Glyburide and Metformin Hydrochloride: Package Insert and Label Information

GLYBURIDE AND METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE — glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablet, film coated
Rising Health, LLC

WARNING: LACTIC ACIDOSIS

Postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis have resulted in death, hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias. The onset of metforminassociated lactic acidosis is often subtle, accompanied only by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, somnolence, and abdominal pain. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis was characterized by elevated blood lactate levels (>5 mmol/Liter), anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia), an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio; and metformin plasma levels generally >5 mcg/mL [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis include renal impairment, concomitant use of certain drugs (e.g., carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as topiramate), age 65 years old or greater, having a radiological study with contrast, surgery and other procedures, hypoxic states (e.g., acute congestive heart failure), excessive alcohol intake, and hepatic impairment.

Steps to reduce the risk of and manage metformin-associated lactic acidosis in these high risk groups are provided [see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

If metformin-associated lactic acidosis is suspected, immediately discontinue glyburide and metformin hydrochloride and institute general supportive measures in a hospital setting. Prompt hemodialysis is recommended [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets are indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Dosage

  • Give glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets in divided doses, twice daily, with meals.
  • For patients not treated with either glyburide (or another sulfonylurea) or metformin hydrochloride (HCl), initiate treatment with another formulation of glyburide and metformin HCl at a starting dose of 1.25 mg glyburide and 250mg metformin HCl orally, once or twice daily with meals.
  • For patients not adequately controlled on either glyburide (or another sulfonylurea) or metformin HCl alone, the recommended starting dose of glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets is 2.5 mg/500 mg or 5 mg/500 mg orally twice daily with meals.
  • For patients previously treated with a combination therapy of glyburide (or another sulfonylurea) and metformin HCl, the starting dose of glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets should not exceed the daily dose of glyburide (or equivalent dose of another sulfonylurea) and metformin HCl already being taken.
  • Increase the dose gradually on the basis of glycemic control and tolerability, up to a maximum to a maximum dose of 20 mg glyburide/2000 mg metformin HCl daily.

2.2 Patients Receiving Colesevelam

  • Administer glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets at least 4 hours prior to colesevelam for patients taking both drugs concomitantly [see Drug Interactions (7)].

2.3 Recommendations for Use in Renal Impairment

  • Assess renal function prior to initiation of glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets and periodically thereafter.
  • Glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets are contraindicated in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) below 30 mL/minute/1.73 m2.
  • Initiation of glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets in patients with an eGFR between 30 to 45 mL/minute/1.73 m2 is not recommended.
  • In patients taking glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets whose eGFR later falls below 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 , assess the benefit risk of continuing therapy.
  • Discontinue glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets if the patient’s eGFR later falls below 30 mL/minute/1.73 m2 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

2.4 Discontinuation for Iodinated Contrast Imaging Procedures

  • Discontinue glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets at the time of, or prior to, an iodinated contrast imaging procedure in patients with an eGFR between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 ; in patients with a history of liver disease, alcoholism or heart failure; or in patients who will be administered intra-arterial iodinated contrast.
  • Re-evaluate eGFR 48 hours after the imaging procedure; restart glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets if renal function is stable.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets, USP are available as:

  • 1.25 mg/250 mg Tablets: Yellow, capsule shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablet with ‘A’ debossed on one side and ‘46’ on the other side.
  • 2.5 mg/500 mg Tablets: Light pink, capsule shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablet with ‘A’ debossed on one side and ‘47’ on the other side.
  • 5 mg/500 mg Tablets: Yellow, capsule shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablet with ‘A’ debossed on one side and ‘48’ on the other side

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets are contraindicated in patients with:

  • Severe renal impairment (eGFR below 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
  • Hypersensitivity to metformin or glyburide.
  • Acute or chronic metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, with or without coma.
  • Concomitant administration of bosentan [see Drug Interactions (7)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Lactic Acidosis

There have been postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis, including fatal cases. These cases had a subtle onset and were accompanied by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, abdominal pain, respiratory distress, or increased somnolence; however, hypotension and resistant bradyarrhythmias have occurred with severe acidosis. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis was characterized by elevated blood lactate concentrations (>5 mmol/L), anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia), and an increased lactate: pyruvate ratio; metformin plasma levels were generally >5 mcg/mL. Metformin decreases liver uptake of lactate increasing lactate blood levels which may increase the risk of lactic acidosis, especially in patients at risk.

If metformin-associated lactic acidosis is suspected, general supportive measures should be instituted promptly in a hospital setting, along with immediate discontinuation of glyburide and metformin hydrochloride. In glyburide and metformin hydrochloride treated patients with a diagnosis or strong suspicion of lactic acidosis, prompt hemodialysis is recommended to correct the acidosis and remove accumulated metformin (metformin HCl is dialyzable with a clearance of up to 170 mL/min under good hemodynamic conditions). Hemodialysis has often resulted in reversal of symptoms and recovery.

Educate patients and their families about the symptoms of lactic acidosis and, if these symptoms occur, instruct them to discontinue glyburide and metformin hydrochloride and report these symptoms to their healthcare provider.

For each of the known and possible risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis, recommendations to reduce the risk of and manage metformin-associated lactic acidosis are provided below:

  • Renal Impairment —The postmarketing metformin-associated lactic acidosis cases primarily occurred in patients with significant renal impairment.

The risk of metformin accumulation and metformin-associated lactic acidosis increases with the severity of renal impairment because metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney. Clinical recommendations based upon the patient’s renal function include [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]:

    • Before initiating glyburide and metformin hydrochloride, obtain an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).
    • Glyburide and metformin hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients with an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 [see CONTRAINDICATIONS (4)].
    • Initiation of glyburide and metformin hydrochloride is not recommended in patients with eGFR between 30 to 45 mL/min/1.73 m2.
    • Obtain an eGFR at least annually in all patient taking glyburide and metformin hydrochloride. In patients at risk for the development of renal impairment (e.g., the elderly), renal function should be assessed more frequently.
    • In patients taking glyburide and metformin hydrochloride whose eGFR falls below 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 , assess the benefit and risk of continuing therapy.
    • Drug interactions —The concomitant use of glyburide and metformin hydrochloride with specific drugs may increase the risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis: those that impair renal function, result in significant hemodynamic change, interfere with acid-base balance, or increase metformin accumulation [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Consider more frequent monitoring of patients.
    • Age 65 or Greater —The risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis increases with the patient’s age because elderly patients have a greater likelihood of having hepatic, renal, or cardiac impairment than younger patients. Assess renal function more frequently in elderly patients.
    • Radiologic studies with contrast —Administration of intravascular iodinated contrast agents in metformin-treated patients has led to an acute decrease in renal function and the occurrence of lactic acidosis. Stop glyburide and metformin hydrochloride at the time of, or prior to, an iodinated contrast imaging procedure in patients with an eGFR between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 ; in patients with a history of hepatic impairment, alcoholism or heart failure, or in patients who will be administered intra-arterial iodinated contrast. Reevaluate eGFR 48 hours after the imaging procedure, and restart glyburide and metformin hydrochloride if renal function is stable.
    • Surgery and other procedures —Withholding of food and fluids during surgical or other procedures may increase the risk for volume depletion, hypotension, and renal impairment. Glyburide and metformin hydrochloride should be temporarily discontinued while patients have restricted food and fluid intake.
    • Hypoxic states —Several of the postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis occurred in the setting of acute congestive heart failure (particularly when accompanied by hypoperfusion and hypoxemia). Cardiovascular collapse (shock), acute myocardial infarction, sepsis, and other conditions associated with hypoxemia have been associated with lactic acidosis and may cause prerenal azotemia. When such an event occurs, discontinue glyburide and metformin hydrochloride.
    • Excessive Alcohol intake —Alcohol potentiates the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism. Patients should be warned against excessive alcohol intake, acute or chronic, while receiving glyburide and metformin hydrochloride.
    • Hepatic impairment— Patients with hepatic impairment have developed cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis. This may be due to impaired lactate clearance resulting in higher lactate blood levels. Therefore, avoid use of glyburide and metformin hydrochloride in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease.

5.2 Hypoglycemia

All sulfonylurea drugs, including glyburide and metformin hydrochloride, are capable of producing severe hypoglycemia [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. Concomitant use of glyburide and metformin hydrochloride with other anti-diabetic medication can increase the risk of hypoglycemia. A lower dose of glyburide and metformin hydrochloride may be required to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia when combining it with other anti-diabetic medications.

Educate patients to recognize and manage hypoglycemia. When initiating and increasing glyburide and metformin hydrochloride in patients who may be predisposed to hypoglycemia (e.g., the elderly, patients with renal impairment, patients on other anti-diabetic medications) start with a lower dose. Debilitated or malnourished patients, and those with adrenal, pituitary, or hepatic impairment are particularly susceptible to the hypoglycemic action of anti-diabetic medications. Hypoglycemia is also more likely to occur when caloric intake is deficient, after severe or prolonged exercise, or when alcohol is ingested.

The patient’s ability to concentrate and react may be impaired as a result of hypoglycemia. Early warning symptoms of hypoglycemia may be different or less pronounced in patients with autonomic neuropathy, the elderly, and in patients who are taking beta-adrenergic blocking medications or other sympatholytic agents. These situations may result in severe hypoglycemia before the patient is aware of the hypoglycemia.

These impairments may present a risk in situations where these abilities are especially important, such as driving or operating other machinery. Severe hypoglycemia can lead to unconsciousness or convulsions and may result in temporary or permanent impairment of brain function or death.

5.3 Cardiovascular Mortality

The administration of oral hypoglycemic drugs has been reported to be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality as compared to treatment with diet alone or diet plus insulin. This warning is based on the study conducted by the University Group Diabetes Program (UGDP), a long-term prospective clinical study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of glucose-lowering drugs in preventing or delaying vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study involved 823 patients who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups.

UGDP reported that patients treated for 5 to 8 years with diet plus a fixed dose of tolbutamide (1.5 grams per day) had a rate of cardiovascular mortality approximately 2½ times that of patients treated with diet alone. A significant increase in total mortality was not observed, but the use of tolbutamide was discontinued based on the increase in cardiovascular mortality, thus limiting the opportunity for the study to show an increase in overall mortality. Despite controversy regarding the interpretation of these results, the findings of the UGDP study provide an adequate basis for this warning. The patient should be informed of the potential risks and benefits of glyburide and of alternative modes of therapy.

Although only one drug in the sulfonylurea class (tolbutamide) was included in this study, it is prudent from a safety standpoint to consider that this warning may also apply to other hypoglycemic drugs in this class, in view of their close similarities in mode of action and chemical structure.

5.4 Hemolytic Anemia

Treatment of patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency with sulfonylurea agents, including glyburide and metformin hydrochloride, can lead to hemolytic anemia. Avoid use of glyburide and metformin hydrochloride in patients with G6PD deficiency. In postmarketing reports, hemolytic anemia has also been reported in patients who did not have known G6PD deficiency.

5.5 Vitamin B12 Deficiency

In clinical studies of 29-week duration with metformin HCl tablets, a decrease to subnormal levels of previously normal serum vitamin B12 levels, was observed in approximately 7% of patients. Such decrease, possibly due to interference with B12 absorption from the B12 -intrinsic factor complex, may be associated with anemia but appears to be rapidly reversible with discontinuation of metformin or vitamin B12 supplementation. Certain individuals (those with inadequate vitamin B12 or calcium intake or absorption) appear to be predisposed to developing subnormal vitamin B12 levels. Measure hematologic parameters on an annual basis and vitamin B12 at 2 to 3 year intervals in patients on glyburide and metformin hydrochloride and manage any abnormalities [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

5.6 Macrovascular Outcomes

There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with glyburide and metformin hydrochloride.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following adverse reactions are also discussed elsewhere in the labeling:

6.1 Clinical Studies Experience

Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

In double-blind clinical studies with glyburide and metformin hydrochloride as initial therapy or as second-line therapy of 20 and 14 weeks, respectively (see section 14), a total of 642 patients received glyburide and metformin hydrochloride, 312 received metformin HCl, 324 received glyburide, and 161 received placebo. Adverse reactions are listed in Table 1.

Table 1: Adverse Reactions Occurring >5% in Double-Blind Clinical Studies of Glyburide And Metformin Hydrochloride Used as Initial (20 Weeks) or Second-Line (14 Weeks) Therapy
Adverse Reaction Number (%) of Patients
Placebo N=161 Glyburide N=324 Metformin HCl N=312 Glyburide and Metformin Hydrochloride N=642
Diarrhea 6% 6% 21% 17%
Headache 11% 11% 9% 9%
Nausea/vomiting 6% 5% 12% 8%
Abdominal pain 4% 3% 8% 7%
Dizziness 4% 6% 4% 6%

Hypoglycemia

The incidence of reported symptoms of hypoglycemia (such as dizziness, shakiness, sweating, and hunger), in the initial therapy study of glyburide and metformin hydrochloride are summarized in Table 2. For patients with a baseline HbA1c between 8% and 11% treated with glyburide and metformin hydrochloride 2.5 mg/500 mg as initial therapy, the frequency of hypoglycemic symptoms was 30% to 35%. As second-line therapy in patients inadequately controlled on sulfonylurea alone, approximately 6.8% of all patients treated with glyburide and metformin hydrochloride experienced hypoglycemic symptoms.

Gastrointestinal Reactions

The incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) side effects (diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, and abdominal pain) in the glyburide and metformin hydrochloride initial therapy study are summarized in Table 2. Across all glyburide and metformin hydrochloride studies, GI symptoms were the most common adverse events with glyburide and metformin hydrochloride and were more frequent at higher dose levels. In controlled studies, <2% of patients discontinued glyburide and metformin hydrochloride therapy due to GI adverse events.

Table 2: Hypoglycemia or Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions in a Placebo- and Active-Controlled Study of Glyburide and Metformin Hydrochloride as Initial Therapy (20 Weeks)
Variable Placebo N=161 Glyburide Tablets N=160 Metformin HCl Tablets N=159 Glyburide and Metformin Hydrochloride 1.25 mg/250 mg Tablets N=158 Glyburide and Metformin Hydrochloride 2.5 mg/500 mg Tablets N=162
Number (%) of patients with symptoms of hypoglycemia 3% 21% 3% 11% 38%
Number (%) of patients with gastrointestinal adverse events 24% 24% 43% 32% 38%

Dermatologic Reactions

Allergic skin reactions, e.g., pruritus, erythema, urticaria, and morbilliform or maculopapular eruptions, occur in 1.5% of glyburide-treated patients. These may be transient and may disappear despite continued use.

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