Fluoxetine: Package Insert and Label Information

FLUOXETINE- fluoxetine hydrochloride liquid
Lannett Company, Inc.

WARNING: SUICIDAL THOUGHTS AND BEHAVIORS

  • Antidepressants increased the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults in short-term studies. These studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior with antidepressant use in patients over age 24; there was a reduction in risk with antidepressant use in patients aged 65 and older [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

  • In patients of all ages who are started on antidepressant therapy, monitor closely for worsening and for emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Advise families and caregivers of the need for close observation and communication with the prescriber [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

  • Fluoxetine is not approved for use in children less than 7 years of age [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Fluoxetine oral solution, USP is indicated for the treatment of:

  • Acute and maintenance treatment of Major Depressive Disorder [see Clinical Studies (14.1) ].

  • Acute and maintenance treatment of obsessions and compulsions in patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) [see Clinical Studies (14.2) ].

  • Acute and maintenance treatment of binge-eating and vomiting behaviors in patients with moderate to severe Bulimia Nervosa [see Clinical Studies (14.3) ].

  • Acute treatment of Panic Disorder, with or without agoraphobia [see Clinical Studies (14.4) ].

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Major Depressive Disorder

Initial Treatment

Adult — Initiate fluoxetine oral solution, USP 20 mg/day orally in the morning. Consider a dose increase after several weeks if insufficient clinical improvement is observed. Administer doses above 20 mg/day once daily in the morning or twice daily (i.e., morning and noon). The maximum fluoxetine dose should not exceed 80 mg/day.

In controlled trials used to support the efficacy of fluoxetine, patients were administered morning doses ranging from 20 to 80 mg/day. Studies comparing fluoxetine 20, 40, and 60 mg/day to placebo indicate that 20 mg/day is sufficient to obtain a satisfactory response in Major Depressive Disorder in most cases [see Clinical Studies (14.1) ].

Pediatric (children and adolescents) — Initiate fluoxetine oral solution, USP 10 or 20 mg/day. After 1 week at 10 mg/day, increase the dose to 20 mg/day. However, due to higher plasma levels in lower weight children, the starting and target dose in this group may be 10 mg/day. Consider a dose increase to 20 mg/day after several weeks if insufficient clinical improvement is observed. In the short-term (8 to 9 week) controlled clinical trials of fluoxetine supporting its effectiveness in the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder, patients were administered fluoxetine doses of 10 to 20 mg/day [see Clinical Studies (14.1) ].

All patients — As with other drugs effective in the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder, the full effect may be delayed until 4 weeks of treatment or longer.

Periodically reassess to determine the need for maintenance treatment.

S w itching Patients to a Tricyclic Antidepressant (TCA) — Dosage of a TCA may need to be reduced, and plasma TCA concentrations may need to be monitored temporarily when fluoxetine is coadministered or has been recently discontinued [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Drug Interactions (7.7)].

2.2 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Initial Treatment

Adult — Initiate fluoxetine oral solution, USP 20 mg/day, orally in the morning. Consider a dose increase after several weeks if insufficient clinical improvement is observed. The full therapeutic effect may be delayed until 5 weeks of treatment or longer. Administer doses above 20 mg/day once daily in the morning or twice daily (i.e., morning and noon). A dose range of 20 to 60 mg/day is recommended; however, doses of up to 80 mg/day have been well tolerated in open studies of OCD. The maximum fluoxetine dose should not exceed 80 mg/day.

In the controlled clinical trials of fluoxetine supporting its effectiveness in the treatment of OCD, patients were administered fixed daily doses of 20, 40, or 60 mg of fluoxetine or placebo [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. In one of these studies, no dose-response relationship for effectiveness was demonstrated.

Pediatric (children and adolescents) — In adolescents and higher weight children, initiate treatment with a dose of 10 mg/day. After 2 weeks, increase the dose to 20 mg/day. Consider additional dose increases after several more weeks if insufficient clinical improvement is observed. A dose range of 20 to 60 mg/day is recommended.

In lower weight children, initiate treatment with a dose of 10 mg/day. Consider additional dose increases after several more weeks if insufficient clinical improvement is observed. A dose range of 20 to 30 mg/day is recommended. Experience with daily doses greater than 20 mg is very minimal, and there is no experience with doses greater than 60 mg.

In the controlled clinical trial of fluoxetine supporting its effectiveness in the treatment of OCD, patients were administered fluoxetine doses in the range of 10 to 60 mg/day [see Clinical Studies (14.2) ].

Periodically reassess to determine the need for treatment.

2.3 Bulimia Nervosa

Initial Treatment — Administer fluoxetine oral solution, USP 60 mg/day in the morning. For some patients it may be advisable to titrate up to this target dose over several days. Fluoxetine doses above 60 mg/day have not been systematically studied in patients with bulimia. In the controlled clinical trials of fluoxetine supporting its effectiveness in the treatment of Bulimia Nervosa, patients were administered fixed daily fluoxetine doses of 20 or 60 mg, or placebo [see Clinical Studies (14.3)]. Only the 60 mg dose was statistically significantly superior to placebo in reducing the frequency of binge-eating and vomiting.

Periodically reassess to determine the need for maintenance treatment.

2.4 Panic Disorder

Initial Treatment — Initiate treatment with fluoxetine oral solution, USP 10 mg/day. After one week, increase the dose to 20 mg/day. Consider a dose increase after several weeks if no clinical improvement is observed. Fluoxetine doses above 60 mg/day have not been systematically evaluated in patients with Panic Disorder. In the controlled clinical trials of fluoxetine supporting its effectiveness in the treatment of Panic Disorder, patients were administered fluoxetine doses in the range of 10 to 60 mg/day [ see Clinical Studies (14.4)]. The most frequently administered dose in the 2 flexible-dose clinical trials was 20 mg/day.

Periodically reassess to determine the need for continued treatment.

2.7 Dosing in Specific Populations

Treatment of Pregnant Women — When treating pregnant women with fluoxetine, the physician should carefully consider the potential risks and potential benefits of treatment. Neonates exposed to SSRIs or SNRIs late in the third trimester have developed complications requiring prolonged hospitalization, respiratory support, and tube feeding [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].

Geriatric — Consider a lower or less frequent dosage for the elderly [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5) ].

Hepatic Impairment — As with many other medications, use a lower or less frequent dosage in patients with hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].

C oncomitant Illness — Patients with concurrent disease or on multiple concomitant medications may require dosage adjustments [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.12)].

2.8 Discontinuation of Treatment

Symptoms associated with discontinuation of fluoxetine, SNRIs, and SSRIs, have been reported [see Warnings and Precautions (5.15)].

2.9 Switching a Patient To or From a Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI) Intended to Treat Psychiatric Disorders

At least 14 days should elapse between discontinuation of an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders and initiation of therapy with fluoxetine. Conversely, at least 5 weeks should be allowed after stopping fluoxetine before starting an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders [see Contraindications (4.1)].

2.10 Use of Fluoxetine with Other MAOIs such as Linezolid or Methylene Blue

Do not start fluoxetine in a patient who is being treated with linezolid or intravenous methylene blue because there is an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. In a patient who requires more urgent treatment of a psychiatric condition, other interventions, including hospitalization, should be considered [see Contraindications (4.1)].

In some cases, a patient already receiving fluoxetine therapy may require urgent treatment with linezolid or intravenous methylene blue. If acceptable alternatives to linezolid or intravenous methylene blue treatment are not available and the potential benefits of linezolid or intravenous methylene blue treatment are judged to outweigh the risks of serotonin syndrome in a particular patient, fluoxetine should be stopped promptly, and linezolid or intravenous methylene blue can be administered. The patient should be monitored for symptoms of serotonin syndrome for five weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of linezolid or intravenous methylene blue, whichever comes first. Therapy with fluoxetine may be resumed 24 hours after the last dose of linezolid or intravenous methylene blue [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

The risk of administering methylene blue by non-intravenous routes (such as oral tablets or by local injection) or in intravenous doses much lower than 1 mg/kg with fluoxetine is unclear. The clinician should, nevertheless, be aware of the possibility of emergent symptoms of serotonin syndrome with such use [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Fluoxetine oral solution, USP (contains fluoxetine hydrochloride, equivalent to 20 mg/5mL of fluoxetine), is a clear, colorless liquid with mint flavor.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

4.1 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)

The use of MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders with fluoxetine or within 5 weeks of stopping treatment with fluoxetine is contraindicated because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. The use of fluoxetine within 14 days of stopping an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders is also contraindicated [see Dosage and Administration (2.9) and Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

Starting fluoxetine in a patient who is being treated with MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue is also contraindicated because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome [see Dosage and Administration (2.10) and Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

4.2 Other Contraindications

The use of fluoxetine is contraindicated with the following:

• Pimozide [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11) and Drug Interactions (7.7, 7.8)]

• Thioridazine [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11) and Drug Interactions (7.7, 7.8)]

Pimozide and thioridazine prolong the QT interval. Fluoxetine can increase the levels of pimozide and thioridazine through inhibition of CYP2D6. Fluoxetine can also prolong the QT interval.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults

Patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), both adult and pediatric, may experience worsening of their depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior, whether or not they are taking antidepressant medications, and this risk may persist until significant remission occurs. Suicide is a known risk of depression and certain other psychiatric disorders, and these disorders themselves are the strongest predictors of suicide. There has been a long-standing concern, however, that antidepressants may have a role in inducing worsening of depression and the emergence of suicidality in certain patients during the early phases of treatment. Pooled analyses of short-term placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant drugs (SSRIs and others) showed that these drugs increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 18 to 24) with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older.

The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in children and adolescents with MDD, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 24 short-term trials of 9 antidepressant drugs in over 4400 patients. The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in adults with MDD or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 295 short-term trials (median duration of 2 months) of 11 antidepressant drugs in over 77,000 patients. There was considerable variation in risk of suicidality among drugs, but a tendency toward an increase in the younger patients for almost all drugs studied. There were differences in absolute risk of suicidality across the different indications, with the highest incidence in MDD. The risk differences (drug versus placebo), however, were relatively stable within age strata and across indications. These risk differences (drug-placebo difference in the number of cases of suicidality per 1000 patients treated) are provided in Table 2.

Table 2: Suicidality per 1000 Patients Treated

Age Range Drug-Placebo Difference in Number of Cases of Suicidality per 1000 Patients Treated
Increases Compared to Placebo
< 18 14 additional cases
18 to 24 5 additional cases
Decreases Compared to Placebo
25 to 64 1 fewer case
≥ 65 6 fewer cases

No suicides occurred in any of the pediatric trials. There were suicides in the adult trials, but the number was not sufficient to reach any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.

It is unknown whether the suicidality risk extends to longer-term use, i.e., beyond several months. However, there is substantial evidence from placebo-controlled maintenance trials in adults with depression that the use of antidepressants can delay the recurrence of depression.

All patients being treated with antidepressants for any indication should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, and unusual changes in behavior, especially during the initial few months of a course of drug therapy, or at times of dose changes, either increases or decreases.

The following symptoms, anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, and mania, have been reported in adult and pediatric patients being treated with antidepressants for Major Depressive Disorder as well as for other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric. Although a causal link between the emergence of such symptoms and either the worsening of depression and/or the emergence of suicidal impulses has not been established, there is concern that such symptoms may represent precursors to emerging suicidality.

Consideration should be given to changing the therapeutic regimen, including possibly discontinuing the medication, in patients whose depression is persistently worse, or who are experiencing emergent suicidality or symptoms that might be precursors to worsening depression or suicidality, especially if these symptoms are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient’s presenting symptoms.

If the decision has been made to discontinue treatment, medication should be tapered, as rapidly as is feasible, but with recognition that abrupt discontinuation can be associated with certain symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.15)].

Families and caregivers of patients being treated with antidepressants for Major Depressive Disorder or other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric, should be alerted about the need to monitor patients for the emergence of agitation, irritability, unusual changes in behavior, and the other symptoms described above, as well as the emergence of suicidality, and to report such symptoms immediately to health care providers. Such monitoring should include daily observation by families and caregivers. Prescriptions for fluoxetine should be written for the smallest quantity of oral solution consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose.

It should be noted that fluoxetine is approved in the pediatric population for Major Depressive Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

DrugInserts.com provides trustworthy package insert and label information about marketed drugs as submitted by manufacturers to the US Food and Drug Administration. Package information is not reviewed or updated separately by DrugInserts.com. Every individual package label entry contains a unique identifier which can be used to secure further details directly from the US National Institutes of Health and/or the FDA.

As the leading independent provider of trustworthy medication information, we source our database directly from the FDA's central repository of drug labels and package inserts under the Structured Product Labeling standard. Our material is not intended as a substitute for direct consultation with a qualified health professional.

Terms of Use | Copyright © 2021. All Rights Reserved.