HEPARIN SODIUM: Package Insert and Label Information

HEPARIN SODIUM- heparin sodium injection, solution
HF Acquisition Co LLC, DBA HealthFirst

SPL UNCLASSIFIED

Rx only

DERIVED FROM PORCINE INTESTINAL MUCOSA.

Available as: Preservative Free or Contains Benzyl Alcohol or Parabens

DESCRIPTION

Heparin is a heterogeneous group of straight-chain anionic mucopolysaccharides, called glycosaminoglycans, having anticoagulant properties. Although others may be present, the main sugars occurring in heparin are: (1) α-L-iduronic acid 2-sulfate, (2) 2-deoxy-2-sulfamino-α-D-glucose 6-sulfate, (3) ß-D-glucuronic acid, (4) 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-D-glucose and (5) α-L-iduronic acid. These sugars are present in decreasing amounts, usually in the order (2)> (1)> (4)> (3)> (5), and are joined by glycosidic linkages, forming polymers of varying sizes. Heparin is strongly acidic because of its content of covalently linked sulfate and carboxylic acid groups. In heparin sodium, the acidic protons of the sulfate units are partially replaced by sodium ions.

Heparin Sodium Injection, USP is a sterile solution of heparin sodium derived from porcine intestinal mucosa, standardized for anticoagulant activity, in water for injection. It is to be administered by intravenous or deep subcutaneous routes. The potency is determined by a biological assay using a USP reference standard based on units of heparin activity per milligram.

Structure of Heparin Sodium (representative subunits):

STRUCTURE
(click image for full-size original)

Heparin Sodium Injection, USP (porcine), preservative free, is available as follows:

Each mL of the 1,000 units per mL preparation contains: 1,000 USP Heparin units (porcine); 9 mg sodium chloride; Water for Injection q.s. Made isotonic with sodium chloride. Hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide may have been added for pH adjustment (5.0 to 7.5).

Each 0.5 mL of the 5,000 units per 0.5 mL preparation contains: 5,000 USP Heparin units (porcine); Water for Injection q.s. Hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide may have been added for pH adjustment (5.0 to 7.5).

Heparin Sodium Injection, USP (porcine), preserved with benzyl alcohol, is available as follows:

Each mL of the 5,000 units per mL preparation contains: 5,000 USP Heparin units (porcine); 6 mg sodium chloride; 15 mg benzyl alcohol (as a preservative); Water for Injection q.s. Hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide may have been added for pH adjustment (5.0 to 7.5).

Each mL of the 10,000 units per mL preparation contains: 10,000 USP Heparin units (porcine); 5 mg sodium chloride; 10.42 mg benzyl alcohol (as a preservative); Water for Injection q.s. Hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide may have been added for pH adjustment (5.0 to 7.5).

Heparin Sodium Injection, USP (porcine), preserved with parabens, is available as follows:

Each mL of the 1,000 units per mL preparation contains: 1,000 USP Heparin units (porcine); 9 mg sodium chloride; 1.5 mg methylparaben; 0.15 mg propylparaben; Water for Injection q.s. Made isotonic with sodium chloride. Hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide may have been added for pH adjustment (5.0 to 7.5).

Each mL of the 5,000 units per mL preparation contains: 5,000 USP Heparin units (porcine); 5 mg sodium chloride; 1.5 mg methylparaben; 0.15 mg propylparaben; Water for Injection q.s. Hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide may have been added for pH adjustment (5.0 to 7.5).

Each mL of the 10,000 units per mL preparation contains: 10,000 USP Heparin units (porcine); 1.5 mg methylparaben; 0.15 mg propylparaben; Water for Injection q.s. Hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide may have been added for pH adjustment (5.0 to 7.5).

Each mL of the 20,000 units per mL preparation contains: 20,000 USP Heparin units (porcine); 1.5 mg methylparaben; 0.15 mg propylparaben; Water for Injection q.s. Hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide may have been added for pH adjustment (5.0 to 7.5).

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Heparin inhibits reactions that lead to the clotting of blood and the formation of fibrin clots both in vitro and in vivo. Heparin acts at multiple sites in the normal coagulation system. Small amounts of heparin in combination with antithrombin III (heparin cofactor) can inhibit thrombosis by inactivating activated Factor X and inhibiting the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin. Once active thrombosis has developed, larger amounts of heparin can inhibit further coagulation by inactivating thrombin and preventing the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. Heparin also prevents the formation of a stable fibrin clot by inhibiting the activation of the fibrin stabilizing factor.

Bleeding time is usually unaffected by heparin. Clotting time is prolonged by full therapeutic doses of heparin; in most cases, it is not measurably affected by low doses of heparin.

Patients over 60 years of age, following similar doses of heparin, may have higher plasma levels of heparin and longer activated partial thromboplastin times (APTTs) compared with patients under 60 years of age.

Peak plasma levels of heparin are achieved two to four hours following subcutaneous administration, although there are considerable individual variations. Loglinear plots of heparin plasma concentrations with time, for a wide range of dose levels, are linear, which suggests the absence of zero order processes. Liver and the reticuloendothelial system are the sites of biotransformation. The biphasic elimination curve, a rapidly declining alpha phase (t 1⁄2 = 10 minutes) and after the age of 40 a slower beta phase, indicates uptake in organs. The absence of a relationship between anticoagulant half-life and concentration half-life may reflect factors such as protein binding of heparin.

Heparin does not have fibrinolytic activity; therefore, it will not lyse existing clots.

INDICATIONS & USAGE

Heparin Sodium Injection is indicated for:

Anticoagulant therapy in prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension;

Low-dose regimen for prevention of postoperative deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in patients undergoing major abdominothoracic surgery or who, for other reasons, are at risk of developing thromboembolic disease (see DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION);

Prophylaxis and treatment of pulmonary embolism;

Atrial fibrillation with embolization;

Treatment of acute and chronic consumptive coagulopathies (disseminated intravascular coagulation);

Prevention of clotting in arterial and cardiac surgery;

Prophylaxis and treatment of peripheral arterial embolism.

Heparin may also be employed as an anticoagulant in blood transfusions, extracorporeal circulation, and dialysis procedures.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Heparin sodium should NOT be used in patients with the following conditions:

Severe thrombocytopenia;

When suitable blood coagulation tests, e.g., the whole blood clotting time, partial thromboplastin time, etc., cannot be performed at appropriate intervals (this contraindication refers to full-dose heparin; there is usually no need to monitor coagulation parameters in patients receiving low-dose heparin);

An uncontrollable active bleeding state (see WARNINGS), except when this is due to disseminated intravascular coagulation.

WARNINGS

Heparin is not intended for intramuscular use.

Fatal Medication Errors

Do not use Heparin Sodium Injection as a “catheter lock flush” product. Heparin Sodium Injection is supplied in vials containing various strengths of heparin, including vials that contain a highly concentrated solution of 10,000 units in 1 mL. Fatal hemorrhages have occurred in pediatric patients due to medication errors in which 1 mL Heparin Sodium Injection vials were confused with 1 mL “catheter lock flush” vials. Carefully examine all Heparin Sodium Injection vials to confirm the correct vial choice prior to administration of the drug.

Benzyl Alcohol Toxicity

Use preservative-free HEPARIN SODIUM INJECTION in neonates and infants. The preservative benzyl alcohol has been associated with serious adverse events and death in pediatric patients. The minimum amount of benzyl alcohol at which toxicity may occur is not known. Premature and low-birth weight infants may be more likely to develop toxicity (see PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use).

Hypersensitivity

Patients with documented hypersensitivity to heparin should be given the drug only in clearly life-threatening situations (see ADVERSE REACTIONS, Hypersensitivity).

Hemorrhage

Hemorrhage can occur at virtually any site in patients receiving heparin. An unexplained fall in hematocrit, fall in blood pressure or any other unexplained symptom should lead to serious consideration of a hemorrhagic event.

Heparin sodium should be used with extreme caution in disease states in which there is increased danger of hemorrhage. Some of the conditions in which increased danger of hemorrhage exists are:

Cardiovascular—Subacute bacterial endocarditis, severe hypertension.

Surgical—During and immediately following (a) spinal tap or spinal anesthesia or (b) major surgery, especially involving the brain, spinal cord, or eye.

Hematologic—Conditions associated with increased bleeding tendencies, such as hemophilia, thrombocytopenia and some vascular purpuras.

Gastrointestinal—Ulcerative lesions and continuous tube drainage of the stomach or small intestine.

Other—Menstruation, liver disease with impaired hemostasis.

Coagulation Testing

When heparin sodium is administered in therapeutic amounts, its dosage should be regulated by frequent blood coagulation tests. If the coagulation test is unduly prolonged or if hemorrhage occurs, heparin sodium should be promptly discontinued (see OVERDOSAGE).

Thrombocytopenia

Thrombocytopenia has been reported to occur in patients receiving heparin with a reported incidence of up to 30%. Platelet counts should be obtained at baseline and periodically during heparin administration. Mild thrombocytopenia (count greater than 100,000/mm 3) may remain stable or reverse even if heparin is continued. However, thrombocytopenia of any degree should be monitored closely. If the count falls below 100,000/mm 3 or if recurrent thrombosis develops (see Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia and Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia and Thrombosis), the heparin product should be discontinued, and, if necessary, an alternative anticoagulant administered.

Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT) and Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia and Thrombosis (HITT)

Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a serious antibody-mediated reaction resulting from irreversible aggregation of platelets. HIT may progress to the development of venous and arterial thromboses, a condition referred to as Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia and Thrombosis (HITT). Thrombotic events may also be the initial presentation for HITT. These serious thromboembolic events include deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, cerebral vein thrombosis, limb ischemia, stroke, myocardial infarction, mesenteric thrombosis, renal arterial thrombosis, skin necrosis, gangrene of the extremities that may lead to amputation, and possibly death. Thrombocytopenia of any degree should be monitored closely. If the platelet count falls below 100,000/mm 3 or if recurrent thrombosis develops, the heparin product should be promptly discontinued and alternative anticoagulants considered, if patients require continued anticoagulation.

Delayed Onset of HIT and HITT

Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia and Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia and Thrombosis can occur up to several weeks after the discontinuation of heparin therapy. Patients presenting with thrombocytopenia or thrombosis after discontinuation of heparin should be evaluated for HIT and HITT.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Thrombocytopenia, Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT) and Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia and Thrombosis (HITT)

See WARNINGS.

Heparin Resistance—Increased resistance to heparin is frequently encountered in fever, thrombosis, thrombophlebitis, infections with thrombosing tendencies, myocardial infarction, cancer and in postsurgical patients.

Increased Risk to Older Patients, Especially Women—A higher incidence of bleeding has been reported in patients, particularly women, over 60 years of age.

Laboratory Tests

Periodic platelet counts, hematocrits, and tests for occult blood in stool are recommended during the entire course of heparin therapy, regardless of the route of administration (see DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION).

Drug Interactions

Oral Anticoagulants—Heparin sodium may prolong the one-stage prothrombin time. Therefore, when heparin sodium is given with dicumarol or warfarin sodium, a period of at least five hours after the last intravenous dose or 24 hours after the last subcutaneous dose should elapse before blood is drawn, if a valid prothrombin time is to be obtained.

Platelet Inhibitors—Drugs such as acetylsalicylic acid, dextran, phenylbutazone, ibuprofen, indomethacin, dipyridamole, hydroxychloroquine and others that interfere with platelet- aggregation reactions (the main hemostatic defense of heparinized patients) may induce bleeding and should be used with caution in patients receiving heparin sodium.

Other Interactions—Digitalis, tetracyclines, nicotine or antihistamines may partially counteract the anticoagulant action of heparin sodium. Intravenous nitroglycerin administered to heparinized patients may result in a decrease of the partial thromboplastin time with subsequent rebound effect upon discontinuation of nitroglycerin. Careful monitoring of partial thromboplastin time and adjustment of heparin dosage are recommended during coadministration of heparin and intravenous nitroglycerin.

Drug/Laboratory Tests Interactions

Hyperaminotransferasemia—Significant elevations of aminotransferase (SGOT [S-AST] and SGPT [S-ALT]) levels have occurred in a high percentage of patients (and healthy subjects) who have received heparin. Since aminotransferase determinations are important in the differential diagnosis of myocardial infarction, liver disease and pulmonary emboli, increases that might be caused by drugs (like heparin) should be interpreted with caution.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

No long-term studies in animals have been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential of heparin. Also, no reproduction studies in animals have been performed concerning mutagenesis or impairment of fertility.

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies on heparin use in pregnant women. In published reports, heparin exposure during pregnancy did not show evidence of an increased risk of adverse maternal or fetal outcomes in humans. Heparin sodium does not cross the placenta, based on human and animal studies. Administration of heparin to pregnant animals at doses higher than the maximum human daily dose based on body weight resulted in increased resorptions. Use heparin sodium during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

If available, preservative-free Heparin Sodium Injection is recommended when heparin therapy is needed during pregnancy. There are no known adverse outcomes associated with fetal exposure to the preservative benzyl alcohol through maternal drug administration; however, the preservative benzyl alcohol can cause serious adverse events and death when administered intravenously to neonates and infants (see PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use).

In a published study conducted in rats and rabbits, pregnant animals received heparin intravenously during organogenesis at a dose of 10,000 units/kg/day, approximately 10 times the maximum human daily dose based on body weight. The number of early resorptions increased in both species. There was no evidence of teratogenic effects.

Nursing Mothers

If available, preservative-free HEPARIN SODIUM INJECTION is recommended when heparin therapy is needed during lactation. Due to its large molecular weight, heparin is not likely to be excreted in human milk, and any heparin in milk would not be orally absorbed by a nursing infant. Benzyl alcohol present in maternal serum is likely to cross into human milk and may be orally absorbed by a nursing infant. Exercise caution when administering HEPARIN SODIUM INJECTION to a nursing mother (see PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use).

Pediatric Use

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies on heparin use in pediatric patients. Pediatric dosing recommendations are based on clinical experience (see DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION, Pediatric Use).

Carefully examine all Heparin Sodium Injection vials to confirm choice of the correct strength prior to administration of the drug. Pediatric patients, including neonates, have died as a result of medication errors in which HEPARIN SODIUM INJECTION vials have been confused with “catheter lock flush” vials (see WARNINGS, Fatal Medication Errors).

Benzyl Alcohol Toxicity

Use preservative-free Heparin Sodium Injection in neonates and infants. The preservative benzyl alcohol has been associated with serious adverse events and death in pediatric patients. The “gasping syndrome” (characterized by central nervous system depression, metabolic acidosis, gasping respirations, and high levels of benzyl alcohol and its metabolites found in the blood and urine) has been associated with benzyl alcohol dosages >99 mg/kg/day in neonates and low-birth weight infants. Additional symptoms may include gradual neurological deterioration, seizures, intracranial hemorrhage, hematologic abnormalities, skin breakdown, hepatic and renal failure, hypotension, bradycardia, and cardiovascular collapse.

Although normal therapeutic doses of this product deliver amounts of benzyl alcohol that are substantially lower than those reported in association with the “gasping syndrome”, the minimum amount of benzyl alcohol at which toxicity may occur is not known. Premature and low-birth weight infants may be more likely to develop toxicity. Practitioners administering this and other medications containing benzyl alcohol should consider the combined daily metabolic load of benzyl alcohol from all sources.

Geriatric Use

A higher incidence of bleeding has been reported in patients over 60 years of age, especially women (see PRECAUTIONS, General). Clinical studies indicate that lower doses of heparin may be indicated in these patients (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION).

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