Patients should be informed of the following information before initiating therapy with an NSAID and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to read the NSAID Medication Guide that accompanies each prescription dispensed.
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
Advise patients to be alert for the symptoms of cardiovascular thrombotic events, including chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, or slurring of speech, and to report any of these symptoms to their health care provider immediately (see WARNINGS)
- Ibuprofen tablets, like other NSAIDs, can cause GI discomfort and, rarely, serious GI side effects, such as ulcers and bleeding, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative signs or symptoms including epigastric pain, dyspepsia, melena, and hematemesis. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up (see WARNINGS, Gastrointestinal Effects- Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding and Perforation).
- Ibuprofen tablets, like other NSAIDs, can cause serious skin side effects such as exfoliative dermatitis, SJS and TEN, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious skin reactions may occur without warning, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of skin rash and blisters, fever, or other signs of hypersensitivity such as itching, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms. Patients should be advised to stop the drug immediately if they develop any type of rash and contact their physicians as soon as possible.
Advise patients to be alert for the symptoms of congestive heart failure including shortness of breath, unexplained weight gain, or edema and to contact their healthcare provider if such symptoms occur (see WARNINGS).
- Patients should be informed of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness and “flu-like” symptoms). If these occur, patients should be instructed to stop therapy and seek immediate medical therapy.
- Patients should be informed of the signs of an anaphylactoid reaction (e.g. difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat). If these occur, patients should be instructed to seek immediate emergency help (see WARNINGS).
- In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, ibuprofen tablets should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.
Because serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, physicians should monitor for signs or symptoms of GI bleeding. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs should have their CBC and chemistry profile checked periodically. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver or renal disease develop, systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash etc.), or abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, ibuprofen tablets should be discontinued.
Reports suggest that NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE-inhibitors. This interaction should be given consideration in patients taking NSAIDs concomitantly with ACE-inhibitors.
Pharmacodynamic studies have demonstrated interference with the antiplatelet activity of aspirin when ibuprofen 400 mg, given three times daily, is administered with enteric-coated low-dose aspirin. The interaction exists even following a once-daily regimen of ibuprofen 400 mg, particularly when ibuprofen is dosed prior to aspirin. The interaction is alleviated if immediate-release low-dose aspirin is dosed at least 2 hours prior to a once-daily regimen of ibuprofen; however, this finding cannot be extended to enteric-coated low-dose aspirin [see Clinical Pharmacology/Pharmacodynamics].
Because there may be an increased risk of cardiovascular events due to the interference of ibuprofen with the antiplatelet effect of aspirin, for patients taking low-dose aspirin for cardioprotection who require analgesics, consider use of an NSAID that does not interfere with the antiplatelet effect of aspirin, or non-NSAID analgesics, where appropriate.
When ibuprofen tablets are administered with aspirin, its protein binding is reduced, although the clearance of free ibuprofen tablets is not altered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known; however, as with other NSAIDs, concomitant administration of ibuprofen and aspirin is not generally recommended because of the potential for increased adverse effects.
Clinical studies, as well as post marketing observations, have shown that ibuprofen tablets can reduce the natriuretic effect-of furosemide and thiazides in some patients. This response has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. During concomitant therapy with NSAIDs, the patient should be observed closely for signs of renal failure (see WARNINGS, Renal Effects), as well as to assure diuretic efficacy.
Ibuprofen produced an elevation of plasma lithium levels and a reduction in renal lithium clearance in a study of eleven normal volunteers. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15% and the renal clearance of lithium was decreased by 19% during this period of concomitant drug administration. This effect has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis by ibuprofen. Thus, when ibuprofen and lithium are administered concurrently, subjects should be observed carefully for signs of lithium toxicity. (Read circulars for lithium preparation before use of such concurrent therapy.)
NSAIDs have been reported to competitively inhibit methotrexate accumulation in rabbit kidney slices. This may indicate that they could enhance the toxicity of methotrexate. Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concomitantly with methotrexate.
Several short-term controlled studies failed to show that ibuprofen tablets significantly affected prothrombin times or a variety of other clotting factors when administered to individuals on coumarin-type anticoagulants. However, because bleeding has been reported when ibuprofen tablets and other NSAIDs have been administered to patients on coumarin-type anticoagulants, the physician should be cautious when administering ibuprofen tablets to patients on anticoagulants. The effects of warfarin and NSAIDs on GI bleeding are synergistic, such that the users of both drugs together have a risk of serious GI bleeding higher than users of either drug alone.
In studies with human volunteers, co-administration of cimetidine or ranitidine with ibuprofen had no substantive effect on ibuprofen serum concentrations.
Reproductive studies conducted in rats and rabbits have not demonstrated evidence of developmental abnormalities. However, animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Ibuprofen should be used in pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Because of the known effects of NSAIDs on the fetal cardiovascular system (closure of ductus arteriosus), use during late pregnancy should be avoided.
In rat studies with NSAIDs, as with other drugs known to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, an increased incidence of dystocia, delayed parturition, and decreased pup survival occurred. The effects of ibuprofen tablets on labor and delivery in pregnant women are unknown.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human-milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from ibuprofen tablets, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
The most frequent type of adverse reaction occurring with ibuprofen tablets is gastrointestinal. In controlled clinical trials the percentage of patients reporting one or more gastrointestinal complaints ranged from 4% to 16%.
In controlled studies when ibuprofen tablets were compared to aspirin and indomethacin in equally effective doses, the overall incidence of gastrointestinal complaints was about half that seen in either the aspirin- or indomethacin-treated patients.
Adverse reactions observed during controlled clinical trials at an incidence greater than 1% are listed in the table. Those reactions listed in Column one encompass observations in approximately 3,000 patients. More than 500 of these patients were treated for periods of at least 54 weeks.
Still other reactions occurring less frequently than 1 in 100 were reported in controlled clinical trials and from marketing experience. These reactions have been divided into two categories: Column two of the table lists reactions with therapy with ibuprofen tablets where the probability of a causal relationship exists: for the reactions in Column three, a causal relationship with ibuprofen tablets has not been established.
Reported side effects were higher at doses of 3200 mg/day than at doses of 2400 mg or less per day in clinical trials of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The increases in incidence were slight and still within the ranges reported in the table.
† Reactions occurring in 3% to 9% of patients treated with ibuprofen tablets. (Those reactions occurring in less than 3% of the patients are unmarked).
* Reactions are classified under “Probable Causal Relationship (PCR)” if there has been one positive rechallenge or if three or more cases occur which might be causally related. Reactions are classified under “Causal Relationship Unknown” if seven or more events have been reported but the criteria for PCR have not been met.
|Incidence Greater than 1% (but less than 3%) Probable Causal Relationship †||Precise Incidence Unknown (but less than 1%) Probable Causal Relationship*||Precise Incidence Unknown (but less than 1%) Causal Relationship Unknown*|
|GASTROINTESTINAL Nausea† , epigastric pain† , heartburn† , diarrhea, abdominal distress, nausea and vomiting, indigestion, constipation, abdominal cramps or Pain, fullness of GI tract (bloating and flatulence)||Gastric or duodenal ulcer with bleeding and/or perforation, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, melena, gastritis, hepatitis, jaundice, abnormal liver function tests; pancreatitis|
|CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Dizziness† , headache, nervousness||Depression, insomnia, confusion, emotional liability, somnolence, aseptic meningitis with fever and coma (see PRECAUTIONS)||Paresthesias, hallucinations, dream abnormalities, pseudotumor cerebri|
|DERMATOLOGIC Rash† (including maculopapular type), pruritus||Vesiculobullous eruptions, urticaria, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, alopecia||Toxic epidermal necrolysis, photoallergic skin reactions|
|SPECIAL SENSES Tinnitus||Hearing loss, amblyopia (blurred and/or diminished vision, scotomata and/or changes in color vision) (see PRECAUTIONS)||Conjunctivitis, diplopia, optic neuritis, cataracts|
|HEMATOLOGIC||Neutropenia, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia (sometimes Coombs positive), thrombocytopenia with or without purpura, eosinophilia, decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit (see PRECAUTIONS)||Bleeding episodes (eg epistaxis, menorrhagia)|
|METABOLIC/ENDOCRINE Decreased appetite||Gynecomastia, hypoglycemic reaction, acidosis|
|CARDIOVASCULAR Edema, fluid retention (generally responds promptly to drug discontinuation) (see PRECAUTIONS)||Congestive heart failure in patients with marginal cardiac function, elevated blood pressure, palpitations||Arrhythmias (sinus tachycardia, sinus bradycardia)|
|ALLERGIC||Syndrome of abdominal pain, fever, chills, nausea and vomiting; anaphylaxis; bronchospasm (see CONTRAINDICATIONS)||Serum sickness, lupus erythematosus syndrome. Henoch-Schonlein vasculitis, angioedema|
|RENAL||Acute renal failure (see PRECAUTIONS), decreased creatinine clearance, polyuria, azotemia, cystitis, hematuria||Renal papillary necrosis|
|MISCELLANEOUS||Dry eyes and mouth, gingival ulcer, rhinitis|
Approximately 1½ hours after the reported ingestion of from 7 to 10 ibuprofen tablets (400 mg), a 19-month old child weighing 12 kg was seen in the hospital emergency room, apneic and cyanotic, responding only to painful stimuli. This type of stimulus, however, was sufficient to induce respiration. Oxygen and parenteral fluids were given; a greenish-yellow fluid was aspirated from the stomach with no evidence to indicate the presence of ibuprofen. Two hours after ingestion the child’s condition seemed stable; she still responded only to painful stimuli and continued to have periods of apnea lasting from 5 to 10 seconds. She was admitted to intensive care and sodium bicarbonate was administered as well as infusions of dextrose and normal saline. By four hours post-ingestion she could be aroused easily, sit by herself and respond to spoken commands. Blood level of ibuprofen was 102.9 mcg/mL approximately 8½ hours after accidental ingestion. At 12 hours she appeared to be completely recovered.
In two other reported cases where children (each weighing approximately 10 kg) accidentally, acutely ingested approximately 120 mg/kg, there were no signs of acute intoxication or late sequelae. Blood level in one child 90 minutes after ingestion was 700 mcg/mL — about 10 times the peak levels seen in absorption-excretion studies.
A 19-year old male who had taken 8,000 mg of ibuprofen over a period of a few hours complained of dizziness, and nystagmus was noted. After hospitalization, parenteral hydration and three days bed rest, he recovered with no reported sequelae.
In cases of acute overdosage, the stomach should be emptied by vomiting or lavage, though little drug will likely be recovered if more than an hour has elapsed since ingestion. Because the drug is acidic and is excreted in the urine, it is theoretically beneficial to administer alkali and induce diuresis. In addition to supportive measures, the use of oral activated charcoal may help to reduce the absorption and reabsorption of ibuprofen tablets.
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of ibuprofen tablets and other treatment options before deciding to use ibuprofen tablets. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).
After observing the response to initial therapy with ibuprofen tablets, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient’s needs. Do not exceed 3200 mg total daily dose. If gastrointestinal complaints occur, administer ibuprofen tablets with meals or milk.
Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, including flare-ups of chronic disease
Suggested Dosage: 1200 mg to 3200 mg daily (400 mg, 600 mg or 800 mg tid or qid). Individual patients may show a better response to 3200 mg daily, as compared with 2400 mg, although in well-controlled clinical trials patients on 3200 mg did not show a better mean response in terms of efficacy. Therefore, when treating patients with 3200 mg/day, the physician should observe sufficient increased clinical benefits to offset potential increased risk.
The dose should be tailored to each patient, and may be lowered or raised depending on the severity of symptoms either at time of initiating drug therapy or as the patient responds or fails to respond.
In general, patients with rheumatoid arthritis seem to require higher doses of ibuprofen tablets than do patients with osteoarthritis.
The smallest dose of ibuprofen tablets that yields acceptable control should be employed. A linear blood level dose response relationship exists with single doses up to 800 mg (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY for effects of food on rate of absorption).
The availability of three tablet strengths facilitates dosage adjustment.
In chronic conditions , a therapeutic response to therapy with ibuprofen tablets is sometimes seen in a few days to a week but most often is observed by two weeks. After a satisfactory response has been achieved, the patient’s dose should be reviewed and adjusted as required.
Mild to moderate pain: 400 mg every 4 to 6 hours as necessary for relief of pain.
In controlled analgesic clinical trials, doses of ibuprofen tablets greater than 400 mg were no more effective than the 400 mg dose.
For the treatment of dysmenorrhea, beginning with the earliest onset of such pain, ibuprofen tablets should be given in a dose of 400 mg every 4 hours as necessary for the relief of pain.
DrugInserts.com provides trustworthy package insert and label information about marketed drugs as submitted by manufacturers to the US Food and Drug Administration. Package information is not reviewed or updated separately by DrugInserts.com. Every individual package label entry contains a unique identifier which can be used to secure further details directly from the US National Institutes of Health and/or the FDA.