Esomeprazole Magnesium: Package Insert and Label Information (Page 3 of 7)

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with esomeprazole in pregnant women. Esomeprazole is the S-isomer of omeprazole. Available epidemiologic data fail to demonstrate an increased risk of major congenital malformations or other adverse pregnancy outcomes with first trimester omeprazole use (see Data). Reproduction studies in rats and rabbits resulted in dose-dependent embryo-lethality at omeprazole doses that were approximately 3.4 to 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg (based on a body surface area for a 60 kg person).

Teratogenicity was not observed in animal reproduction studies with administration of oral esomeprazole magnesium in rats and rabbits with doses about 68 times and 42 times, respectively, an oral human dose of 40 mg (based on a body surface area basis for a 60 kg person). Changes in bone morphology were observed in offspring of rats dosed through most of pregnancy and lactation at doses equal to or greater than approximately 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg. When maternal administration was confined to gestation only, there were no effects on bone physeal morphology in the offspring at any age (see Data).

The estimated background risks of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population are unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.

Data

Human Data

Esomeprazole is the S-isomer of omeprazole. Four epidemiological studies compared the frequency of congenital abnormalities among infants born to women who used omeprazole during pregnancy with the frequency of abnormalities among infants of women exposed to H2 -receptor antagonists or other controls.

A population-based retrospective cohort epidemiological study from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry, covering approximately 99% of pregnancies, from 1995 to 1999, reported on 955 infants (824 exposed during the first trimester with 39 of these exposed beyond first trimester, and 131 exposed after the first trimester) whose mothers used omeprazole during pregnancy. The number of infants exposed in utero to omeprazole that had any malformation, low birth weight, low Apgar score, or hospitalization was similar to the number observed in this population. The number of infants born with ventricular septal defects and the number of stillborn infants was slightly higher in the omeprazole-exposed infants than the expected number in this population.

A population-based retrospective cohort study covering all live births in Denmark from 1996 to 2009, reported on 1,800 live births whose mothers used omeprazole during the first trimester of pregnancy and 837,317 live births whose mothers did not use any proton pump inhibitor. The overall rate of birth defects in infants born to mothers with first trimester exposure to omeprazole was 2.9% and 2.6% in infants born to mothers not exposed to any proton pump inhibitor during the first trimester.

A retrospective cohort study reported on 689 pregnant women exposed to either H2 -blockers or omeprazole in the first trimester (134 exposed to omeprazole) and 1,572 pregnant women unexposed to either during the first trimester. The overall malformation rate in offspring born to mothers with first trimester exposure to omeprazole, an H2 -blocker, or were unexposed was 3.6%, 5.5%, and 4.1% respectively.

A small prospective observational cohort study followed 113 women exposed to omeprazole during pregnancy (89% with first trimester exposures). The reported rate of major congenital malformations was 4% in the omeprazole group, 2% in controls exposed to non-teratogens, and 2.8% in disease paired controls. Rates of spontaneous and elective abortions, preterm deliveries, gestational age at delivery, and mean birth weight were similar among the groups.

Several studies have reported no apparent adverse short-term effects on the infant when single dose oral or intravenous omeprazole was administered to over 200 pregnant women as premedication for cesarean section under general anesthesia.

Animal Data

Omeprazole

Reproductive studies conducted with omeprazole in rats at oral doses up to 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) and in rabbits at doses up to 69.1 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) during organogenesis did not disclose any evidence for a teratogenic potential of omeprazole. In rabbits, omeprazole in a dose range of 6.9 to 69.1 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) administered during organogenesis produced dose-related increases in embryo-lethality, fetal resorptions, and pregnancy disruptions. In rats, dose-related embryo/fetal toxicity and postnatal developmental toxicity were observed in offspring resulting from parents treated with omeprazole at 13.8 to 138.0 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis), administered prior to mating through the lactation period.

Esomeprazole

No effects on embryo-fetal development were observed in reproduction studies with esomeprazole magnesium in rats at oral doses up to 280 mg/kg/day (about 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) or in rabbits at oral doses up to 86 mg/kg/day (about 41 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) administered during organogenesis.

A pre-and postnatal developmental toxicity study in rats with additional endpoints to evaluate bone development was performed with esomeprazole magnesium at oral doses of 14 to 280 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). Neonatal/early postnatal (birth to weaning) survival was decreased at doses equal to or greater than 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). Body weight and body weight gain were reduced and neurobehavioral or general developmental delays in the immediate post-weaning timeframe were evident at doses equal to or greater than 69 mg/kg/day (about 17 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). In addition, decreased femur length, width and thickness of cortical bone, decreased thickness of the tibial growth plate and minimal to mild bone marrow hypocellularity were noted at doses equal to or greater than 14 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). Physeal dysplasia in the femur was observed in offspring of rats treated with oral doses of esomeprazole magnesium at doses equal to or greater than 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis).

Effects on maternal bone were observed in pregnant and lactating rats in a pre-and postnatal toxicity study when esomeprazole magnesium was administered at oral doses of 14 to 280 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). When rats were dosed from gestational day 7 through weaning on postnatal day 21, a statistically significant decrease in maternal femur weight of up to 14% (as compared to placebo treatment) was observed at doses equal to or greater than 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis).

A pre-and postnatal development study in rats with esomeprazole strontium (using equimolar doses compared to esomeprazole magnesium study) produced similar results in dams and pups as described above.

A follow up developmental toxicity study in rats with further time points to evaluate pup bone development from postnatal day 2 to adulthood was performed with esomeprazole magnesium at oral doses of 280 mg/kg/day (about 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) where esomeprazole administration was from either gestational day 7 or gestational day 16 until parturition. When maternal administration was confined to gestation only, there were no effects on bone physeal morphology in the offspring at any age.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

Esomeprazole is the S-isomer of omeprazole and limited data suggest that omeprazole may be present in human milk. There are no clinical data on the effects of esomeprazole on the breastfed infant or on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for esomeprazole magnesium and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from esomeprazole magnesium or from the underlying maternal condition.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Healing of EE

Pediatric Patients 1 Year to 17 Years of Age

The safety and effectiveness of esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules have been established in pediatric patients 12 years to 17 years for short-term treatment (4 to 8 weeks) for healing of EE. Use of esomeprazole for this indication is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies in adults with additional safety and pharmacokinetic data in pediatric patients 1 year to 17 years of age. The safety profile in pediatric patients 1 year to 17 years of age was similar to adults [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), Clinical Studies (14.4)].

Symptomatic GERD

Pediatric Patients 1 Year to 17 Years of Age

The safety and effectiveness of esomeprazole delayed-release capsules have been established in pediatric patients 12 years to 17 years of age for the short-term treatment (4 weeks) of heartburn and other symptoms associated with GERD. Use of esomeprazole for this indication is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies in adults with additional safety and pharmacokinetic data in pediatric patients 1 year to 17 years of age. The safety profile in pediatric patients 1 year to 17 years of age was similar to adults [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), Clinical Studies (14.4)].

Other Conditions

The safety and effectiveness of esomeprazole for the risk reduction of NSAID-associated gastric ulcer, H. pylori eradication to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence and treatment of pathological hypersecretory conditions have not been established in pediatric patients.

Juvenile Animal Toxicity Studies

In a juvenile rat toxicity study, esomeprazole was administered with both magnesium and strontium salts at oral doses about 34 to 68 times a daily human dose of 40 mg based on body surface area. Increases in death were seen at the high dose, and at all doses of esomeprazole, there were decreases in body weight, body weight gain, femur weight and femur length, and decreases in overall growth [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)].

8.5 Geriatric Use

Of the total number of patients who received esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules in clinical trials, 1,459 were 65 to 74 years of age and 354 patients were 75 years of age and older.

No overall differences in safety and efficacy were observed between the elderly and younger individuals, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

8.6 Hepatic Impairment

In patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) exposure to esomeprazole substantially increased compared to healthy subjects. Dosage modification of esomeprazole is recommended for patients with severe hepatic impairment for the healing of EE, risk reduction of NSAID-associated gastric ulcer, H. pylori eradication to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence, and pathological hypersecretory conditions including Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

In patients with mild to moderate liver impairment (Child-Pugh Classes A and B), no dosage adjustment is necessary.

10 OVERDOSAGE

Manifestations in patients exposed to omeprazole, the racemic mixture, at doses up to 2,400 mg (120 times the usual recommended clinical dose) include confusion, drowsiness, blurred vision, tachycardia, nausea, diaphoresis, flushing, headache, dry mouth, and other adverse reactions similar to those seen at recommended dosages. See the full prescribing information for omeprazole for complete safety information. No specific antidote for esomeprazole is known. Since esomeprazole is extensively protein bound, it is not expected to be removed by dialysis. In the event of overdosage, treatment should be symptomatic and supportive.

If over-exposure occurs, call your Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222 for current information on the management of poisoning or overdosage.

11 DESCRIPTION

The active ingredient in the proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules for oral administration is bis(5-methoxy-2-[(S)-[(4-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-2-pyridinyl)methyl]sulfinyl]-1H -benzimidazole-1-yl) magnesium trihydrate. Esomeprazole is the S-isomer of omeprazole, which is a mixture of the S- and R- isomers. (Initial U.S. approval of esomeprazole magnesium: 2001). Its molecular formula is (C17 H18 N3 O3 S)2 Mg x 3 H2 O with molecular weight of 767.17 as a trihydrate and 713.1 on an anhydrous basis. The structural formula is:

Figure 1

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The magnesium salt is a white or slightly colored powder. It contains 3 moles of water of solvation and is slightly soluble in methanol, insoluble in water and in n-Heptane. The stability of esomeprazole magnesium is a function of pH; it rapidly degrades in acidic media, but it has acceptable stability under alkaline conditions. At pH 6.8 (buffer), the half-life of the magnesium salt is about 19 hours at 25°C and about 8 hours at 37°C.

Esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules are supplied in delayed-release capsules. Each delayed-release capsule contains 20 mg, or 40 mg of esomeprazole (present as 22.25 mg, or 44.50 mg esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate) in the form of enteric-coated granules with the following inactive ingredients: hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose 2910, magnesium stearate, methacrylic acid and ethyl acrylate copolymer dispersion, mono-and di-glycerides, polysorbate 80, sugar spheres, talc and triethyl citrate. The capsule shells have the following inactive ingredients: gelatin, sodium lauryl sulfate and titanium dioxide. The imprinting ink also contains ferric oxide black, shellac, strong ammonium solution, potassium hydroxide and propylene glycol.

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Esomeprazole belongs to a class of antisecretory compounds, the substituted benzimidazoles, that suppress gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the H+/K+ ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell. Esomeprazole is protonated and converted in the acidic compartment of the parietal cell forming the active inhibitor, the achiral sulphenamide. Because this enzyme system is regarded as the acid (proton) pump within the gastric mucosa, esomeprazole has been characterized as a gastric acid-pump inhibitor, in that it blocks the final step of acid production. This effect is dose-related and leads to inhibition of both basal and stimulated acid secretion irrespective of the stimulus.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Antisecretory Activity

Adults

The effect of esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules on intragastric pH was determined in adult patients with symptomatic GERD in two separate studies. In the first study of 36 patients, esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules 40 mg and 20 mg capsules were administered once daily over 5 days as shown in Table 5:

Table 5: Effect of Esomeprazole on Intragastric pH on Day 5 (N=36) Following Once Daily Dosing of Esomeprazole magnesium Delayed-Release Capsules in Adult Patients with Symptomatic GERD

1 Gastric pH was measured over a 24-hour period

2 p< 0.01 Esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules 40 mg vs. esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules 20 mg

Parameter Esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules
40 mg once daily 20 mg once daily
% Time Gastric pH >41 (Hours) 70%2 (16.8 h) 53% (12.7 h)
Coefficient of variation 26% 37%
Median 24 Hour pH 4.92 4.1
Coefficient of variation 16% 27%

In a second study, the effect on intragastric pH of esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules 40 mg administered once daily over a five-day period was similar to the first study, (% time with pH > 4 was 68% or 16.3 hours).

Serum Gastrin Effects

The effect of esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules on serum gastrin concentrations was evaluated in approximately 2,700 patients in clinical trials of oral esomeprazole for up to 8 weeks and in over 1,300 patients for up 12 months. The mean fasting gastrin level increased in a dose-related manner. This increase in serum gastrin concentrations reached a plateau within two to three months of therapy and returned to baseline levels within four weeks after discontinuation of therapy.

Increased gastrin causes enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia and increased serum Chromogranin A (CgA) levels. The increased CgA levels may cause false positive results in diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)]

Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) Cell Effects

Human gastric biopsy specimens have been obtained from more than 3,000 patients (both pediatrics and adults) treated with omeprazole in long-term clinical trials. The incidence of ECL cell hyperplasia in these studies increased with time; however, no case of ECL cell carcinoids, dysplasia, or neoplasia has been found in these patients [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].

In over 1,000 patients treated with oral esomeprazole (10 mg, 20 mg or 40 mg/day) up to 12 months, the prevalence of ECL cell hyperplasia increased with time and dose. No patient developed ECL cell carcinoids, dysplasia, or neoplasia in the gastric mucosa.

Endocrine Effects

Esomeprazole had no effect on thyroid function in adults when given esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules 20 mg or 40 mg once daily for 4 weeks. Other effects of esomeprazole on the endocrine system were assessed in studies of omeprazole. Oral doses of omeprazole 30 mg or 40 mg once daily for 2 to 4 weeks had no effect on carbohydrate metabolism, circulating levels of parathyroid hormone, cortisol, estradiol, testosterone, prolactin, cholecystokinin, or secretin.

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