Lansoprazole delayed-release capsules contain an enteric-coated granule formulation of lansoprazole (because lansoprazole is acid-labile), so that absorption of lansoprazole begins only after the granules leave the stomach. The mean peak plasma levels of lansoprazole occur at approximately 1.7 hours. After a single-dose administration of 15 to 60 mg of oral lansoprazole, the peak plasma concentrations (C max ) of lansoprazole and the area under the plasma concentration curves (AUCs) of lansoprazole were approximately proportional to the administered dose. Lansoprazole does not accumulate and its pharmacokinetics are unaltered by multiple dosing. The absolute bioavailability is over 80%. In healthy subjects, the mean (±SD) plasma half-life was 1.5 (±1.0) hours. Both the C max and AUC are diminished by about 50 to 70% if lansoprazole is given 30 minutes after food, compared to the fasting condition. There is no significant food effect if lansoprazole is given before meals.
Distribution: Lansoprazole is 97% bound to plasma proteins. Plasma protein binding is constant over the concentration range of 0.05 to 5 mcg/mL.
Metabolism: Lansoprazole is extensively metabolized in the liver. Two metabolites have been identified in measurable quantities in plasma (the hydroxylated sulfinyl and sulfone derivatives of lansoprazole). These metabolites have very little or no antisecretory activity. Lansoprazole is thought to be transformed into two active species which inhibit acid secretion by blocking the proton pump [(H+, K+)-ATPase enzyme system] at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell. The two active species are not present in the systemic circulation. The plasma elimination half-life of lansoprazole is less than two hours while the acid inhibitory effect lasts more than 24 hours. Therefore, the plasma elimination half-life of lansoprazole does not reflect its duration of suppression of gastric acid secretion.
Excretion: Following single-dose oral administration of lansoprazole, virtually no unchanged lansoprazole was excreted in the urine. In one study, after a single oral dose of 14C-lansoprazole, approximately one-third of the administered radiation was excreted in the urine and two-thirds was recovered in the feces. This implies a significant biliary excretion of the lansoprazole metabolites.
One to 17 years of age
The pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole were studied in pediatric patients with GERD aged one to 11 years and 12 to 17 years in two separate clinical studies. In children aged one to 11 years, lansoprazole was dosed 15 mg daily for subjects weighing ≤30 kg and 30 mg daily for subjects weighing greater than 30 kg. Mean C max and AUC values observed on Day 5 of dosing were similar between the two dose groups and were not affected by weight or age within each weight-adjusted dose group used in the study. In adolescent subjects aged 12 to 17 years, subjects were randomized to receive lansoprazole at 15 or 30 mg daily. Mean C max and AUC values of lansoprazole were not affected by body weight or age; and nearly dose-proportional increases in mean C max and AUC values were observed between the two dose groups in the study. Overall, lansoprazole pharmacokinetics in pediatric patients aged one to 17 years were similar to those observed in healthy adult subjects.
The clearance of lansoprazole is decreased in the elderly, with elimination half-life increased approximately 50 to 100%. Because the mean half-life in the elderly remains between 1.9 to 2.9 hours, repeated once daily dosing does not result in accumulation of lansoprazole. Peak plasma levels were not increased in the elderly [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.5)].
Male and Female Patients:
In a study comparing 12 male and six female human subjects who received lansoprazole, no sex-related differences were found in pharmacokinetics and intragastric pH results.
Racial or Ethnic Groups:
The pooled mean pharmacokinetic parameters of lansoprazole from twelve US studies (N=513) were compared to the mean pharmacokinetic parameters from two Asian studies (N=20). The mean AUCs of lansoprazole in Asian subjects were approximately twice those seen in pooled US data; however, the inter-individual variability was high. The C max values were comparable.
Patients with Renal Impairment:
In patients with severe renal impairment, plasma protein binding decreased by 1 to 1.5% after administration of 60 mg of lansoprazole. Patients with renal impairment had a shortened elimination half-life and decreased total AUC (free and bound). The AUC for free lansoprazole in plasma, however, was not related to the degree of renal impairment; and the C max and T max (time to reach the maximum concentration) were not different than the C max and T max from subjects with normal renal function. Therefore, the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole were not clinically different in patients with mild, moderate or severe renal impairment compared to healthy subjects with normal renal function.
Patients with Hepatic Impairment:
In patients with mild (Child-Pugh Class A) or moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic impairment there was an approximate 3-fold increase in mean AUC compared to healthy subjects with normal hepatic function following multiple oral doses of 30 mg lansoprazole for seven days. The corresponding mean plasma half-life of lansoprazole was prolonged from 1.5 to four hours (Child-Pugh A) or five hours (Child-Pugh B).
In patients with compensated and decompensated cirrhosis, there was an approximate 6-and 5-fold increase in AUC, respectively, compared to healthy subjects with normal hepatic function following a single oral dose of 30 mg lansoprazole [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.3), Use in Specific Populations ( 8.6)].
Drug Interaction Studies
Effect of Lansoprazole on Other Drugs
Cytochrome P450 Interactions:
Lansoprazole is metabolized through the cytochrome P450 system, specifically through the CYP3A and CYP2C19 isozymes. Studies have shown that lansoprazole does not have clinically significant interactions with other drugs metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system, such as warfarin, antipyrine, indomethacin, ibuprofen, phenytoin, propranolol, prednisone, diazepam, or clarithromycin in healthy subjects. These compounds are metabolized through various cytochrome P450 isozymes including CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A.
When lansoprazole was administered concomitantly with theophylline (CYP1A2, CYP3A), a minor increase (10%) in the clearance of theophylline was seen. Because of the small magnitude and the direction of the effect on theophylline clearance, this interaction is unlikely to be of clinical concern [see Drug Interactions ( 7)].
Methotrexate and 7-hydroxymethotrexate:
In an open-label, single-arm, eight day, pharmacokinetic study of 28 adult rheumatoid arthritis patients (who required the chronic use of 7.5 to 15 mg of methotrexate given weekly), administration of seven days of naproxen 500 mg twice daily and lansoprazole 30 mg daily had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate and 7-hydroxymethotrexate. While this study was not designed to assess the safety of this combination of drugs, no major adverse reactions were noted. However, this study was conducted with low doses of methotrexate. A drug interaction study with high doses of methotrexate has not been conducted [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.10)].
Lansoprazole has also been shown to have no clinically significant interaction with amoxicillin.
In a single-dose crossover study examining lansoprazole 30 mg administered alone and concomitantly with sucralfate 1 gram, absorption of lansoprazole was delayed and the bioavailability was reduced by 17% when administered concomitantly with sucralfate [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.4), Drug Interactions ( 7)].
In clinical trials, antacids were administered concomitantly with lansoprazole and there was no evidence of a change in the efficacy of lansoprazole.
Clopidogrel is metabolized to its active metabolite in part by CYP2C19. A study of healthy subjects who were CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers, receiving once daily administration of clopidogrel 75 mg alone or concomitantly with lansoprazole 30 mg (n=40), for nine days was conducted. The mean AUC of the active metabolite of clopidogrel was reduced by approximately 14% (mean AUC ratio was 86%, with 90% CI of 80 to 92%) when lansoprazole was coadministered compared to administration of clopidogrel alone.
Pharmacodynamic parameters were also measured and demonstrated that the change in inhibition of platelet aggregation (induced by 5 mcM ADP) was related to the change in the exposure to clopidogrel active metabolite. The effect on exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel and on clopidogrel-induced platelet inhibition is not considered clinically important.
Effect of Other Drugs on Lansoprazole
Because lansoprazole is metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, inducers and inhibitors of these enzymes may potentially alter exposure of lansoprazole.
Lansoprazole, clarithromycin and/or amoxicillin have been shown to be active against most strains of Helicobacter pylori in vitro and in clinical infections [see Indications and Usage ( 1.2)].
Helicobacter pylori Pretreatment Resistance
Clarithromycin pretreatment resistance (≥2 mcg/mL) was 9.5% (91/960) by E-test and 11.3% (12/106) by agar dilution in the dual and triple therapy clinical trials (M93-125, M93-130, M93-131, M95-392, and M95-399).
Amoxicillin pretreatment susceptible isolates (≤0.25 mcg/mL) occurred in 97.8% (936/957) and 98.0% (98/100) of the patients in the dual and triple therapy clinical trials by E-test and agar dilution, respectively. Twenty-one of 957 patients (2.2%) by E-test, and two of 100 patients (2.0%) by agar dilution, had amoxicillin pretreatment MICs of greater than 0.25 mcg/mL. One patient on the 14 day triple therapy regimen had an unconfirmed pretreatment amoxicillin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of greater than 256 mcg/mL by E-test and the patient was eradicated of H. pylori (Table 8).
* Includes only patients with pre-treatment clarithromycin susceptibility test results † Susceptible (S) MIC ≤0.25 mcg/mL, Intermediate (I) MIC 0.5 to 1 mcg/mL, Resistant (R) MIC ≥2 mcg/mL
|Table 8. Clarithromycin Susceptibility Test Results and Clinical/Bacteriological Outcomes*|
|Clarithromycin Pretreatment Results||Clarithromycin Post-treatment Results|
|H. pylori negative eradicated||H. pylori positive – not eradicated Post-treatment susceptibility results|
|S †||I †||R †||No MIC|
|Triple Therapy 14 Day (lansoprazole 30 mg twice daily/amoxicillin 1 g twice daily/clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily) (M95-399, M93-131, M95-392)|
|Triple Therapy 10 Day (lansoprazole 30 mg twice daily/amoxicillin 1 g twice daily/clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily) (M95-399)|
Patients not eradicated of
H. pylori following lansoprazole/amoxicillin/clarithromycin triple therapy will likely have clarithromycin resistant
H. pylori. Therefore, for those patients who fail therapy, clarithromycin susceptibility testing should be done when possible. Patients with clarithromycin resistant
H. pylori should not be treated with lansoprazole/amoxicillin/clarithromycin triple therapy or with regimens which include clarithromycin as the sole antimicrobial agent.
Amoxicillin Susceptibility Test Results and Clinical/Bacteriological Outcomes: In the dual and triple therapy clinical trials, 82.6% (195/236) of the patients that had pretreatment amoxicillin susceptible MICs (≤0.25 mcg/mL) were eradicated of H. pylori. Of those with pretreatment amoxicillin MICs of greater than 0.25 mcg/mL, three of six had the H. pylori eradicated. A total of 30% (21/70) of the patients failed lansoprazole 30 mg three times daily/amoxicillin 1 g three times daily dual therapy and a total of 12.8% (22/172) of the patients failed the 10 and 14 day triple therapy regimens. Post-treatment susceptibility results were not obtained on 11 of the patients who failed therapy. Nine of the 11 patients with amoxicillin post-treatment MICs that failed the triple therapy regimen also had clarithromycin resistant H. pylori isolates. Susceptibility Test for Helicobacter pylori: For susceptibility testing information about Helicobacter pylori, see Microbiology section in prescribing information for clarithromycin and amoxicillin.
In two, 24 month carcinogenicity studies, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with oral lansoprazole doses of 5 to 150 mg/kg/day, about one to 40 times the exposure on a body surface (mg/m2) basis of a 50 kg person of average height [1.46 m2 body surface area (BSA)] given the recommended human dose of 30 mg/day. Lansoprazole produced dose-related gastric enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell hyperplasia and ECL cell carcinoids in both male and female rats. It also increased the incidence of intestinal metaplasia of the gastric epithelium in both sexes. In male rats, lansoprazole produced a dose-related increase of testicular interstitial cell adenomas. The incidence of these adenomas in rats receiving doses of 15 to 150 mg/kg/day (four to 40 times the recommended human dose based on BSA) exceeded the low background incidence (range = 1.4 to 10%) for this strain of rat.
In a 24 month carcinogenicity study, CD-1 mice were treated with oral lansoprazole doses of 15 to 600 mg/kg/day, two to 80 times the recommended human dose based on BSA. Lansoprazole produced a dose-related increased incidence of gastric ECL cell hyperplasia. It also produced an increased incidence of liver tumors (hepatocellular adenoma plus carcinoma). The tumor incidences in male mice treated with 300 and 600 mg/kg/day (40 to 80 times the recommended human dose based on BSA) and female mice treated with 150 to 600 mg/kg/day (20 to 80 times the recommended human dose based on BSA) exceeded the ranges of background incidences in historical controls for this strain of mice. Lansoprazole treatment produced adenoma of rete testis in male mice receiving 75 to 600 mg/kg/day (10 to 80 times the recommended human dose based on BSA).
A 26 week p53 (+/-) transgenic mouse carcinogenicity study was not positive.
Lansoprazole was positive in the Ames test and the in vitro human lymphocyte chromosomal aberration assay. Lansoprazole was not genotoxic in the ex vivo rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) test, the in vivo mouse micronucleus test, or the rat bone marrow cell chromosomal aberration test. Lansoprazole at oral doses up to 150 mg/kg/day (40 times the recommended human dose based on BSA) was found to have no effect on fertility and reproductive performance of male and female rats.
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