Lovastatin: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 3 of 6)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Therapy with Lovastatin Tablets should be a component of multiple risk factor intervention in those individuals with dyslipidemia at risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease. Lovastatin Tablets should be used in addition to a diet restricted in saturated fat and cholesterol as part of a treatment strategy to lower total-C and LDL-C to target levels when the response to diet and other nonpharmacological measures alone has been inadequate to reduce risk.

Primary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease

In individuals without symptomatic cardiovascular disease, average to moderately elevated total-C and LDL-C, and below average HDL-C, Lovastatin Tablets are indicated to reduce the risk of:

- Myocardial infarction

- Unstable angina

- Coronary revascularization procedures

(See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY , Clinical Studies in Adults.)

Coronary Heart Disease

Lovastatin Tablets are indicated to slow the progression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with coronary heart disease as part of a treatment strategy to lower total-C and LDL-C to target levels.

Hypercholesterolemia

Therapy with lipid-altering agents should be a component of multiple risk factor intervention in those individuals at significantly increased risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease due to hypercholesterolemia. Lovastatin Tablets are indicated as an adjunct to diet for the reduction of elevated total-C and LDL-C levels in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia (Types IIa and IIb2), when the response to diet restricted in saturated fat and cholesterol and to other nonpharmacological measures alone has been inadequate.

2 Classification of Hyperlipoproteinemias

Lipid Elevations

Type

Lipoproteins elevated

major

minor

I

chylomicrons

TG

↑→C

IIa

LDL

C

IIb

LDL, VLDL

C

TG

III (rare)

IDL

C/TG

IV

VLDL

TG

↑→C

V (rare)

chylomicrons, VLDL

TG

↑→C

IDL = intermediate-density lipoprotein.

Adolescent Patients With Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Lovastatin Tablets are indicated as an adjunct to diet to reduce total-C, LDL-C and apolipoprotein B levels in adolescent boys and girls who are at least one year post-menarche, 10 to 17 years of age, with heFH if after an adequate trial of diet therapy the following findings are present:

  1. LDL-C remains > 189 mg/dL or
  2. LDL-C remains > 160 mg/dL and:
  • there is a positive family history of premature cardiovascular disease or
  • two or more other CVD risk factors are present in the adolescent patient

General Recommendations

Prior to initiating therapy with lovastatin, secondary causes for hypercholesterolemia (e.g., poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, nephrotic syndrome, dysproteinemias, obstructive liver disease, other drug therapy, alcoholism) should be excluded, and a lipid profile performed to measure total-C, HDL-C, and TG. For patients with TG less than 400 mg/dL (< 4.5 mmol/L), LDL-C can be estimated using the following equation:

LDL-C = total-C — [0.2 x (TG) + HDL-C]

For TG levels > 400 mg/dL (> 4.5 mmol/L), this equation is less accurate and LDL-C concentrations should be determined by ultracentrifugation. In hypertriglyceridemic patients, LDL-C may be low or normal despite elevated total-C. In such cases, Lovastatin Tablets are not indicated.

The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Treatment Guidelines are summarized below:

NCEP Treatment Guidelines: LDL-C Goals and Cutpoints for Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes and Drug Therapy in Different Risk Categories

Risk Category

LDL Goal (mg/dL)

LDL Level at Which to Initiate Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (mg/dL)

LDL Level at Which to Consider Drug Therapy (mg/dL)

CHD 1 or CHD risk equivalents (10 year risk > 20%)

< 100

≥ 100

≥ 130 (100 to 129: drug optional)2

2+ Risk factors (10 year risk ≤ 20%)

< 130

≥ 130

10 year risk 10 to 20%: ≥ 130

10 year risk < 10%: ≥ 160

0 to 1 Risk factor 3

< 160

≥ 160

≥ 190 (160 to 189: LDL-lowering drug optional)

  1. CHD, coronary heart disease
  2. Some authorities recommend use of LDL-lowering drugs in this category if an LDL-C level of < 100 mg/dL cannot be achieved by therapeutic lifestyle changes. Others prefer use of drugs that primarily modify triglycerides and HDL-C, e.g., nicotinic acid or fibrate. Clinical judgment also may call for deferring drug therapy in this subcategory.
  3. Almost all people with 0 to 1 risk factor have a 10 year risk < 10%; thus, 10 year risk assessment in people with 0 to 1 risk factor is not necessary.

After the LDL-C goal has been achieved, if the TG is still ≥ 200 mg/dL, non-HDL-C (total-C minus HDL-C) becomes a secondary target of therapy. Non-HDL-C goals are set 30 mg/dL higher than LDL-C goals for each risk category.

At the time of hospitalization for an acute coronary event, consideration can be given to initiating drug therapy at discharge if the LDL-C is ≥ 130 mg/dL (see NCEP Treatment Guidelines above).

Since the goal of treatment is to lower LDL-C, the NCEP recommends that LDL-C levels be used to initiate and assess treatment response. Only if LDL-C levels are not available, should the total-C be used to monitor therapy.

Although Lovastatin Tablets may be useful to reduce elevated LDL-C levels in patients with combined hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia where hypercholesterolemia is the major abnormality (Type IIb hyperlipoproteinemia), it has not been studied in conditions where the major abnormality is elevation of chylomicrons, VLDL or IDL (i.e., hyperlipoproteinemia types I, III, IV, or V).2

The NCEP classification of cholesterol levels in pediatric patients with a familial history of hypercholesterolemia or premature cardiovascular disease is summarized below:

Category

Total-C (mg/dL)

LDL-C (mg/dL)

Acceptable

< 170

< 110

Borderline

170 to 199

110 to 129

High

≥ 200

≥ 130

Children treated with lovastatin in adolescence should be re-evaluated in adulthood and appropriate changes made to their cholesterol-lowering regimen to achieve adult goals for LDL-C.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Hypersensitivity to any component of this medication.

Active liver disease or unexplained persistent elevations of serum transaminases (see WARNINGS).

Concomitant administration with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., itraconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, HIV protease inhibitors, boceprevir, telaprevir, erythromycin, clarithromycin, telithromycin, nefazodone and cobicistat-containing products) (see WARNINGS , Myopathy/Rhabdomyolysis).

Pregnancy and Lactation

(See PRECAUTIONS , Pregnancy and Nursing Mothers.)

Atherosclerosis is a chronic process and the discontinuation of lipid-lowering drugs during pregnancy should have little impact on the outcome of long-term therapy of primary hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, cholesterol and other products of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway are essential components for fetal development, including synthesis of steroids and cell membranes. Because of the ability of inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase such as lovastatin to decrease the synthesis of cholesterol and possibly other products of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, lovastatin is contraindicated during pregnancy and in nursing mothers. Lovastatin should be administered to women of childbearing age only when such patients are highly unlikely to conceive. If the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, lovastatin should be discontinued immediately and the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus (see PRECAUTIONS , Pregnancy).

WARNINGS

Myopathy/Rhabdomyolysis

Lovastatin, like other inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, occasionally causes myopathy manifested as muscle pain, tenderness or weakness with creatine kinase (CK) above ten times the upper limit of normal (ULN). Myopathy sometimes takes the form of rhabdomyolysis with or without acute renal failure secondary to myoglobinuria, and rare fatalities have occurred. The risk of myopathy is increased by high levels of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity in plasma.

The risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis is dose related. In a clinical study (EXCEL) in which patients were carefully monitored and some interacting drugs were excluded, there was one case of myopathy among 4933 patients randomized to lovastatin 20 to 40 mg daily for 48 weeks, and 4 among 1649 patients randomized to 80 mg daily.

There have been rare reports of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), an autoimmune myopathy, associated with statin use. IMNM is characterized by: proximal muscle weakness and elevated serum creatine kinase, which persist despite discontinuation of statin treatment; positive anti-HMG CoA reductase antibody; muscle biopsy showing necrotizing myopathy; and improvement with immunosuppressive agents.

All patients starting therapy with lovastatin, or whose dose of lovastatin is being increased, should be advised of the risk of myopathy and told to report promptly any unexplained muscle pain, tenderness or weakness particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever or if muscle signs and symptoms persist after discontinuing lovastatin. Lovastatin therapy should be discontinued immediately if myopathy is diagnosed or suspected. In most cases, muscle symptoms and CK increases resolved when treatment was promptly discontinued. Periodic CK determinations may be considered in patients starting therapy with lovastatin or whose dose is being increased, but there is no assurance that such monitoring will prevent myopathy.

Many of the patients who have developed rhabdomyolysis on therapy with lovastatin have had complicated medical histories, including renal insufficiency usually as a consequence of long-standing diabetes mellitus. Such patients merit closer monitoring. Lovastatin therapy should be discontinued if markedly elevated CPK levels occur or myopathy is diagnosed or suspected. Lovastatin therapy should also be temporarily withheld in any patient experiencing an acute or serious condition predisposing to the development of renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis, e.g., sepsis; hypotension; major surgery; trauma; severe metabolic, endocrine, or electrolyte disorders; or uncontrolled epilepsy.

The risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis is increased by concomitant use of lovastatin with the following:

Strong inhibitors of CYP3A4: Lovastatin, like several other inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, is a substrate of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Certain drugs which inhibit this metabolic pathway can raise the plasma levels of lovastatin and may increase the risk of myopathy. These include itraconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, the macrolide antibiotics erythromycin and clarithromycin, the ketolide antibiotic telithromycin, HIV protease inhibitors, boceprevir, telaprevir, the antidepressant nefazodone, or cobicistat-containing products. Combination of these drugs with lovastatin is contraindicated. If short-term treatment with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is unavoidable, therapy with lovastatin should be suspended during the course of treatment (see CONTRAINDICATIONS ; PRECAUTIONS , Drug Interactions).

Gemfibrozil: The combined use of lovastatin with gemfibrozil should be avoided.

Other lipid-lowering drugs (other fibrates or ≥ 1 g/day of niacin): Caution should be used when prescribing other fibrates or lipid-lowering doses (≥ 1 g/day) of niacin with lovastatin, as these agents can cause myopathy when given alone. The benefit of further alterations in lipid levels by the combined use of lovastatin with other fibrates or niacin should be carefully weighed against the potential risks of these combinations.

Cyclosporine: The use of lovastatin with cyclosporine should be avoided.

Danazol, diltiazem, dronedarone, or verapamil with higher doses of lovastatin: The dose of lovastatin should not exceed 20 mg daily in patients receiving concomitant medication with danazol, diltiazem, dronedarone, or verapamil. The benefits of the use of lovastatin in patients receiving danazol, diltiazem, dronedarone, or verapamil should be carefully weighed against the risks of these combinations.

Amiodarone: The dose of lovastatin should not exceed 40 mg daily in patients receiving concomitant medication with amiodarone. The combined use of lovastatin at doses higher than 40 mg daily with amiodarone should be avoided unless the clinical benefit is likely to outweigh the increased risk of myopathy. The risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis is increased when amiodarone is used concomitantly with higher doses of a closely related member of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor class.

Colchicine: Cases of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, have been reported with lovastatin coadministered with colchicine, and caution should be exercised when prescribing lovastatin with colchicine (see PRECAUTIONS , Drug Interactions).

Ranolazine: The risk of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, may be increased by concomitant administration of ranolazine. Dose adjustment of lovastatin may be considered during coadministration with ranolazine.

Prescribing recommendations for interacting agents are summarized in Table VII (see also CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY , Pharmacokinetics ; PRECAUTIONS , Drug Interactions ; DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Table VII: Drug Interactions Associated With Increased Risk of Myopathy/Rhabdomyolysis

Interacting Agents

Prescribing Recommendations

Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, e.g.:

Contraindicated with lovastatin

Ketoconazole

Itraconazole

Posaconazole

Voriconazole

Erythromycin

Clarithromycin

Telithromycin

HIV protease inhibitors

Boceprevir

Telaprevir

Nefazodone

Cobicistat-containing products

Gemfibrozil

Avoid with lovastatin

Cyclosporine

Danazol

Do not exceed 20 mg lovastatin daily

Diltiazem

Dronedarone

Verapamil

Amiodarone

Do not exceed 40 mg lovastatin daily

Grapefruit juice

Avoid grapefruit juice

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