Levofloxacin: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 2 of 9)

2.2 Dosage of Levofloxacin Tablets in Pediatric Patients with Inhalational Anthrax or Plague 2.2 Dosage of Levofloxacin Tablets in Pediatric Patients with Inhalational Anthrax or Plague

The dosage of levofloxacin tablets for inhalational anthrax (post-exposure) and plague in pediatric patients who weigh 30 kg or greater is described below in Table 2. levofloxacin tablets cannot be administered to patients who weigh less than 30 kg because of the limitations of the available strength. Alternative formulations of levofloxacin may be considered for pediatric patients who weigh less than 30 kg.

Table 2 Levofloxacin Tablets Dosage in Pediatric Patients Weighing 30 kg or greater with Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure) and Plague*

Type of Infection*

Dose

Frequency

Duration

Inhalational Anthrax (post-exposure)‡,§

Pediatric patients weighing 50 kg or greater

500 mg

every 24 hours

60 days§

Pediatric patients weighing 30 kg to less than 50 kg

250 mg

every 12 hours

60 days§

Plague

Pediatric patients weighing 50 kg or greater

500 mg

every 24 hours

10 to 14 days

Pediatric patients weighing 30 kg to less than 50 kg

250 mg

every 12 hours

10 to 14 days

* Due to Bacillus anthracis[see Indications and Usage (1.13)] and Yersinia pestis[see Indications and Usage (1.14)].

Sequential therapy (intravenous levofloxacin injection to oral levofloxacin tablets) may be instituted at the discretion of the healthcare provider.

Begin levofloxacin tablets as soon as possible after suspected or confirmed exposure to aerosolized B. anthracis.

§ The safety of levofloxacintablets in pediatric patients for durations of therapy beyond 14 days has not been studied. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12), Use in SpecificPopulations (8.4), and Clinical Studies (14.9)]. Begin levofloxacintablets as soon as possible after suspected or confirmed exposure to Yersinia pestis.

2.3 Dosage Adjustment in Adults with Renal Impairment

Administer levofloxacin tablets with caution in patients with renal impairment. Careful clinical observation and appropriate laboratory studies should be performed prior to and during therapy since elimination of levofloxacin may be reduced in these patients.
In patients with renal impairment (creatinine clearance less than 50 mL/min), adjustment of the dosage regimen is necessary to avoid the accumulation of levofloxacin due to decreased clearance [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)]. No adjustment is necessary for patients with a creatinine clearance greater than or equal to 50 mL/minute.
Table 3 shows how to adjust dose based on creatinine clearance.Table 3: Dosage Adjustment in Adult Patients with Renal Impairment (Creatinine Clearance less than 50 mL/minute)

Creatinine Clearance greater than or equal to 50 mL/minute

Creatinine Clearance 20 to 49 mL/minute

Creatinine Clearance 10 to 19 mL/minute

Hemodialysis or Chronic Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD)

750 mg every 24 hours

750 mg every 48 hours

750 mg initial dose, then 500 mg every 48 hours

750 mg initial dose,then 500 mg every 48 hours

500 mg every 24 hours

500 mg initial dose, then 250 mg every 24 hours

500 mg initial dose, then 250 mg every 48 hours

500 mg initial dose, then 250 mg every 48 hours

250 mg every 24 hours

No dosage adjustment required

250 mg every 48 hours. If treating uncomplicated UTI, then no dosage adjustment is required

No informationon dosing adjustment isavailable

2.4 Drug Interaction With Chelation Agents: Antacids, Sucralfate, Metal Cations,

Levofloxacin tablets should be administered at least two hours before or two hours after antacids containing magnesium, aluminum, as well as sucralfate, metal cations such as iron, and multivitamin preparations with zinc or didanosine chewable/buffered tablets or the pediatric powder for oral solution [see Drug Interactions (7.1)and Patient Counseling Information (17)].

2.5 Administration Instructions

Levofloxacin tablets can be administered without regard to food.
Hydration for Patients Receiving Levofloxacin Tablets
Adequate hydration of patients receiving levofloxacin should be maintained to prevent the formation of highly concentrated urine. Crystalluria and cylindruria have been reported with quinolones [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Patient Counseling Information (17)].

3 DOSAGE FORMS & STRENGTHS

• Levofloxacin tablets, USP 250 mg are pink colored, capsule shaped, biconvex, film coated tablets debossed with ‘25’ on one side and ‘I’ on the other side.

• Levofloxacin tablets, USP 500 mg are orange colored, capsule shaped, biconvex, film coated tablets debossed with ‘26’ on one side and ‘I’ on the other side.

• Levofloxacin tablets, USP 750 mg are white colored, capsule shaped, biconvex, film coated tablets debossed with ‘18’ on one side and ‘I’ on the other side

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Levofloxacin tablets are contraindicated in persons with known hypersensitivity to levofloxacin, or other quinolone antibacterials [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Disabling and Potentially Irreversible Serious Adverse Reactions Including Tendinitis and Tendon Rupture, Peripheral Neuropathy, and Central Nervous System Effects

Fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, have been associated with disabling and potentially irreversible serious adverse reactions from different body systems that can occur together in the same patient. Commonly seen adverse reactions include tendinitis, tendon rupture, arthralgia, myalgia, peripheral neuropathy, and central nervous system effects (hallucinations, anxiety, depression, insomnia, severe headaches, and confusion). These reactions can occur within hours to weeks after starting levofloxacin. Patients of any age or without pre-existing risk factors have experienced these adverse reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.3, 5.4)].
Discontinue levofloxacin immediately at the first signs or symptoms of any serious adverse reaction. In addition, avoid the use of fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, in patients who have experienced any of these serious adverse reactions associated with fluoroquinolones.

5.2 Tendinopathy and Tendon Rupture

Fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, have been associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)and Adverse Reactions (6.2)].This adverse reaction most frequently involves the Achilles tendon and has also been reported with the rotator cuff (the shoulder), the hand, the biceps, the thumb, and other tendon sites. Tendinitis or tendon rupture can occur within hours or days of starting levofloxacin or as long as several months after completion of fluoroquinolone therapy. Tendinitis and tendon rupture can occur bilaterally.
The risk of developing fluoroquinolone-associated tendinitis and tendon rupture is increased in patients over 60 years of age, in those taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants. Other factors that may independently increase the risk of tendon rupture include strenuous physical activity, renal failure, and previous tendon disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Tendinitis and tendon rupture have been reported in patients taking fluoroquinolones who do not have the above risk factors. Discontinue levofloxacin immediately if the patient experiences pain, swelling, inflammation or rupture of a tendon. Patients should be advised to rest at the first sign of tendinitis or tendon rupture, and to contact their healthcare provider regarding changing to a non-quinolone antimicrobial drug. Avoid levofloxacin in patients who have a history of tendon disorders or tendon rupture [see Adverse Reactions (6.3) and Patient Counseling Information (17)].

5.3 Peripheral Neuropathy

Fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, have been associated with an increased risk of peripheral neuropathy. Cases of sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy affecting small and/or large axons resulting in paresthesias, hypoesthesias, dysesthesias and weakness have been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin. Symptoms may occur soon after initiation of levofloxacin and may be irreversible in some patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)and Adverse Reactions (6.1,6.2)].
Discontinue levofloxacin immediately if the patient experiences symptoms of neuropathy including pain, burning, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness or other alterations of sensation including light touch, pain, temperature, position sense, and vibratory sensation. Avoid fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, in patients who have previously experienced peripheral neuropathy [see Adverse Reactions (6) and Patient Counseling Information (17)].

5.4 Central Nervous System Effects

Psychiatric Adverse Reactions Fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, have been associated with an increased risk of psychiatric adverse reactions, including: toxic psychoses, hallucinations, or paranoia; depression, or suicidal thoughts; anxiety, agitation, restlessness, or nervousness; confusion, delirium, disorientation, or disturbances in attention; insomnia or nightmares; memory impairment. Attempted or completed suicide have been reported, especially in patients with a medical history of depression, or an underlying risk factor for depression. These reactions may occur following the first dose. If these reactions occur in patients receiving levofloxacin, discontinue levofloxacin and institute appropriate measures.
Central Nervous System Adverse Reactions
Fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, have been associated with an increased risk of seizures (convulsions), increased intracranial pressure (including pseudotumor cerebri), tremors, and lightheadedness. As with other fluoroquinolones, levofloxacin should be used with caution in patients with a known or suspected central nervous system (CNS) disorder that may predispose them to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (e.g., severe cerebral arteriosclerosis, epilepsy) or in the presence of other risk factors that may predispose them to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (e.g., certain drug therapy, renal dysfunction). If these reactions occur in patients receiving levofloxacin discontinue levofloxacin and institute appropriate measures [see Adverse Reactions (6), Drug Interactions (7.4,7.5),and Patient Counseling Information (17)].

5.5 Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis

Fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, have neuromuscular blocking activity and may exacerbate muscle weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis. Postmarketing serious adverse reactions including deaths and requirement for ventilatory support, have been associated with fluoroquinolone use in patients with myasthenia gravis. Avoid levofloxacin in patients with a known history of myasthenia gravis [see Adverse Reactions (6.3) and Patient Counseling Information (17)].

5.6 Other Serious and Sometimes Fatal Adverse Reactions

Other serious and sometimes fatal adverse reactions, some due to hypersensitivity, and some due to uncertain etiology, have been reported rarely in patients receiving therapy with fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin. These events may be severe and generally occur following the administration of multiple doses. Clinical manifestations may include one or more of the following:
• fever, rash, or severe dermatologic reactions (e.g., toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome);
• vasculitis; arthralgia; myalgia; serum sickness;
• allergic pneumonitis;
• interstitial nephritis; acute renal insufficiency or failure;
• hepatitis; jaundice; acute hepatic necrosis or failure;
• anemia, including hemolytic and aplastic; thrombocytopenia, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; leukopenia; agranulocytosis; pancytopenia; and/or other hematologic abnormalities.
Discontinue levofloxacin immediately at the first appearance of skin rash, jaundice, or any other sign of hypersensitivity and institute supportive measures [see Adverse Reactions (6) and Patient Counseling Information (17)].

5.7 Hypersensitivity Reactions

Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity and/or anaphylactic reactions have been reported in patients receiving therapy with fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin. These reactions often occur following the first dose. Some reactions have been accompanied by cardiovascular collapse, hypotension/shock, seizure, loss of consciousness, tingling, angioedema (including tongue, laryngeal, throat, or facial edema/swelling), airway obstruction (including bronchospasm, shortness of breath, and acute respiratory distress), dyspnea, urticaria, itching, and other serious skin reactions. Levofloxacin should be discontinued immediately at the first appearance of a skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity. Serious acute hypersensitivity reactions may require treatment with epinephrine and other resuscitative measures, including oxygen, intravenous fluids, antihistamines, corticosteroids, pressor amines, and airway management, as clinically indicated [see Adverse Reactions (6) and Patient Counseling Information (17)].

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