or definitely related to therapy with lovastatin. The value for the placebo group was 2.5%.

Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (AFCAPS/TexCAPS)

In AFCAPS/TexCAPS (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY , Clinical Studies in Adults) involving 6,605 participants treated with 20 to 40 mg/day of lovastatin (n = 3,304) or placebo (n = 3,301), the safety and tolerability profile of the group treated with lovastatin was comparable to that of the group treated with placebo during a median of 5.1 years of follow-up. The adverse experiences reported in AFCAPS/TexCAPS were similar to those reported in EXCEL (see ADVERSE REACTIONS , Expanded Clinical Evaluation of Lovastatin (EXCEL) Study).

Concomitant Therapy

In controlled clinical studies in which lovastatin was administered concomitantly with cholestyramine, no adverse reactions peculiar to this concomitant treatment were observed. The adverse reactions that occurred were limited to those reported previously with lovastatin or cholestyramine. Other lipid-lowering agents were not administered concomitantly with lovastatin during controlled clinical studies. Preliminary data suggests that the addition of gemfibrozil to therapy with lovastatin is not associated with greater reduction in LDL-C than that achieved with lovastatin alone. In uncontrolled clinical studies, most of the patients who have developed myopathy were receiving concomitant therapy with cyclosporine, gemfibrozil or niacin (nicotinic acid). The combined use of lovastatin with cyclosporine or gemfibrozil should be avoided. Caution should be used when prescribing other fibrates or lipid-lowering doses (≥ 1 g/day) of niacin with lovastatin (see WARNINGS , Myopathy/Rhabdomyolysis).

The following effects have been reported with drugs in this class. Not all the effects listed below have necessarily been associated with lovastatin therapy.

Skeletal: muscle cramps, myalgia, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, arthralgias.

There have been rare reports of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy associated with statin use (see WARNINGS, Myopathy/Rhabdomyolysis).

Neurological: dysfunction of certain cranial nerves (including alteration of taste, impairment of extra-ocular movement, facial paresis), tremor, dizziness, vertigo, paresthesia, peripheral neuropathy, peripheral nerve palsy, psychic disturbances, anxiety, insomnia, depression.

There have been rare postmarketing reports of cognitive impairment (e.g., memory loss, forgetfulness, amnesia, memory impairment, confusion) associated with statin use. These cognitive issues have been reported for all statins. The reports are generally nonserious, and reversible upon statin discontinuation, with variable times to symptom onset (1 day to years) and symptom resolution (median of 3 weeks).

Hypersensitivity Reactions: An apparent hypersensitivity syndrome has been reported rarely which has included one or more of the following features: anaphylaxis, angioedema, lupus erythematous-like syndrome, polymyalgia rheumatica, dermatomyositis, vasculitis, purpura, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, hemolytic anemia, positive ANA, ESR increase, eosinophilia, arthritis, arthralgia, urticaria, asthenia, photosensitivity, fever, chills, flushing, malaise, dyspnea, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome.

Gastrointestinal: pancreatitis, hepatitis, including chronic active hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, fatty change in liver; and rarely, cirrhosis, fulminant hepatic necrosis, and hepatoma; anorexia, vomiting, fatal and non-fatal hepatic failure.

Skin: alopecia, pruritus. A variety of skin changes (e.g., nodules, discoloration, dryness of skin/mucous membranes, changes to hair/nails) have been reported.

Reproductive: gynecomastia, loss of libido, erectile dysfunction.

Eye: progression of cataracts (lens opacities), ophthalmoplegia.

Laboratory Abnormalities: elevated transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and bilirubin; thyroid function abnormalities.

DrugInserts.com provides trustworthy package insert and label information about marketed drugs as submitted by manufacturers to the US Food and Drug Administration. Package information is not reviewed or updated separately by DrugInserts.com. Every individual package label entry contains a unique identifier which can be used to secure further details directly from the US National Institutes of Health and/or the FDA.

As the leading independent provider of trustworthy medication information, we source our database directly from the FDA's central repository of drug labels and package inserts under the Structured Product Labeling standard. Our material is not intended as a substitute for direct consultation with a qualified health professional.

Terms of Use | Copyright © 2020. All Rights Reserved.