Indomethacin: Package Insert and Label Information

INDOMETHACIN- indomethacin capsule, extended release
Asclemed USA, Inc.

BOXED WARNING

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
• Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may occur early in treatment and may increase with duration of use [see Warnings and Precautions].
• Indomethacin extended-release capsules are contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery [see Contraindications and Warnings].
Gastrointestinal Risk
• NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinal events (see WARNINGS).

DESCRIPTION

Indomethacin cannot be considered a simple analgesic and should not be used in conditions other than those recommended under INDICATIONS AND USAGE.
Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory indole derivative designated chemically as 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indole-3-acetic acid. Indomethacin, USP is practically insoluble in water and sparingly soluble in alcohol. It has a pKa of 4.5 and is stable in neutral or slightly acidic media and decomposes in strong alkali. The structural formula is:

IndomethacinERstructure
(click image for full-size original)

C 19 H 16 ClNO 4 M.W. 357.80
Each extended-release capsule, for oral administration contains 75 mg of indomethacin and the following inactive ingredients: sugar spheres, povidone, mannitol, isopropyl alcohol, talc. The hard gelatin shell consists of gelatin, iron oxide yellow, titanium dioxide, sodium lauryl sulfate.
The imprinting ink contains the following: shellac, dehydrated alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, propylene glycol, strong ammonia solution, black iron oxide E172 dye and potassium hydroxide.
This product meets USP Drug Release Test 2 Specifications.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Indomethacin is a nonsteroidal drug with anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties. Its mode of action, like that of other anti-inflammatory drugs, is not known. However, its therapeutic action is not due to pituitary-adrenal stimulation.

Indomethacin is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis in vitro. Concentrations are reached during therapy which have been demonstrated to have an effect in vivo as well. Prostaglandins sensitize afferent nerves and potentiate the action of bradykinin in inducing pain in animal models. Moreover, prostaglandins are known to be among the mediators of inflammation. Since indomethacin is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, its mode of action may be due to a decrease of prostaglandins in peripheral tissues.

Indomethacin has been shown to be an effective anti-inflammatory agent, appropriate for long-term use in rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and osteoarthritis.

Indomethacin affords relief of symptoms; it does not alter the progressive course of the underlying disease.

Indomethacin suppresses inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis as demonstrated by relief of pain and reduction of fever, swelling and tenderness. Improvement in patients treated with indomethacin for rheumatoid arthritis has been demonstrated by a reduction in joint swelling, average number of joints involved and morning stiffness; by increased mobility as demonstrated by a decrease in walking time; and by improved functional capability as demonstrated by an increase in grip strength.

Indomethacin has been reported to diminish basal and CO 2 stimulated cerebral blood flow in healthy volunteers following acute oral and intravenous administration. In one study, after one week of treatment with orally administered indomethacin, this effect on basal cerebral blood flow had disappeared. The clinical significance of this effect has not been established.

Indomethacin extended-release capsules (75 mg) are designed to release 25 mg of drug initially and the remaining 50 mg over approximately 12 hours (90% of dose absorbed by 12 hours). Plasma concentrations of indomethacin fluctuate less and are more sustained following administration of indomethacin extended-release capsules than following administration of 25 mg indomethacin capsules given at 4 to 6 hour intervals. In multiple-dose comparisons, the mean daily steady state plasma level of indomethacin attained with daily administration of indomethacin extended-release capsules 75 mg was indistinguishable from that following indomethacin 25 mg capsules given at 0, 6 and 12 hours daily. However, there was a significant difference in indomethacin plasma levels between the two dosage regimens especially after 12 hours.
Controlled clinical studies of safety and efficacy in patients with osteoarthritis have shown that one capsule of indomethacin extended-release was clinically comparable to one 25 mg indomethacin capsule t.i.d.; and in controlled clinical studies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, one capsule of indomethacin extended-release taken in the morning and one in the evening were clinically indistinguishable from one 50 mg capsule of indomethacin t.i.d.
Indomethacin is eliminated via renal excretion, metabolism and biliary excretion. Indomethacin undergoes appreciable enterohepatic circulation. The mean half-life of indomethacin is estimated to be about 4.5 hours. With a typical therapeutic regimen of 25 or 50 mg t.i.d., the steady state plasma concentrations of indomethacin are an average 1.4 times those following the first dose.
Indomethacin exists in the plasma as the parent drug and its desmethyl, desbenzoyl and desmethyldesbenzoyl metabolites, all in the unconjugated form. About 60 percent of an oral dosage is recovered in urine as drug and metabolites (26 percent as indomethacin and its glucuronide) and 33 percent is recovered in feces (1.5 percent as indomethacin).
About 99% of indomethacin is bound to protein in plasma over the expected range of therapeutic plasma concentrations. Indomethacin has been found to cross the blood-brain barrier and the placenta.

INDICATIONS & USAGE

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of indomethacin extended-release capsules and other treatment options before deciding to use indomethacin extended-release capsules. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).

Indomethacin extended-release capsules have been found effective in active stages of the following:

1. Moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis including acute flares of chronic disease.
2. Moderate to severe ankylosing spondylitis.
3. Moderate to severe osteoarthritis.
4. Acute painful shoulder (bursitis and/or tendinitis).
Indomethacin extended-release capsules, USP are not recommended for the treatment of acute gouty arthritis.
Indomethacin may enable the reduction of steroid dosage in patients receiving steroids for the more severe forms of rheumatoid arthritis. In such instances the steroid dosage should be reduced slowly and the patients followed very closely for any possible adverse effects. The use of indomethacin in conjunction with aspirin or other salicylates is not recommended. Controlled clinical studies have shown that the combined use of indomethacin and aspirin does not produce any greater therapeutic effect than the use of indomethacin alone. Furthermore, in one of these clinical studies, the incidence of gastrointestinal side effects was significantly increased with combined therapy. (See PRECAUTIONS,Drug Interactions).

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Indomethacin extended-release capsules are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to indomethacin.
Indomethacin extended-release capsules should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic-like reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients (see WARNINGS: Anaphylactoid Reactions, and Precautions: Preexisting Asthma). Indomethacin extended-release capsules is contraindicated for the treatment of perioperative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS).

WARNINGS

Cardiovascular Effects

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, which can be fatal. Based on available data, it is unclear that the risk for CV thrombotic events is similar for all NSAIDs. The relative increase in serious CV thrombotic events over baseline conferred by NSAID use appears to be similar in those with and without known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease. However, patients with known CV disease or risk factors had a higher absolute incidence of excess serious CV thrombotic events, due to their increased baseline rate. Some observational studies found that this increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events began as early as the first weeks of treatment. The increase in CV thrombotic risk has been observed most consistently at higher doses.
To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in NSAID-treated patients, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, throughout the entire treatment course, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.
There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID, such as indomethacin, increases the risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) events [see Warnings].
Status Post Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery
Two large, controlled clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10 to 14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. NSAIDs are contraindicated in the setting of CABG [see Contraindications].
Post-MI Patients
Observational studies conducted in the Danish National Registry have demonstrated that patients treated with NSAIDs in the post-MI period were at increased risk of reinfarction, CV-related death, and all-cause mortality beginning in the first week of treatment. In this same cohort, the incidence of death in the first year post MI was 20 per 100 person years in NSAID-treated patients compared to 12 per 100 person years in non-NSAID exposed patients. Although the absolute rate of death declined somewhat after the first year post-MI, the increased relative risk of death in NSAID users persisted over at least the next four years of follow-up.
Avoid the use of indomethacin extended-release capsules in patients with a recent MI unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of recurrent CV thrombotic events. If indomethacin extended-release capsules are used in patients with a recent MI, monitor patients for signs of cardiac ischemia.
Hypertension
NSAIDs, including indomethacin extended-release capsules, can lead to onset of new hypertension or worsening of preexisting hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking thiazides or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs. NSAIDs, including indomethacin extended-release capsules, should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. Blood pressure (BP) should be monitored closely during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.
Heart Failure and Edema
The Coxib and traditional NSAID Trialists’ Collaboration meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials demonstrated an approximately two-fold increase in hospitalizations for heart failure in COX-2 selective-treated patients and nonselective NSAID-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients. In a Danish National Registry study of patients with heart failure, NSAID use increased the risk of MI, hospitalization for heart failure, and death.
Additionally, fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients treated with NSAIDs. Use of indomethacin may blunt the CV effects of several therapeutic agents used to treat these medical conditions [e.g., diuretics, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)] [see Drug Interactions]. Avoid the use of indomethacin extended-release capsules in patients with severe heart failure unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening heart failure. If indomethacin extended-release capsules are used in patients with severe heart failure, monitor patients for signs of worsening heart failure.

Gastrointestinal Effects

Risk of Ulceration,Bleeding and Perforation

NSAIDs, including indomethacin extended-release capsules, can cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients, who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occur in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3 to 6 months, and in about 2 to 4% of patients treated for one year. These trends continue with longer duration of use, increasing the likelihood of developing a serious GI event at some time during the course of therapy. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk.
NSAIDs should be prescribed with extreme caution in those with a prior history of ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or gastrointestinal bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients with neither of these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk for GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include concomitant use of oral corticosteroids or anticoagulants, longer duration of NSAID therapy, smoking, use of alcohol, older age, and poor general health status.
Most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in elderly or debilitated patients and therefore, special care should be taken in treating this population. To minimize the potential risk for an adverse GI event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest possible duration. Patients and physicians should remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy and promptly initiate additional evaluation and treatment if a serious GI adverse event is suspected. This should include discontinuation of the NSAID until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out. For high risk patients, alternate therapies that do not involve NSAIDs should be considered.

Renal Effects

Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate over renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.
Advanced Renal Disease No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of indomethacin extended-release capsules in patients with advanced renal disease. Therefore, treatment with indomethacin extended-release capsules is not recommended in these patients with advanced renal disease. If indomethacin extended-release capsules therapy must be initiated, close monitoring of the patient’s renal function is advisable.

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