Labetalol Hydrochloride: Package Insert and Label Information

LABETALOL HYDROCHLORIDE- labetalol hydrochloride tablet, film coated
REMEDYREPACK INC.

DESCRIPTION

Labetalol hydrochloride tablets, USP are an adrenergic receptor blocking agent that has both selective Alpha 1 -adrenergic and nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor blocking actions in a single substance. Labetalol hydrochloride is a racemate, chemically designated as 2-hydroxy-5-[1-hydroxy-2-[(1-methyl- 3-phenylpropyl)amino]ethyl]benzamide mono hydrochloride and it has the following structure:

Labetalol  hydrochloride tablets
(click image for full-size original)

Labetalol hydrochloride has the molecular formula C19 H24 N2 O3 •HCl and a molecular weight of 364.87. It has two asymmetric centers and therefore exists as a molecular complex of two diastereoisomeric pairs. Dilevalol, the R,R’ stereoisomer, makes up 25% of racemic labetalol.

Labetalol hydrochloride, USP is a white or almost white powder. It is sparingly soluble in water and in ethanol (96%), practically insoluble in ether and in methylene chloride.

Labetalol hydrochloride tablet, USP for oral administration contain 100 mg, 200 mg or 300 mg labetalol hydrochloride, USP. In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: corn starch, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, sodium starch glycolate (botanical source: potato) and titanium dioxide. Additionally, 100 mg tablets contain D&C yellow #10 Aluminum lake, iron oxide yellow, iron oxide red and talc. 300 mg tablets contain FD&C blue #1 Aluminum lake, iron oxide yellow and talc.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Labetalol hydrochloride combines both selective, competitive, alpha 1 -adrenergic blocking and nonselective, competitive, beta-adrenergic blocking activity in a single substance. In man, the ratios of alpha- to beta-blockade have been estimated to be approximately 1:3 and 1:7 following oral and intravenous (IV) administration, respectively. Beta 2 -agonist activity has been demonstrated in animals with minimal beta 1 -agonist (ISA) activity detected. In animals, at doses greater than those required for alpha- or beta-adrenergic blockade, a membrane-stabilizing effect has been demonstrated.

Pharmacodynamics

The capacity of labetalol hydrochloride to block alpha receptors in man has been demonstrated by attenuation of the pressor effect of phenylephrine and by a significant reduction of the pressor response caused by immersing the hand in ice-cold water (“cold pressor test”). Labetalol hydrochloride’s beta 1 -receptor blockade in man was demonstrated by a small decrease in the resting heart rate, attenuation of tachycardia produced by isoproterenol or exercise, and by attenuation of the reflex tachycardia to the hypotension produced by amyl nitrite. Beta 2 -receptor blockade was demonstrated by inhibition of the isoproterenol-induced fall in diastolic blood pressure. Both the alpha- and beta-blocking actions of orally administered labetalol hydrochloride contribute to a decrease in blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Labetalol hydrochloride consistently, in dose-related fashion, blunted increases in exercise-induced blood pressure and heart rate, and in their double product. The pulmonary circulation during exercise was not affected by labetalol hydrochloride dosing.

Single oral doses of labetalol hydrochloride administered to patients with coronary artery disease had no significant effect on sinus rate, intraventricular conduction, or QRS duration. The atrioventricular (A-V) conduction time was modestly prolonged in two of seven patients. In another study, intravenous (IV) labetalol hydrochloride slightly prolonged A-V nodal conduction time and atrial effective refractory period with only small changes in heart rate. The effects on A-V nodal refractoriness were inconsistent.

Labetalol hydrochloride produces dose-related falls in blood pressure without reflex tachycardia and without significant reduction in heart rate, presumably through a mixture of its alpha-blocking and beta-blocking effects. Hemodynamic effects are variable with small, non significant changes in cardiac output seen in some studies but not others, and small decreases in total peripheral resistance. Elevated plasma renins are reduced.

Doses of labetalol hydrochloride that controlled hypertension did not affect renal function in mild to severe hypertensive patients with normal renal function.

Due to the alpha 1 -receptor blocking activity of labetalol hydrochloride, blood pressure is lowered more in the standing than in the supine position and symptoms of postural hypotension (2%), including rare instances of syncope, can occur. Following oral administration, when postural hypotension has occurred, it has been transient and is uncommon when the recommended starting dose and titration increments are closely followed (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Symptomatic postural hypotension is most likely to occur 2 to 4 hours after a dose, especially following the use of large initial doses or upon large changes in dose.

The peak effects of single oral doses of labetalol hydrochloride occur within 2 to 4 hours. The duration of effect depends upon dose, lasting at least 8 hours following single oral doses of 100mg and more than 12 hours following single oral doses of 300 mg. The maximum, steady-state blood pressure response upon oral, twice-a-day dosing occurs within 24 to 72 hours.

The antihypertensive effect of labetalol has a linear correlation with the logarithm of labetalol plasma concentration and there is also a linear correlation between the reduction in exercise-induced tachycardia occurring at 2 hours after oral administration of labetalol hydrochloride and the logarithm of the plasma concentration.

About 70% of the maximum beta-blocking effect is present for 5 hours after the administration of a single oral dose of 400 mg with suggestion that about 40% remains at 8 hours.

The anti-anginal efficacy of labetalol hydrochloride has not been studied. In 37 patients with hypertension and coronary artery disease, labetalol hydrochloride did not increase the incidence or severity of angina attacks.

Exacerbation of angina and, in some cases, myocardial infarction and ventricular dysrhythmias have been reported after abrupt discontinuation of therapy with beta-adrenergic blocking agents in patients with coronary artery disease. Abrupt withdrawal of these agents in patients without coronary artery disease has resulted in transient symptoms, including tremulousness, sweating, palpitation, headache and malaise. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain these phenomena, among them increased sensitivity to catecholamines because of increased numbers of beta receptors.

Although beta-adrenergic receptor blockade is useful in the treatment of angina and hypertension, there are also situations in which sympathetic stimulation is vital. For example, in patients with severely damaged hearts, adequate ventricular function may depend on sympathetic drive. Beta-adrenergic blockade may worsen A-V block by preventing the necessary facilitating effects of sympathetic activity on conduction. Beta 2 -adrenergic blockade results in passive bronchial constriction by interfering with endogenous adrenergic bronchodilator activity in patients subject to bronchospasm and it may also interfere with exogenous bronchodilators in such patients.

Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism

Labetalol hydrochloride is completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract with peak plasma levels occurring 1 to 2 hours after oral administration. The relative bioavailability of labetalol hydrochloride tablets compared to an oral solution is 100%. The absolute bioavailability (fraction of drug reaching systemic circulation) of labetalol when compared to an intravenous infusion is 25%; this is due to extensive “first-pass” metabolism. Despite “first-pass” metabolism, there is a linear relationship between oral doses of 100 mg to 3000 mg and peak plasma levels. The absolute bioavailability of labetalol is increased when administered with food.

The plasma half-life of labetalol following oral administration is about 6 to 8 hours. Steady-state plasma levels of labetalol during repetitive dosing are reached by about the third day of dosing. Inpatients with decreased hepatic or renal function, the elimination half-life of labetalol is not altered; however, the relative bioavailability in hepatically impaired patients is increased due to decreased”first-pass” metabolism.

The metabolism of labetalol is mainly through conjugation to glucuronide metabolites. These metabolites are present in plasma and are excreted in the urine and, via the bile, into the feces. Approximately 55% to 60% of a dose appears in the urine as conjugates or unchanged labetalol within the first 24 hours of dosing.

Labetalol has been shown to cross the placental barrier in humans. Only negligible amounts of the drug crossed the blood-brain barrier in animal studies. Labetalol is approximately 50% protein bound. Neither hemodialysis nor peritoneal dialysis removes a significant amount of labetalol hydrochloride from the general circulation (<1%).

Elderly Patients

Some pharmacokinetic studies indicate that the elimination of labetalol is reduced in elderly patients. Therefore, although elderly patients may initiate therapy at the currently recommended dosage of 100mg b.i.d., elderly patients will generally require lower maintenance dosages than nonelderly patients.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Labetalol hydrochloride tablets, USP are indicated in the management of hypertension. Labetalol hydrochloride tablets USP may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents, especially thiazide and loop diuretics.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Labetalol hydrochloride tablets are contraindicated in bronchial asthma, overt cardiac failure, greater than first degree heart block, cardiogenic shock, severe bradycardia, other conditions associated with severe and prolonged hypotension and in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to any component of the product (see WARNINGS).

Beta-blockers, even those with apparent cardio selectivity, should not be used in patients with a history of obstructive airway disease, including asthma.

WARNINGS

Hepatic Injury

Severe hepatocellular injury, confirmed by rechallenge in at least one case, occurs rarely with labetalol therapy. The hepatic injury is usually reversible, but hepatic necrosis and death have been reported. Injury has occurred after both short- and long-term treatment and may be slowly progressive despite minimal symptomatology. Similar hepatic events have been reported with a related research compound, dilevalol hydrochloride, including two deaths. Dilevalol hydrochloride is one of the four isomers of labetalol hydrochloride. Thus, for patients taking labetalol, periodic determination of suitable hepatic laboratory tests would be appropriate. Appropriate laboratory testing should be done at the first symptom or sign of liver dysfunction (e.g. pruritus, dark urine, persistent anorexia, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, or unexplained “flu-like” symptoms). If the patient has laboratory evidence of liver injury or jaundice, labetalol should be stopped and not restarted.

Cardiac Failure

Sympathetic stimulation is a vital component supporting circulatory function in congestive heart failure. Beta blockade carries a potential hazard of further depressing myocardial contractility and precipitating more severe failure. Although beta-blockers should be avoided in overt congestive heart failure, if necessary, labetalol hydrochloride can be used with caution in patients with a history of heart failure who are well compensated. Congestive heart failure has been observed in patients receiving labetalol hydrochloride. Labetalol hydrochloride does not abolish the inotropic action of digitalis on heart muscle.

In Patients Without a History of Cardiac Failure

In patients with latent cardiac insufficiency, continued depression of the myocardium with beta-blocking agents over a period of time can, in some cases, lead to cardiac failure. At the first sign or symptom of impending cardiac failure, patients should be fully digitalized and/or be given a diuretic and the response should be observed closely. If cardiac failure continues, despite adequate digitalization and diuretic, therapy with labetalol hydrochloride tablets should be withdrawn (gradually, if possible).

Exacerbation of Ischemic Heart Disease Following Abrupt Withdrawal

Angina pectoris has not been reported upon labetalol hydrochloride discontinuation. However, hypersensitivity to catecholamines has been observed in patients withdrawn from beta-blocker therapy; exacerbation of angina and, in some cases, myocardial infarction have occurred after abrupt discontinuation of such therapy. When discontinuing chronically administered labetalol hydrochloride tablets, particularly in patients with ischemic heart disease, the dosage should be gradually reduced over a period of 1 to 2 weeks and the patient should be carefully monitored. If angina markedly worsens or acute coronary insufficiency develops, labetalol hydrochloride tablet administration should be reinstituted promptly, at least temporarily, and other measures appropriate for the management of unstable angina should be taken. Patients should be warned against interruption or discontinuation of therapy without the physician’s advice. Because coronary artery disease is common and may be unrecognized, it may be prudent not to discontinue therapy with labetalol hydrochloride tablets abruptly in patients being treated for hypertension.

Non allergic bronchospasm (e.g. chronic bronchitis and emphysema) patients with bronchospastic disease should, in general, not receive beta-blockers. Labetalol hydrochloride tablets may be used with caution, however, in patients who do not respond to, or cannot tolerate, other antihypertensive agents. It is prudent, if labetalol hydrochloride tablets are used, to use the smallest effective dose, so that inhibition of endogenous or exogenous beta-agonists is minimized.

Pheochromocytoma

Labetalol hydrochloride has been shown to be effective in lowering blood pressure and relieving symptoms in patients with pheochromocytoma. However, paradoxical hypertensive responses have been reported in a few patients with this tumor; therefore, use caution when administering labetalol hydrochloride to patients with pheochromocytoma.

Diabetes Mellitus and Hypoglycemia

Beta-adrenergic blockade may prevent the appearance of premonitory signs and symptoms (e.g. tachycardia) of acute hypoglycemia. This is especially important with labile diabetics. Beta-blockade also reduces the release of insulin in response to hyperglycemia; it may therefore be necessary to adjust the dose of antidiabetic drugs.

Major Surgery

The necessity or desirability of withdrawing beta-blocking therapy before major surgery is controversial. Protracted severe hypotension and difficulty in restarting or maintaining a heartbeat have been reported with beta-blockers. The effect of labetalol hydrochloride’s alpha-adrenergic activity has not been evaluated in this setting.

A synergism between labetalol hydrochloride and halothane anesthesia has been shown (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions).

PRECAUTIONS

General

Impaired Hepatic Function

Labetalol hydrochloride tablets should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic function since metabolism of the drug may be diminished.

Jaundice or Hepatic Dysfunction

(see WARNINGS).

INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS

As with all drugs with beta-blocking activity, certain advice to patients being treated with labetalol hydrochloride is warranted. This information is intended to aid in the safe and effective use of this medication. It is not a disclosure of all possible adverse or intended effects. While no incident of the abrupt withdrawal phenomenon (exacerbation of angina pectoris) has been reported with labetalol hydrochloride, dosing with labetalol hydrochloride tablets should not be interrupted or discontinued without a physician’s advice. Patients being treated with labetalol hydrochloride tablets should consult a physician at any signs or symptoms of impending cardiac failure or hepatic dysfunction (see WARNINGS). Also, transient scalp tingling may occur, usually when treatment with labetalol hydrochloride tablets is initiated (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

Laboratory Tests

As with any new drug given over prolonged periods, laboratory parameters should be observed over regular intervals. In patients with concomitant illnesses, such as impaired renal function, appropriate tests should be done to monitor these conditions.

Repackaged By / Distributed By: RemedyRepack Inc.

625 Kolter Drive, Indiana, PA 15701

(724) 465-8762

DRUG INTERACTIONS

In one survey, 2.3% of patients taking labetalol hydrochloride in combination with tricyclic antidepressants experienced tremor as compared to 0.7% reported to occur with labetalol hydrochloride alone. The contribution of each of the treatments to this adverse reaction is unknown but the possibility of a drug interaction cannot be excluded.

Drugs possessing beta-blocking properties can blunt the bronchodilator effect of beta-receptor agonist drugs in patients with bronchospasm; therefore, doses greater than the normal anti-asthmatic dose of beta-agonist bronchodilator drugs may be required.

Cimetidine has been shown to increase the bioavailability of labetalol hydrochloride. Since this could be explained either by enhanced absorption or by an alteration of hepatic metabolism of labetalol hydrochloride, special care should be used in establishing the dose required for blood pressure control in such patients.

Synergism has been shown between halothane anesthesia and intravenously administered labetalol hydrochloride. During controlled hypotensive anesthesia using labetalol hydrochloride in association with halothane, high concentrations (3% or above) of halothane should not be used because the degree of hypotension will be increased and because of the possibility of a large reduction in cardiac output and an increase in central venous pressure. The anesthesiologist should be informed when a patient is receiving labetalol hydrochloride.

Labetalol hydrochloride blunts the reflex tachycardia produced by nitroglycerin without preventing its hypotensive effect. If labetalol hydrochloride is used with nitroglycerin in patients with angina pectoris, additional antihypertensive effects may occur.

Care should be taken if labetalol is used concomitantly with calcium antagonists of the verapamil type.

Both digitalis glycosides and beta-blockers slow atrioventricular conduction and decrease heart rate. Concomitant use can increase the risk of bradycardia.

Risk of Anaphylactic Reaction

While taking beta-blockers, patients with a history of severe anaphylactic reaction to a variety of allergens may be more reactive to repeated challenge, either accidental, diagnostic or therapeutic. Such patients may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat allergic reaction.

Page 1 of 3 1 2 3

DrugInserts.com provides trustworthy package insert and label information about marketed drugs as submitted by manufacturers to the US Food and Drug Administration. Package information is not reviewed or updated separately by DrugInserts.com. Every individual package label entry contains a unique identifier which can be used to secure further details directly from the US National Institutes of Health and/or the FDA.

As the leading independent provider of trustworthy medication information, we source our database directly from the FDA's central repository of drug labels and package inserts under the Structured Product Labeling standard. Our material is not intended as a substitute for direct consultation with a qualified health professional.

Terms of Use | Copyright © 2021. All Rights Reserved.