ESZOPICLONE: Package Insert and Label Information
ESZOPICLONE- eszopiclone tablet, film coated
WARNING: COMPLEX SLEEP BEHAVIORS
Complex sleep behaviors including sleep-walking, sleep-driving, and engaging in other activities while not fully awake may occur following use of eszopiclone. Some of these events may result in serious injuries, including death. Discontinue eszopiclone immediately if a patient experiences a complex sleep behavior [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Eszopiclone tablets are indicated for the treatment of insomnia. In controlled outpatient and sleep laboratory studies, eszopiclone tablets administered at bedtime decreased sleep latency and improved sleep maintenance.
The clinical trials performed in support of efficacy were up to 6 months in duration. The final formal assessments of sleep latency and maintenance were performed at 4 weeks in the 6 week study (adults only), at the end of both 2 week studies (elderly only) and at the end of the 6 month study (adults only).
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Use the lowest effective dose for the patient.
2.1 Dosage in Adults
The recommended starting dose is 1 mg. Dosing can be raised to 2 mg or 3 mg if clinically indicated. In some patients, the higher morning blood levels of eszopiclone tablets following use of the 2 mg or 3 mg dose increase the risk of next day impairment of driving and other activities that require full alertness [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. The total dose of eszopiclone tablets should not exceed 3 mg, once daily immediately before bedtime [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ].
2.2 Geriatric or Debilitated Patients
The total dose of eszopiclone tablets should not exceed 2 mg in elderly or debilitated patients.
2.3 Patients with Severe Hepatic Impairment, or Taking Potent CYP3A4 Inhibitors
In patients with severe hepatic impairment, or in patients coadministered eszopiclone tablets with potent CYP3A4 inhibitors, the total dose of eszopiclone tablets should not exceed 2 mg [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) ].
2.4 Use with CNS Depressants
Dosage adjustments may be necessary when eszopiclone tablets are combined with other central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs because of the potentially additive effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].
2.5 Administration with Food
Taking eszopiclone tablets with or immediately after a heavy, high-fat meal results in slower absorption and would be expected to reduce the effect of eszopiclone on sleep latency [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Eszopiclone tablets are available in 1 mg, 2 mg and 3 mg strengths for oral administration.
Eszopiclone tablets 3 mg, are dark blue colored, biconvex, round shaped film coated, debossed with “E” on one side and “3” on other side.
Eszopiclone tablets 2 mg, are white to off-white colored, biconvex, round shaped film coated, debossed with “E” on one side and “2” on other side.
Eszopiclone tablets 1 mg, are light blue colored, biconvex, round shaped film coated, debossed with “E” on one side and “1” on other side.
- Eszopiclone is contraindicated in patients who have experienced complex sleep behaviors after taking eszopiclone [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].
- Eszopiclone is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to eszopiclone. Hypersensitivity reactions include anaphylaxis and angioedema [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ].
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Complex Sleep Behaviors
Complex sleep behaviors including sleep-walking, sleep-driving, and engaging in other activities while not fully awake may occur following the first or any subsequent use of eszopiclone. Patients can be seriously injured or injure others during complex sleep behaviors. Such injuries may result in fatal outcomes. Other complex sleep behaviors (e.g., preparing and eating food, making phone calls, or having sex) have also been reported. Patients usually do not remember these events. Post-marketing reports have shown that complex sleep behaviors may occur with eszopiclone alone at recommended dosages, with or without the concomitant use of alcohol or other CNS depressants [see Drug Interactions (7.1) ]. Discontinue eszopiclone immediately if a patient experiences a complex sleep behavior.
5.2 CNS Depressant Effects and Next-Day Impairment
Eszopiclone is a CNS depressant and can impair daytime function in some patients at the higher doses (2 mg or 3 mg), even when used as prescribed. Prescribers should monitor for excess depressant effects, but impairment can occur in the absence of symptoms (or even with subjective improvement), and impairment may not be reliably detected by ordinary clinical exam (i.e., less than formal psychomotor testing). While pharmacodynamic tolerance or adaptation to some adverse depressant effects of eszopiclone may develop, patients using 3 mg eszopiclone should be cautioned against driving or engaging in other hazardous activities or activities requiring complete mental alertness the day after use.
Additive effects occur with concomitant use of other CNS depressants (e.g., benzodiazepines, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, alcohol), including daytime use. Downward dose adjustment of eszopiclone and concomitant CNS depressants should be considered [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) ].
The use of eszopiclone with other sedative-hypnotics at bedtime or the middle of the night is not recommended.
The risk of next-day psychomotor impairment is increased if eszopiclone is taken with less than a full night of sleep remaining (7 to 8 hours); if higher than the recommended dose is taken; if coadministered with other CNS depressants; or coadministered with other drugs that increase the blood levels of eszopiclone [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Clinical Studies (14.3) ].
Because eszopiclone can cause drowsiness and a decreased level of consciousness, patients, particularly the elderly, are at higher risk of falls.
5.3 Need to Evaluate for Comorbid Diagnoses
Because sleep disturbances may be the presenting manifestation of a physical and/or psychiatric disorder, symptomatic treatment of insomnia should be initiated only after a careful evaluation of the patient. The failure of insomnia to remit after 7 to 10 days of treatment may indicate the presence of a primary psychiatric and/or medical illness that should be evaluated. Worsening of insomnia or the emergence of new thinking or behavior abnormalities may be the consequence of an unrecognized psychiatric or physical disorder. Such findings have emerged during the course of treatment with sedative/hypnotic drugs, including eszopiclone. Because some of the important adverse effects of eszopiclone appear to be dose related, it is important to use the lowest possible effective dose, especially in the elderly [see Dosage and Administration (2.1) ].
5.4 Severe Anaphylactic and Anaphylactoid Reactions
Rare cases of angioedema involving the tongue, glottis or larynx have been reported in patients after taking the first or subsequent doses of sedative-hypnotics, including eszopiclone. Some patients have had additional symptoms such as dyspnea, throat closing, or nausea and vomiting that suggest anaphylaxis. Some patients have required medical therapy in the emergency department. If angioedema involves the tongue, glottis or larynx, airway obstruction may occur and be fatal. Patients who develop angioedema after treatment with eszopiclone should not be rechallenged with the drug.
5.5 Abnormal Thinking and Behavioral Changes
A variety of abnormal thinking and behavior changes have been reported to occur in association with the use of sedative/hypnotics. Some of these changes may be characterized by decreased inhibition (e.g., aggressiveness and extroversion that seem out of character), similar to effects produced by alcohol and other CNS depressants. Other reported behavioral changes have included bizarre behavior, agitation, hallucinations, and depersonalization. Amnesia and other neuropsychiatric symptoms may occur unpredictably.
It can rarely be determined with certainty whether a particular instance of the abnormal behaviors listed above is drug induced, spontaneous in origin, or a result of an underlying psychiatric or physical disorder. Nonetheless, the emergence of any new behavioral sign or symptom of concern requires careful and immediate evaluation.
5.6 Withdrawal Effects
Following rapid dose decrease or abrupt discontinuation of the use of sedative/hypnotics, there have been reports of signs and symptoms similar to those associated with withdrawal from other CNS-depressant drugs [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9)].
5.7 Timing of Drug Administration
Eszopiclone should be taken immediately before bedtime. Taking a sedative/hypnotic while still up and about may result in short-term memory impairment, hallucinations, impaired coordination, dizziness, and lightheadedness.
5.8 Special Populations
Use in Elderly and/or Debilitated Patients
Impaired motor and/or cognitive performance after repeated exposure or unusual sensitivity to sedative/hypnotic drugs is a concern in the treatment of elderly and/or debilitated patients. The dose should not exceed 2 mg in elderly or debilitated patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) ].
Use in Patients with Concomitant Illness
Clinical experience with eszopiclone in patients with concomitant illness is limited. Eszopiclone should be used with caution in patients with diseases or conditions that could affect metabolism or hemodynamic responses.
A study in healthy volunteers did not reveal respiratory-depressant effects at doses 2.5 fold higher (7 mg) than the recommended dose of eszopiclone. Caution is advised, however, if eszopiclone is prescribed to patients with compromised respiratory function.
The dose of eszopiclone should not exceed 2 mg in patients with severe hepatic impairment, because systemic exposure is doubled in such subjects. No dose adjustment appears necessary for subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment. No dose adjustment appears necessary in subjects with any degree of renal impairment, since less than 10% of eszopiclone is excreted unchanged in the urine.
The dose of eszopiclone should be reduced in patients who are administered potent inhibitors of CYP3A4, such as ketoconazole, while taking eszopiclone. Downward dose adjustment is also recommended when eszopiclone is administered with agents having known CNS-depressant effects.
Use in Patients with Depression
In primarily depressed patients treated with sedative-hypnotics, worsening of depression, including suicidal thoughts and actions (including completed suicides), have been reported in association with the use of sedative/hypnotics.
Sedative/hypnotic drugs should be administered with caution to patients exhibiting signs and symptoms of depression. Suicidal tendencies may be present in such patients, and protective measures may be required. Intentional overdose is more common in this group of patients; therefore, the least amount of drug that is feasible should be prescribed for the patient at any one time.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
The following are described in more detail in the Warnings and Precautions section of the label:
- Complex Sleep Behaviors [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]
- CNS Depressant Effects and Next-Day Impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ]
- Need to Evaluate for Comorbid Diagnoses [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ]
- Severe Anaphylactic and Anaphylactoid Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ]
- Abnormal Thinking and Behavioral Changes [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ]
- Withdrawal Effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ]
- Timing of Drug Administration [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) ]
- Special Populations [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) ]
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
The premarketing development program for eszopiclone included eszopiclone exposures in patients and/or normal subjects from two different groups of studies: approximately 400 normal subjects in clinical pharmacology/pharmacokinetic studies, and approximately 1550 patients in placebo-controlled clinical effectiveness studies, corresponding to approximately 263 patient-exposure years. The conditions and duration of treatment with eszopiclone varied greatly and included (in overlapping categories) open-label and double-blind phases of studies, inpatients and outpatients, and short-term and longer-term exposure. Adverse reactions were assessed by collecting adverse events, results of physical examinations, vital signs, weights, laboratory analyses, and ECGs.
The stated frequencies of adverse reactions represent the proportion of individuals who experienced, at least once, adverse reaction of the type listed. A reaction was considered treatment-emergent if it occurred for the first time or worsened while the patient was receiving therapy following baseline evaluation.
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Adverse Reactions Resulting in Discontinuation of Treatment
In placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trials in the elderly, 3.8% of 208 patients who received placebo, 2.3% of 215 patients who received 2 mg eszopiclone, and 1.4% of 72 patients who received 1 mg eszopiclone discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction. In the 6 week parallel-group study in adults, no patients in the 3 mg arm discontinued because of an adverse reaction. In the long-term 6 month study in adult insomnia patients, 7.2% of 195 patients who received placebo and 12.8% of 593 patients who received 3 mg eszopiclone discontinued due to an adverse reaction. No reaction that resulted in discontinuation occurred at a rate of greater than 2%.
Adverse Reactions Observed at an Incidence of ≥2% in Controlled Trials
Table 1 shows the incidence of adverse reactions from a Phase 3 placebo-controlled study of eszopiclone at doses of 2 or 3 mg in nonelderly adults. Treatment duration in this trial was 44 days. The table includes only reactions that occurred in 2% or more of patients treated with eszopiclone 2 mg or 3 mg in which the incidence in patients treated with eszopiclone was greater than the incidence in placebo-treated patients.
1 Reactions for which the eszopiclone incidence was equal to or less than placebo are not listed on the table, but included the following: abnormal dreams, accidental injury, back pain, diarrhea, flu syndrome, myalgia, pain, pharyngitis, and rhinitis.
* Gender-specific adverse reaction in females
** Gender-specific adverse reaction in males
|Adverse Reactions||Placebo (n=99)||Eszopiclone 2 mg (n=104)||Eszopiclone 3 mg (n=105)|
|Body as a Whole|
|Skin and Appendages|
Adverse reactions from Table 1 that suggest a dose-response relationship in adults include viral infection, dry mouth, dizziness, hallucinations, infection, rash, and unpleasant taste, with this relationship clearest for unpleasant taste.
Table 2 shows the incidence of adverse reactions from combined Phase 3 placebo-controlled studies of eszopiclone at doses of 1 or 2 mg in elderly adults (ages 65 to 86). Treatment duration in these trials was 14 days. The table includes only reactions that occurred in 2% or more of patients treated with eszopiclone 1 mg or 2 mg in which the incidence in patients treated with eszopiclone was greater than the incidence in placebo-treated patients.
1 Reactions for which the eszopiclone incidence was equal to or less than placebo are not listed on the table, but included the following: abdominal pain, asthenia, nausea, rash, and somnolence.
|Adverse Reactions||Placebo (n=208)||Eszopiclone 1 mg (n=72)||Eszopiclone 2 mg (n=215)|
|Body as a Whole|
|Skin and Appendages|
|Urinary Tract Infection||0||3||0|
Adverse reactions from Table 2 that suggest a dose-response relationship in elderly adults include pain, dry mouth, and unpleasant taste, with this relationship again clearest for unpleasant taste.
These figures cannot be used to predict the incidence of adverse reactions in the course of usual medical practice because patient characteristics and other factors may differ from those that prevailed in the clinical trials. Similarly, the cited frequencies cannot be compared with figures obtained from other clinical investigations involving different treatments, uses, and investigators. The cited figures, however, do provide the prescribing physician with some basis for estimating the relative contributions of drug and nondrug factors to the adverse reaction incidence rate in the population studied.
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