Risk Summary There is no information regarding the presence of lansoprazole in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. However, lansoprazole and its metabolites are present in rat milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for lansoprazole and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from lansoprazole or from the underlying maternal condition.
The safety and effectiveness of lansoprazole have been established in pediatric patients one year to 17 years of age for short-term treatment of symptomatic GERD and erosive esophagitis.
In clinical studies of symptomatic GERD and erosive esophagitis, lansoprazole was not administered beyond 12 weeks in patients one year to 11 years of age. It is not known if lansoprazole is safe and effective if used longer than the recommended duration. Do not exceed the recommended dose and duration of use in pediatric patients (see Juvenile Animal Toxicity Data).
Lansoprazole was not effective in pediatric patients with symptomatic GERD one month to less than one year of age in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo — controlled study. Therefore, safety and effectiveness have not been established in patients less than one year of age. Nonclinical studies in juvenile rats have demonstrated an adverse effect of heart valve thickening and bone changes at lansoprazole doses higher than the maximum recommended equivalent human dose.
Neonate to less than one year of age
The pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole were studied in pediatric patients with GERD aged less than 28 days and one to 11 months. Compared to healthy adults receiving 30 mg, neonates had higher exposure (mean weight-based normalized AUC values 2.04 and 1.88 fold higher at doses of 0.5 and 1 mg/kg/day, respectively). Infants aged ≤10 weeks had clearance and exposure values that were similar to neonates. Infants aged greater than 10 weeks who received 1 mg/kg/day had mean AUC values that were similar to adults who received a 30 mg dose.
Lansoprazole was not found to be effective in a US and Polish four week, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of 162 patients between one month and less than 12 months of age with symptomatic GERD based on a medical history of crying/fussing/irritability associated with feedings who had not responded to conservative GERD management (i.e., nonpharmacologic intervention) for seven to 14 days. Patients received lansoprazole as a suspension daily (0.2 to 0.3 mg/kg/day in infants ≤10 weeks of age or 1 to 1.5 mg/kg/day in infants greater than 10 weeks or placebo) for up to four weeks of double-blind treatment.
The primary efficacy endpoint was assessed by greater than 50% reduction from baseline in either the percent of feedings with a crying/fussing/irritability episode or the duration (minutes) of a crying/fussing/irritability episode within one hour after feeding.
There was no difference in the percentage of responders between the lansoprazole pediatric suspension group and placebo group (54% in both groups).
There were no adverse events reported in pediatric clinical studies (one month to less than 12 months of age) that were not previously observed in adults.
Based on the results of the Phase 3 efficacy study, lansoprazole was not shown to be effective. Therefore, these results do not support the use of lansoprazole in treating symptomatic GERD in infants.
One year to 11 years of age In an uncontrolled, open-label, US multicenter study, 66 pediatric patients (one year to 11 years of age) with GERD were assigned, based on body weight, to receive an initial dose of either lansoprazole 15 mg daily if ≤30 kg or lansoprazole 30 mg daily if greater than30 kg administered for eight to 12 weeks. The lansoprazole dose was increased (up to 30 mg twice daily) in 24 of 66 pediatric patients after two or more weeks of treatment if they remained symptomatic. At baseline, 85% of patients had mild to moderate overall GERD symptoms (assessed by investigator interview), 58% had non-erosive GERD and 42% had erosive esophagitis (assessed by endoscopy).
After eight to 12 weeks of lansoprazole treatment, the intent-to-treat analysis demonstrated an approximate 50% reduction in frequency and severity of GERD symptoms.
Twenty-one of 27 erosive esophagitis patients were healed at eight weeks and 100% of patients were healed at 12 weeks by endoscopy (Table 4).
|Table 4. GERD Symptom Improvement and Erosive Esophagitis Healing Rates in Pediatric Patients Age 1 Year to 11 Years of Age|
|GERD||Final Visit ⃰ % (n/N)|
|Symptomatic GERD Improvement in Overall GERD Symptoms †||76% (47/62 ‡)|
|Erosive Esophagitis Improvement in Overall GERD Symptoms † Healing Rate||81% (22/27) 100% (27/27)|
* At Week 8 or Week 12
† Symptoms assessed by patients diary kept by caregiver.
‡ No data were available for four pediatric patients.
In a study of 66 pediatric patients in the age group one year to 11 years old after treatment with lansoprazole given orally in doses of 15 mg daily to 30 mg twice daily, increases in serum gastrin levels were similar to those observed in adult studies. Median fasting serum gastrin levels increased 89% from 51 pg/mL at baseline to 97 pg/mL [interquartile range (25 th to 75 th percentile) of 71 to 130 pg/mL] at the final visit.
The pediatric safety of lansoprazole delayed-release capsules has been assessed in 66 pediatric patients aged one to 11 years of age. Of the 66 patients with GERD, 85% (56/66) took lansoprazole for eight weeks and 15% (10/66) took it for 12 weeks.
The most frequently reported (two or more patients) treatment-related adverse reactions in patients one to 11 years of age (N=66) were constipation (5%) and headache (3%).
Twelve years to 17 years of age
In an uncontrolled, open-label, US multicenter study, 87 adolescent patients (12 years to 17 years of age) with symptomatic GERD were treated with lansoprazole for eight to 12 weeks. Baseline upper endoscopies classified these patients into two groups: 64 (74%) non-erosive GERD and 23 (26%) erosive esophagitis (EE). The non-erosive GERD patients received lansoprazole 15 mg daily for eight weeks and the EE patients received lansoprazole 30 mg daily for eight to 12 weeks. At baseline, 89% of these patients had mild to moderate overall GERD symptoms (assessed by investigator interviews). During eight weeks of lansoprazole treatment, adolescent patients experienced a 63% reduction in frequency and a 69% reduction in severity of GERD symptoms based on diary results.
Twenty-one of 22 (95.5%) adolescent erosive esophagitis patients were healed after eight weeks of lansoprazole treatment. One patient remained unhealed after 12 weeks of treatment (Table 5).
|Table 5. GERD Symptom Improvement and Erosive Esophagitis Healing Rates in Pediatric Patients Age 12 Years to 17 Years of Age|
|GERD||Final Visit % (n/N)|
|Symptomatic GERD (All Patients) Improvement in Overall GERD Symptoms *||73.2% (60/82) †|
|Non-erosive GERD Improvement in Overall GERD Symptoms *||71.2% (42/59) †|
|Erosive Esophagitis Improvement in Overall GERD Symptoms * Healing Rate ‡||78.3% (18/23) 95.5% (21/22) ‡|
*Symptoms assessed by patient diary (parents/caregivers as necessary).
† No data available for five patients.
‡ Data from one healed patient was excluded from this analysis due to timing of final endoscopy.
In these 87 adolescent patients, increases in serum gastrin levels were similar to those observed in adult studies, median fasting serum gastrin levels increased 42% from 45 pg/mL at baseline to 64 pg/mL [interquartile range (25
th to 75
th percentile) of 44 to 88 pg/mL] at the final visit. (Normal serum gastrin levels are 25 to 111 pg/mL.)
The safety of lansoprazole delayed-release capsules has been assessed in these 87 adolescent patients. Of the 87 adolescent patients with GERD, 6% (5/87) took lansoprazole for less than six weeks, 93% (81/87) for six to 10 weeks, and 1% (1/87) for greater than 10 weeks.
The most frequently reported (at least 3%) treatment-related adverse reactions in these patients were headache (7%), abdominal pain (5%), nausea (3%) and dizziness (3%). Treatment-related dizziness, reported in this prescribing information as occurring in less than 1% of adult patients, was reported in this study by three adolescent patients with non-erosive GERD, who had dizziness concurrently with other reactions (such as migraine, dyspnea, and vomiting).
Juvenile Animal Toxicity Data
Heart Valve Thickening
In two oral toxicity studies, thickening of the mitral heart valve occurred in juvenile rats treated with lansoprazole. Heart valve thickening was observed primarily with oral dosing initiated on postnatal Day 7 (age equivalent to neonatal humans) and postnatal Day 14 (human age equivalent of approximately one year) at doses of 250 mg/kg/day and higher (at postnatal Day 7 and postnatal Day 14, respectively 6.2 times and 4.2 times the daily pediatric dose of 15 mg in pediatric patients age one to 11 years weighing 30 kg or less, based on AUC). The treatment durations associated with heart valve thickening ranged from 5 days to 8 weeks. The findings reversed or trended towards reversibility after a 4-week drug-free recovery period. The incidence of heart valve thickening after initiation of dosing on postnatal Day 21 (human age equivalent of approximately two years) was limited to a single rat (1/24) in groups given 500 mg/kg/day for 4 or 8 weeks (approximately 5.2 times the daily pediatric dose of 15 mg in pediatric patients age one to 11 years weighing 30 kg or less, based on AUC). Based on exposure margins, the risk of heart valve injury does not appear to be relevant to patients one year of age and older.
In an eight-week oral toxicity study in juvenile rats with dosing initiated on postnatal Day 7, doses equal to or greater than 100 mg/kg/day (2.5 times the daily pediatric dose of 15 mg in children age one to 11 years weighing 30 kg or less, based on AUC) produced delayed growth, with impairment of weight gain observed as early as postnatal Day 10 (age equivalent to neonatal humans). At the end of treatment, the signs of impaired growth at 100 mg/kg/day and higher included reductions in body weight (14 to 44% compared to controls), absolute weight of multiple organs, femur weight, femur length, and crown-rump length. Femoral growth plate thickness was reduced only in males and only at the 500 mg/kg/day dose. The effects related to delayed growth persisted through the end of the four-week recovery period. Longer term data were not collected.
Of the total number of patients (n=21,486) in clinical studies of lansoprazole, 16% of patients were aged 65 years and over, while 4% were 75 years and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients and other reported clinical experience has not identified significant differences in responses between geriatric and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)] .
In patients with various degrees of chronic hepatic impairment the exposure to lansoprazole was increased compared to healthy subjects with normal hepatic function [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)] . No dosage adjustment for lansoprazole is necessary for patients with mild (Child-Pugh Class A) or moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic impairment. The recommended dosage is 15 mg orally daily in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.3)] .
Lansoprazole is not removed from the circulation by hemodialysis. In one reported overdose, a patient consumed 600 mg of lansoprazole with no adverse reaction. Oral lansoprazole doses up to 5000 mg/kg in rats [approximately 1300 times the 30 mg human dose based on body surface area (BSA)] and in mice (about 675.7 times the 30 mg human dose based on BSA) did not produce deaths or any clinical signs.
In the event of over-exposure, treatment should be symptomatic and supportive.
If over-exposure occurs, call your poison control center at 1-800-222-1222 for current information on the management of poisoning or over-exposure.
The active ingredient in lansoprazole delayed-release capsules, USP is lansoprazole, a substituted benzimidazole, 2-[[[3-methyl-4-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)-2-pyridyl]-methyl] sulfinyl] benzimidazole, a compound that inhibits gastric acid secretion. Its empirical formula is C 16 H 14 F 3 N 3 O 2 S with a molecular weight of 369.36. Lansoprazole has the following structure:
Lansoprazole, USP is a white to brownish-white powder which melts with decomposition at approximately 166°C. Lansoprazole is freely soluble in dimethylformamide and practically insoluble in water.
The rate of degradation of the compound in aqueous solution increases with decreasing pH.
Lansoprazole is supplied in delayed-release capsules for oral administration.
Lansoprazole delayed-release capsules, USP are available in two dosage strengths: 15 mg and 30 mg of lansoprazole, USP per capsule. Each delayed-release capsule contains enteric-coated granules consisting of 15 mg or 30 mg of lansoprazole (active ingredient) and the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, corn starch, hydroxypropyl cellulose, low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose, magnesium carbonate, methacrylic acid copolymer dispersion, polysorbate 80, sucrose, sugar spheres (contains sucrose and starch (maize)), talc, titanium dioxide and triethyl citrate. The hard gelatin capsule shell consists of gelatin, FD&C Blue No. 1, D&C Red No. 28, FD&C Red No. 40 and titanium dioxide. In addition 15 mg capsule contains FD&C Green No. 3.
The imprinting ink contains polysorbate 80, propylene glycol, shellac and titanium dioxide.
Lansoprazole belongs to a class of antisecretory compounds, the substituted benzimidazoles, that suppress gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the (H+, K+)-ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell. Because this enzyme system is regarded as the acid (proton) pump within the parietal cell, lansoprazole has been characterized as a gastric acid-pump inhibitor, in that it blocks the final step of acid production. This effect is dose-related and leads to inhibition of both basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion irrespective of the stimulus. Lansoprazole does not exhibit anticholinergic or histamine type-2 antagonist activity.
After oral administration, lansoprazole was shown to significantly decrease the basal acid output and significantly increase the mean gastric pH and percent of time the gastric pH was greater than three and greater than four. Lansoprazole also significantly reduced meal-stimulated gastric acid output and secretion volume, as well as pentagastrin-stimulated acid output. In patients with hypersecretion of acid, lansoprazole significantly reduced basal and pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion. Lansoprazole inhibited the normal increases in secretion volume, acidity and acid output induced by insulin.
The intragastric pH results of a five day, pharmacodynamic, crossover study of 15 and 30 mg of once daily lansoprazole are presented in Table 6:
|Table 6. Mean Antisecretory Effects After Single and Multiple Daily Lansoprazole Dosing|
|Parameter||Baseline Value||15 mg||30 mg|
|Day 1||Day 5||Day 1||Day 5|
|Mean 24 Hour pH||2.1||2.7 *||4.0 *||3.6 †||4.9 †|
|Mean Nighttime pH||1.9||2.4||3.0 *||2.6||3.8 †|
|% Time Gastric pH>3||18||33 *||59 *||51 †||72 †|
|% Time Gastric pH>4||12||22 *||49 *||41 †||66 †|
NOTE: An intragastric pH of greater than four reflects a reduction in gastric acid by 99%.
*(p<0.05) vs baseline only.
† (p<0.05) vs baseline and lansoprazole 15 mg.
After the initial dose in this study, increased gastric pH was seen within one to two hours with 30 mg of lansoprazole and two to three hours with 15 mg of lansoprazole. After multiple daily dosing, increased gastric pH was seen within the first hour postdosing with 30 mg of lansoprazole and within one to two hours postdosing with 15 mg of lansoprazole.
Acid suppression may enhance the effect of antimicrobials in eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The percentage of time gastric pH was elevated above five and six was evaluated in a crossover study of lansoprazole given daily, twice daily and three times daily (Table 7).
|Table 7. Mean Antisecretory Effects After Five Days of Twice Daily and Three Times Daily Dosing|
|30 mg daily||15 mg twice daily||30 mg twice daily||30 mg three times daily|
|% Time Gastric pH>5||43||47||59 *||77 †|
|% Time Gastric pH>6||20||23||28||45 †|
*(p<0.05) vs lansoprazole 30 mg daily
† (p<0.05) vs lansoprazole 30 mg daily, 15 mg twice daily and 30 mg twice daily.
The inhibition of gastric acid secretion as measured by intragastric pH gradually returned to normal over two to four days after multiple doses. There was no indication of rebound gastric acidity.
Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) Cell Effects
During lifetime exposure of rats with up to 150 mg/kg/day of lansoprazole dosed seven days per week, marked hypergastrinemia was observed followed by ECL cell proliferation and formation of carcinoid tumors, especially in female rats. Gastric biopsy specimens from the body of the stomach from approximately 150 patients treated continuously with lansoprazole for at least one year did not show evidence of ECL cell effects similar to those seen in rat studies. Longer term data are needed to rule out the possibility of an increased risk of the development of gastric tumors in patients receiving long-term therapy with lansoprazole [see Nonclinical Toxicology ( 13.1)].
Other Gastric Effects in Humans
Lansoprazole did not significantly affect mucosal blood flow in the fundus of the stomach. Due to the normal physiologic effect caused by the inhibition of gastric acid secretion, a decrease of about 17% in blood flow in the antrum, pylorus, and duodenal bulb was seen. Lansoprazole significantly slowed the gastric emptying of digestible solids. Lansoprazole increased serum pepsinogen levels and decreased pepsin activity under basal conditions and in response to meal stimulation or insulin injection. As with other agents that elevate intragastric pH, increases in gastric pH were associated with increases in nitrate-reducing bacteria and elevation of nitrite concentration in gastric juice in patients with gastric ulcer. No significant increase in nitrosamine concentrations was observed.
Serum Gastrin Effects
In over 2100 patients, median fasting serum gastrin levels increased 50 to 100% from baseline but remained within normal range after treatment with 15 to 60 mg of oral lansoprazole. These elevations reached a plateau within two months of therapy and returned to pretreatment levels within four weeks after discontinuation of therapy.
Increased gastrin causes enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia and increased serum CgA levels. The increased CgA levels may cause false positive results in diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.9)].
Human studies for up to one year have not detected any clinically significant effects on the endocrine system. Hormones studied include testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), prolactin, cortisol, estradiol, insulin, aldosterone, parathormone, glucagon, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and somatotropic hormone (STH). Lansoprazole in oral doses of 15 to 60 mg for up to one year had no clinically significant effect on sexual function. In addition, lansoprazole in oral doses of 15 to 60 mg for two to eight weeks had no clinically significant effect on thyroid function. In 24 month carcinogenicity studies in Sprague-Dawley rats with daily lansoprazole dosages up to 150 mg/kg, proliferative changes in the Leydig cells of the testes, including benign neoplasm, were increased compared to control rats.
Other EffectsNo systemic effects of lansoprazole on the central nervous system, lymphoid, hematopoietic, renal, hepatic, cardiovascular, or respiratory systems have been found in humans. Among 56 patients who had extensive baseline eye evaluations, no visual toxicity was observed after lansoprazole treatment (up to 180 mg/day) for up to 58 months. After lifetime lansoprazole exposure in rats, focal pancreatic atrophy, diffuse lymphoid hyperplasia in the thymus, and spontaneous retinal atrophy were seen.
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