Levetiracetam: Package Insert and Label Information

LEVETIRACETAM- levetiracetam tablet, film coated
Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

1.1 Partial-Onset Seizures

Levetiracetam tablets are indicated for the treatment of partial-onset seizures in patients 1 month of age and older.

1.2 Myoclonic Seizures in Patients with Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

Levetiracetam tablets are indicated as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of myoclonic seizures in patients 12 years of age and older with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

1.3 Primary Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures

Levetiracetam tablets are indicated as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients 6 years of age and older with idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Important Administration Instructions

Levetiracetam tablets are given orally with or without food. The levetiracetam dosing regimen depends on the indication, age group, dosage form (tablets or oral solution), and renal function.

Prescribe the oral solution for pediatric patients with body weight ≤ 20 kg. Prescribe the oral solution or tablets for pediatric patients with body weight above 20 kg.

When using the oral solution in pediatric patients, dosing is weight-based (mg per kg) using a calibrated measuring device (not a household teaspoon or tablespoon).

Levetiracetam tablets should be swallowed whole. Levetiracetam tablets should not be chewed or crushed.

2.2 Dosing for Partial-Onset Seizures

The recommended dosing for monotherapy and adjunctive therapy is the same; as outlined below.

Adults 16 Years and Older

Initiate treatment with a daily dose of 1000 mg/day, given as twice-daily dosing (500 mg twice daily). Additional dosing increments may be given (1000 mg/day additional every 2 weeks) to a maximum recommended daily dose of 3000 mg. There is no evidence that doses greater than 3000 mg/day confer additional benefit.

Pediatric Patients

1 Month to < 6 Months

Initiate treatment with a daily dose of 14 mg/kg in 2 divided doses (7 mg/kg twice daily). Increase the daily dose every 2 weeks by increments of 14 mg/kg to the recommended daily dose of 42 mg/kg (21 mg/kg twice daily). In the clinical trial, the mean daily dose was 35 mg/kg in this age group.

6 Months to < 4 Years

Initiate treatment with a daily dose of 20 mg/kg in 2 divided doses (10 mg/kg twice daily). Increase the daily dose in 2 weeks by an increment of 20 mg/kg to the recommended daily dose of 50 mg/kg (25 mg/kg twice daily). If a patient cannot tolerate a daily dose of 50 mg/kg, the daily dose may be reduced. In the clinical trial, the mean daily dose was 47 mg/kg in this age group.

4 Years to < 16 Years

Initiate treatment with a daily dose of 20 mg/kg in 2 divided doses (10 mg/kg twice daily). Increase the daily dose every 2 weeks by increments of 20 mg/kg to the recommended daily dose of 60 mg/kg (30 mg/kg twice daily). If a patient cannot tolerate a daily dose of 60 mg/kg, the daily dose may be reduced. In the clinical trial, the mean daily dose was 44 mg/kg. The maximum daily dose was 3000 mg/day.

For levetiracetam tablets dosing in pediatric patients weighing 20 to 40 kg, initiate treatment with a daily dose of 500 mg given as twice daily dosing (250 mg twice daily). Increase the daily dose every 2 weeks by increments of 500 mg to a maximum recommended daily dose of 1500 mg (750 mg twice daily).

For levetiracetam tablets dosing in pediatric patients weighing more than 40 kg, initiate treatment with a daily dose of 1000 mg/day given as twice daily dosing (500 mg twice daily). Increase the daily dose every 2 weeks by increments of 1000 mg/day to a maximum recommended daily dose of 3000 mg (1500 mg twice daily).

Levetiracetam Oral Solution Weight-Based Dosing Calculation For Pediatric Patients

The following calculation should be used to determine the appropriate daily dose of oral solution for pediatric patients:

Pedatric Patient Dose Calculation
(click image for full-size original)

2.3 Dosing for Myoclonic Seizures in Patients 12 Years of Age and Older with Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

Initiate treatment with a dose of 1000 mg/day, given as twice-daily dosing (500 mg twice daily). Increase the dosage by 1000 mg/day every 2 weeks to the recommended daily dose of 3000 mg. The effectiveness of doses lower than 3000 mg/day has not been studied.

2.4 Dosing for Primary Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures

Adults 16 Years and Older

Initiate treatment with a dose of 1000 mg/day, given as twice-daily dosing (500 mg twice daily). Increase dosage by 1000 mg/day every 2 weeks to the recommended daily dose of 3000 mg. The effectiveness of doses lower than 3000 mg/day has not been adequately studied.

Pediatric Patients Ages 6 to < 16 Years

Initiate treatment with a daily dose of 20 mg/kg in 2 divided doses (10 mg/kg twice daily). Increase the daily dose every 2 weeks by increments of 20 mg/kg to the recommended daily dose of 60 mg/kg (30 mg/kg twice daily). The effectiveness of doses lower than 60 mg/kg/day has not been adequately studied. Patients with body weight ≤ 20 kg should be dosed with oral solution. Patients with body weight above 20 kg can be dosed with either tablets or oral solution [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)]. Only whole tablets should be administered.

2.5 Dosage Adjustments in Adult Patients with Renal Impairment

Levetiracetam tablets dosing must be individualized according to the patient’s renal function status. Recommended dosage adjustments for adults are shown in Table 1. In order to calculate the dose recommended for patients with renal impairment, creatinine clearance adjusted for body surface area must be calculated. To do this an estimate of the patient’s creatinine clearance (CLcr) in mL/min must first be calculated using the following formula:

Creatinine Clearance Calculation
(click image for full-size original)

Then CLcr is adjusted for body surface area (BSA) as follows:

Creatinine Clearance BSA Calculation
(click image for full-size original)
Table 1: Dosing Adjustment Regimen for Adult Patients with Renal Impairment
*
Following dialysis, a 250 to 500 mg supplemental dose is recommended.

Group

Creatinine Clearance(mL/min/1.73m2)

Dosage (mg)

Frequency

Normal

> 80

500 to 1,500

Every 12 hours

Mild

50 — 80

500 to 1,000

Every 12 hours

Moderate

30 — 50

250 to 750

Every 12 hours

Severe

< 30

250 to 500

Every 12 hours

ESRD patients using dialysis

500 to 1,0001

Every 24 hours *

2.6 Discontinuation of Levetiracetam Tablets

Avoid abrupt withdrawal from levetiracetam tablets in order to reduce the risk of increased seizure frequency and status epilepticus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Levetiracetam Tablets, USP are available containing 250 mg, 500 mg, 750 mg or 1000 mg of levetiracetam, USP

The 250 mg tablets are white, film-coated, round, scored tablets debossed with M above the score and 613 below the score on one side of the tablet and blank on the other side.
The 500 mg tablets are white, film-coated, modified capsule-shaped, scored tablets debossed with M to the left of the score and 615 to the right of the score on one side of the tablet and blank on the other side.
The 750 mg tablets are white, film-coated, modified capsule-shaped, scored tablets debossed with M to the left of the score and 617 to the right of the score on one side of the tablet and blank on the other side.
The 1000 mg tablets are white, film-coated, modified capsule-shaped, scored tablets debossed with M to the left of the score and 619 to the right of the score on one side of the tablet and blank on the other side.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Levetiracetam tablets are contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to levetiracetam. Reactions have included anaphylaxis and angioedema [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Behavioral Abnormalities and Psychotic Symptoms

Levetiracetam tablets may cause behavioral abnormalities and psychotic symptoms. Patients treated with levetiracetam tablets should be monitored for psychiatric signs and symptoms.

Behavioral Abnormalities

In clinical studies, 13% of adult levetiracetam tablets-treated patients and 38% of pediatric levetiracetam tablets-treated patients (4 to 16 years of age) compared to 6% and 19% of adult and pediatric placebo-treated patients, experienced non-psychotic behavioral symptoms (reported as aggression, agitation, anger, anxiety, apathy, depersonalization, depression, emotional lability, hostility, hyperkinesias, irritability, nervousness, neurosis, and personality disorder).

A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed to assess the neurocognitive and behavioral effects of levetiracetam tablets as adjunctive therapy in pediatric patients (4 to 16 years of age). The results from an exploratory analysis indicated a worsening in levetiracetam tablets-treated patients on aggressive behavior (one of eight behavior dimensions) as measured in a standardized and systematic way using a validated instrument, the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/6-18).

In clinical studies in pediatric patients 1 month to < 4 years of age, irritability was reported in 12% of the levetiracetam tablets-treated patients compared to 0% of placebo-treated patients.

In clinical studies, 1.7% of adult levetiracetam tablets-treated patients discontinued treatment due to behavioral adverse reactions, compared to 0.2% of placebo-treated patients. The treatment dose was reduced in 0.8% of adult levetiracetam tablets-treated patients and in 0.5% of placebo-treated patients. Overall, 11% of levetiracetam tablets-treated pediatric patients experienced behavioral symptoms associated with discontinuation or dose reduction, compared to 6% of placebo-treated patients.

Psychotic Symptoms

In clinical studies, 1% of levetiracetam tablets-treated adult patients, 2% of levetiracetam tablets-treated pediatric patients 4 to 16 years of age, and 17% of levetiracetam tablets-treated pediatric patients 1 month to < 4 years of age experienced psychotic symptoms, compared to 0.2%, 2%, and 5% in the corresponding age groups treated with placebo. In a controlled study that assessed the neurocognitive and behavioral effects of levetiracetam tablets in pediatric patients 4 to 16 years of age, 1.6% of levetiracetam tablets-treated patients experienced paranoia, compared to 0% of placebo-treated patients. In the same study, 3.1% of levetiracetam tablets-treated patients experienced confusional state, compared to 0% of placebo-treated patients [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].

In clinical studies, two (0.3%) levetiracetam tablets-treated adult patients were hospitalized and their treatment was discontinued due to psychosis. Both events, reported as psychosis, developed within the first week of treatment and resolved within 1 to 2 weeks following treatment discontinuation. There was no difference between drug and placebo-treated patients in the incidence of the pediatric patients who discontinued treatment due to psychotic and non-psychotic adverse reactions.

5.2 Suicidal Behavior and Ideation

Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), including levetiracetam tablets, increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in patients taking these drugs for any indication. Patients treated with any AED for any indication should be monitored for the emergence or worsening of depression, suicidal thoughts or behavior, and/or any unusual changes in mood or behavior.

Pooled analyses of 199 placebo-controlled clinical trials (mono- and adjunctive therapy) of 11 different AEDs showed that patients randomized to one of the AEDs had approximately twice the risk (adjusted Relative Risk 1.8, 95% CI:1.2, 2.7) of suicidal thinking or behavior compared to patients randomized to placebo. In these trials, which had a median treatment duration of 12 weeks, the estimated incidence rate of suicidal behavior or ideation among 27,863 AED-treated patients was 0.43%, compared to 0.24% among 16,029 placebo-treated patients, representing an increase of approximately one case of suicidal thinking or behavior for every 530 patients treated. There were four suicides in drug-treated patients in the trials and none in placebo-treated patients, but the number is too small to allow any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.

The increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with AEDs was observed as early as one week after starting drug treatment with AEDs and persisted for the duration of treatment assessed. Because most trials included in the analysis did not extend beyond 24 weeks, the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior beyond 24 weeks could not be assessed.

The risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior was generally consistent among drugs in the data analyzed. The finding of increased risk with AEDs of varying mechanisms of action and across a range of indications suggests that the risk applies to all AEDs used for any indication. The risk did not vary substantially by age (5-100 years) in the clinical trials analyzed. Table 2 shows absolute and relative risk by indication for all evaluated AEDs.

Table 2: Risk by Indication for Antiepileptic Drugs in the Pooled Analysis

Indication

Placebo Patients with Events Per 1000 Patients

Drug Patients with Events Per 1000 Patients

Relative Risk: Incidence of Events in Drug Patients/Incidence in Placebo Patients

Risk Difference: Additional Drug Patients with Events Per 1000 Patients

Epilepsy

1.0

3.4

3.5

2.4

Psychiatric

5.7

8.5

1.5

2.9

Other

1.0

1.8

1.9

0.9

Total

2.4

4.3

1.8

1.9

The relative risk for suicidal thoughts or behavior was higher in clinical trials for epilepsy than in clinical trials for psychiatric or other conditions, but the absolute risk differences were similar for the epilepsy and psychiatric indications.

Anyone considering prescribing levetiracetam tablets or any other AED must balance the risk of suicidal thoughts or behaviors with the risk of untreated illness. Epilepsy and many other illnesses for which AEDs are prescribed are themselves associated with morbidity and mortality and an increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior. Should suicidal thoughts and behavior emerge during treatment, the prescriber needs to consider whether the emergence of these symptoms in any given patient may be related to the illness being treated.

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