Glycopyrrolate: Package Insert and Label Information
GLYCOPYRROLATE- glycopyrrolate injection, solution
For Intramuscular or Intravenous Administration
NOT FOR USE IN NEONATES
CONTAINS BENZYL ALCOHOL
Glycopyrrolate Injection, USP is a clear, colorless, sterile solution of Glycopyrrolate, USP with Benzyl Alcohol, NF in Water for Injection, USP. The formulation is used for intramuscular or intravenous administration.
Each mL contains:
Glycopyrrolate, USP…………………………..0.2 mg
Benzyl Alcohol, NF (preservative)………….….0.9%Water for Injection, USP……………………………… q.s.
When necessary, pH (2.0 to 3.0) adjusted with hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide.
Glycopyrrolate is a quaternary ammonium salt with the following chemical name:
3[(cyclopentylhydroxyphenylacetyl)oxy]-1, 1-dimethyl pyrrolidinium bromide. Glycopyrrolate is a synthetic anticholinergic agent that has the following molecular structure and molecular weight.
Glycopyrrolate occurs as a white, odorless crystalline powder. It is soluble in water and alcohol, and practically insoluble in chloroform and ether.
Unlike atropine, glycopyrrolate is completely ionized at physiological pH values. The partition coefficient of glycopyrrolate in a n-octanol/water system is 0.304 (log10 P= -1.52) at ambient room temperature (24°C).
Glycopyrrolate, like other anticholinergic (antimuscarinic) agents, inhibits the action of acetylcholine on structures innervated by postganglionic cholinergic nerves and on smooth muscles that respond to acetylcholine but lack cholinergic innervation. These peripheral cholinergic receptors are present in the autonomic effector cells of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, the sinoatrial node, the atrioventricular node, exocrine glands, and, to a limited degree, in the autonomic ganglia. Thus, it diminishes the volume and free acidity of gastric secretions and controls excessive pharyngeal, tracheal, and bronchial secretions.
Glycopyrrolate antagonizes muscarinic symptoms (e.g., bronchorrhea, bronchospasm, bradycardia, and intestinal hypermotility) induced by cholinergic drugs such as the anticholinesterases.
The highly polar quaternary ammonium group of glycopyrrolate limits its passage across lipid membranes, such as the blood-brain barrier, in contrast to atropine sulfate and scopolamine hydrobromide, which are highly nonpolar tertiary amines which penetrate lipid barriers easily.
With intravenous injection, the onset of action is generally evident within one minute. Following intramuscular administration, the onset of action is noted in 15 to 30 minutes, with peak effects occurring within approximately 30 to 45 minutes. The vagal blocking effects persist for 2 to 3 hours and the antisialagogue effects persist up to 7 hours, periods longer than for atropine.
The following pharmacokinetic information and conclusions were obtained from published studies that used nonspecific assay methods.
Distribution: The mean volume of distribution of glycopyrrolate was estimated to be 0.42 ± 0.22 L/kg.
Metabolism: The in vivo metabolism of glycopyrrolate in humans has not been studied.
Excretion: The mean clearance and mean T1/2 values were reported to be 0.54 ± 0.14 L/kg/hr and 0.83 ± 0.13 hr, respectively post intravenous administration. After intravenous administration of a 0.2 mg radiolabeled glycopyrrolate, 85% of dose recovered was recovered in urine 48 hours postdose and some of the radioactivity was also recovered in bile. After intramuscular administration of glycopyrrolate to adults, the mean T1/2 value is reported to be between 0.55 to 1.25 hrs. Over 80% of intramuscular dose administered was recovered in urine and the bile as unchanged drug and half the intramuscular dose is excreted within 3 hrs. The following table summarizes the mean and standard deviation of pharmacokinetic parameters from a study.
|Group||T 1/2 (hr)||VSS (L/kg)||CL (L/kg/hr)||T max (min)||Cmax (mcg/L)||AUC (mcg/L•hr)|
|(6 mcg/kg intravenous)||0.83 ± 0.27||0.42 ± 0.22||0.54 ± 0.14||–||–||8.64 ± 1.49*|
|(8 mcg/kg intramuscular)||–||–||–||27.48 ± 6.12||3.47 ± 1.48||6.64 ± 2.33*|
Gender: Gender differences in pharmacokinetics of glycopyrrolate have not been investigated.
Renal Impairment: In one study glycopyrrolate was administered intravenously in uremic patients undergoing renal transplantation. The mean elimination half-life was significantly longer (46.8 minutes) than in healthy patients (18.6 minutes). The mean area-under-the-concentration-time curve (10.6 hr-mcg/L), mean plasma clearance (0.43 L/hr/kg), and mean 3-hour urine excretion (0.7%) for glycopyrrolate were also significantly different than those of controls (3.73 hr-mcg/L, 1.14 L/hr/kg, and 50%, respectively). These results suggest that elimination of glycopyrrolate is severely impaired in patients with renal failure.
Hepatic Impairment: Pharmocokinetic information in patients with hepatic impairment is unavailable.
Pediatrics: Following intravenous administration (5 mcg/kg glycopyrrolate) to infants and children, the mean T1/2 values were reported to be between 21.6 and 130.0 minutes and between 19.2 and 99.2 minutes, respectively.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
In Anesthesia: Glycopyrrolate injection is indicated for use as a preoperative antimuscarinic to reduce salivary, tracheobronchial, and pharyngeal secretions; to reduce the volume and free acidity of gastric secretions; and to block cardiac vagal inhibitory reflexes during induction of anesthesia and intubation. When indicated, glycopyrrolate injection may be used intraoperatively to counteract surgically or drug-induced or vagal reflexes associated arrhythmias. Glycopyrrolate protects against the peripheral muscarinic effects (e.g., bradycardia and excessive secretions) of cholinergic agents such as neostigmine and pyridostigmine given to reverse the neuromuscular blockade due to non-depolarizing muscle relaxants.
In Peptic Ulcer : For use in adults as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of peptic ulcer when rapid anticholinergic effect is desired or when oral medication is not tolerated.
Known hypersensitivity to glycopyrrolate or any of its inactive ingredients.
In addition, in the management of peptic ulcer patients, because of the longer duration of therapy, glycopyrrolate injection may be contraindicated in patients with the following concurrent conditions: glaucoma; obstructive uropathy (for example, bladder neck obstruction due to prostatic hypertrophy); obstructive disease of the gastrointestinal tract (as in achalasia, pyloroduodenal stenosis, etc.); paralytic ileus, intestinal atony of the elderly or debilitated patient; unstable cardiovascular status in acute hemorrhage; severe ulcerative colitis; toxic megacolon complicating ulcerative colitis; myasthenia gravis.
This drug should be used with great caution, if at all, in patients with glaucoma.
Exposure to excessive amounts of benzyl alcohol has been associated with toxicity (hypotension, metabolic acidosis), particularly in neonates, and an increased incidence of kernicterus, particularly in small preterm infants. There have been rare reports of deaths, primarily in preterm infants, associated with exposure to excessive amounts of benzyl alcohol. The amount of benzyl alcohol from medications is usually considered negligible compared to that received in flush solutions containing benzyl alcohol. Administration of high dosages of medications containing this preservative must take into account the total amount of benzyl alcohol administered. The amount of benzyl alcohol at which toxicity may occur is not known. If the patient requires more than the recommended dosages or other medications containing this preservative, the practitioner must consider the daily metabolic load of benzyl alcohol from these combined sources (see PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use).
Glycopyrrolate injection may produce drowsiness or blurred vision. The patient should be cautioned regarding activities requiring mental alertness such as operating a motor vehicle or other machinery or performing hazardous work while taking this drug.
In addition, in the presence of fever, high environmental temperature and/or during physical exercise, heat prostration can occur with use of anticholinergic agents including glycopyrrolate (due to decreased sweating), particularly in children and the elderly.
Diarrhea may be an early symptom of incomplete intestinal obstruction, especially in patients with ileostomy or colostomy. In this instance treatment with glycopyrrolate injection would be inappropriate and possibly harmful.
Investigate any tachycardia before giving glycopyrrolate injection since an increase in the heart rate may occur.
Use with caution in patients with: coronary artery disease; congestive heart failure; cardiac arrhythmias; hypertension; hyperthyroidism.
Use with caution in patients with renal disease since the renal elimination of glycopyrrolate may be severely impaired in patients with renal failure. Dosage adjustments may be necessary (see Pharmacokinetics — Renal Impairment).
Use glycopyrrolate with caution in the elderly and in all patients with autonomic neuropathy, hepatic disease, ulcerative colitis, prostatic hypertrophy, or hiatal hernia, since anticholinergic drugs may aggravate these conditions.
The use of anticholinergetic drugs in the treatment of gastric ulcer may produce a delay in gastric emptying due to antral statis.
Information for the Patient
Because glycopyrrolate injection may produce drowsiness or blurred vision, the patient should be cautioned not to engage in activities requiring mental alertness and/or visual acuity such as operating a motor vehicle or other machinery, or performing hazardous work while taking this drug (see WARNINGS).
The patient also should be cautioned about the use of this drug during exercise or hot weather since overheating may result in heat stroke.
The patient may experience a possible sensitivity of the eyes to light.
The concurrent use of glycopyrrolate injection with other anticholinergics or medications with anticholinergic activity, such as phenothiazines, antiparkinson drugs, or tricyclic antidepressants, may intensify the antimuscarinic effects and may result in an increase in anticholinergic side effects.
Concomitant administration of glycopyrrolate injection and potassium chloride in a wax matrix may increase the severity of potassium chloride-induced gastrointestinal lesions as a result of a slower gastrointestinal transit time.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Long-term studies in animals have not been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential. Studies to evaluate the mutagenic potential of glycopyrrolate have not been conducted. In reproduction studies in rats, dietary administration of glycopyrrolate resulted in diminished rates of conception in a dose-related manner. Other studies in dogs suggest that this may be due to diminished seminal secretion which is evident at high doses of glycopyrrolate.
Pregnancy Category B: Reproduction studies with glycopyrrolate were performed in rats at a dietary dose of approximately 65 mg/kg/day (exposure was approximately 320 times the maximum recommended daily human dose of 2 mg on a mg/m2 basis) and rabbits at intramuscular doses of up to 0.5 mg/kg/day (exposure was approximately 5 times the maximum recommended daily human dose on a mg/m2 basis). These studies produced no teratogenic effects to the fetus. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Single-dose studies in humans found that very small amounts of glycopyrrolate passed the placental barrier.
Published literature suggest the following regarding the use of glycopyrrolate during pregnancy. Unlike atropine, glycopyrrolate in normal doses (0.004 mg/kg) does not appear to affect fetal heart rate or fetal heart rate variability to a significant degree. Concentrations of glycopyrrolate in umbilical venous and aterial blood and in the amniotic fluid are low after intramuscular administration to parturients. Therefore, glycopyrrolate does not appear to penetrate through the placental barrier in significant amounts. In reproduction studies in rats, dietary administration of glycopyrrolate resulted in diminished rats of pup survival in a dose-related manner.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when glycopyrrolate injection is administered to a nursing woman. As with other anticholinergics, glycopyrrolate may cause suppression of lactation (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Due to its benzyl alcohol content, glycopyrrolate injection should not be used in neonates, i.e., patients less than 1 month of age.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established for the management of peptic ulcer.
Dysrhythmias associated with the use of glycopyrrolate intravenously as a premedicant or during anesthesia have been observed in pediatric patients.
Infants, patients with Down’s syndrome, and pediatric patients with spastic paralysis or brain damage may experience an increased response to anticholinergics, thus increasing the potential for side effects.
A paradoxical reaction characterized by hyperexcitability may occur in pediatric patients taking large doses of anticholinergics including glycopyrrolate injection. Infants and young children are especially susceptible to the toxic effects of anticholinergics.
Benzyl alcohol, a component of this drug product, has been associated with serious adverse events and death, particularly in pediatric patients. The “gasping syndrome,” (characterized by central nervous system depression, metabolic acidosis, gasping respirations, and high levels of benzyl alcohol and its metabolites found in the blood and urine) has been associated with benzyl alcohol dosages >99 mg/kg/day in neonates and low-birth-weight neonates. Additional symptoms may include gradual neurological deterioration, seizures, intracranial hemorrhage, hemotologic abnormalities, skin breakdown, hepatic and renal failure, hypotension, bradycardia, and cardiovascular collapse. Although normal therapeutic doses of this product deliver amounts of benzyl alcohol that are substantially lower than those reported in association with the “gasping syndrome,” the minimum amount of benzyl alcohol at which toxicity may occur is not known. Premature and low-birthweight infants, as well as patients receiving high dosages, may be more likely to develop toxicity. Practitioners administering this and other medications containing benzyl alcohol should consider the combined daily metabolic load of benzyl alcohol from all sources.
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